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Dao-Yi Yu, Stephen J Cringle, Paula K Yu, Chandrakumar Balaratnasingam, Andrew Mehnert, Marinko V Sarunic, Dong An, Er-Ning Su
The central role of the cardiovascular system is to maintain adequate capillary perfusion. The spatially and temporally heterogeneous nature of capillary perfusion has been reported in some organs. However, such heterogeneous perfusion properties have not been sufficiently explored in the retina. Arguably, spatial and temporal heterogeneity of capillary perfusion could be more predominant in the retina than that in other organs. This is because the retina is one of the highest metabolic demand neural tissues yet it has a limited blood supply due to optical requirements...
February 12, 2019: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
Mike Hook, Fuyi Xu, Elena Terenina, Wenyuan Zhao, Athena Starlard-Davenport, Pierre Mormede, Byron C Jones, Megan K Mulligan, Lu Lu
Tac2 is expressed in a number of areas throughout the brain, including the hippocampus. However, knowledge about its function has been only well explored in the hypothalamus in the context of reproductive health. In this study, we identified and validated increased hippocampal Tac2 mRNA expression in response to chronic mild stress in mice. Expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis showed Tac2 is cis-regulated in the hippocampus. Using a systems genetics approach, we constructed a Tac2 co-expression network to better understand the relationship between Tac2 and the hippocampal stress response...
February 12, 2019: Gene
Xiaojiang Qin, Xiaomin Hou, Kun Zhang, Qingshan Li
The aim of this study was to investigate the relaxation effect of farrerol on rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and its underlying mechanism. VSMCs were cultured primarily and were used to examine the relaxation effect of farrerol. Cells surface and length were measured by dynamic observation, or by rhodamine-phalloidin labeling and hematoxylin-eosin staining. Cells contractive activity were tested using collagen gel contraction assay. The [Ca2+ ]in was measured with molecular probe fluo-4-AM...
February 12, 2019: European Journal of Pharmacology
Fatma Aydinoglu, Elif Özveren Adıbelli, Didem Yılmaz-Oral, Nuran Ogulener
Rho-kinase activity is a key regulator in the maintenance of corporal vasoconstriction and penile detumescense. Also, importance of l-cysteine/H2 S pathway in erectile tissue has been shown; however it is currently unknown the role RhoA/Rho-kinase pathway in H2 S-induced inhibition in cavernosal tissue. We investigated the role of RhoA/Rho-kinase pathway in the inhibitory effect of l-cysteine and NaHS, as endogenous and exogenous H2 S, respectively, on phenylephrine-induced contractions of mouse cavernosal strips...
February 12, 2019: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Lu Zhang, Bin Luo, Yi-Wu Dang, Rong-Quan He, Gang Chen, Zhi-Gang Peng, Zhen-Bo Feng
OBJECTIVE: To explore the clinical significance and potential molecular mechanism of endothelin receptor type B (EDNRB) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was used to detect EDNRB protein expression level in 67 HCC paraffin embedded tissues and adjacent tissues. Correlations between EDNRB expression level and clinicopathologic parameters were analyzed in our study. The expression level and clinical significance of EDNRB in HCC were also evaluated from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database...
February 12, 2019: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
Damien Guindolet, Eric E Gabison
CD147, also known as extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) or basigin, is expressed in a variety of cell types. It is involved in the regulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling during physiological and pathological processes including wound healing, inflammatory diseases and cancer. CD147 is a diagnostic and therapeutic target in cancer and inflammatory diseases, either directly or indirectly, by targeting CD147 partners. It can trigger matrix metalloproteinase inductions involved in ECM degradation, cell adhesion and cell-cell interactions...
February 15, 2019: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Joanna Moraczewska, Katarzyna Robaszkiewicz, Małgorzata Śliwinska, Marta Czajkowska, Thu Ly, Alla Kostyukova, Han Wen, Wenjun Zheng
Tropomyosin binds along actin filaments and regulates myosin binding to control muscle contraction. Tropomodulin binds to the pointed end of a filament and regulates actin dynamics, which maintains the length of a thin filament. To define the structural determinants of these tropomyosin functions, we examined the effects of two congenital myopathy mutations, A4V and R91C, in the tropomyosin gene, TPM3, which encodes the tropomyosin isoform, Tpm3.12. Tpm3.12 is specific for slow-twitch muscle fibers. Mutation A4V is located in the tropomodulin-binding, N-terminal region of Tpm3...
February 15, 2019: FEBS Journal
Yang Liu, Zhijie Chen, Gongping Liu, Youssef Belmabkhout, Karim Adil, Mohamed Eddaoudi, William Koros
Membrane-based separation is poised to reduce the operation cost of propylene/propane separation; however, identifying a suitable molecular sieve for membrane development is still an ongoing challenge. Here, the successful identification and use of a metal-organic framework (MOF) material as fillers, namely, the Zr-fum-fcu-MOF possessing an optimal contracted triangular pore-aperture driving the efficient diffusive separation of propylene from propane in mixed-matrix membranes are reported. It is demonstrated that the fabricated hybrid membranes display a high propylene/propane separation performance, far beyond the current trade-off limit of polymer membranes with excellent properties under industrial conditions...
February 15, 2019: Advanced Materials
A Del Vecchio, F Negro, A Holobar, A Casolo, J P Folland, F Felici, D Farina
KEY POINTS: We propose and validate a method to accurately identify the activity of populations of motor neurons during contractions at maximal rate of force development in humans. The behaviour of the motor neuron pool during rapid voluntary contractions in humans is presented. We show with this approach that the motor neuron recruitment speed and maximal motor unit discharge rate largely explains the individual ability in generating rapid force contractions. The results also indicate that the synaptic inputs received by the motor neurons before force is generated dictate human potential to generate force rapidly...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Physiology
Alexandre Chalard, David Amarantini, Joseph Tisseyre, Philipe Marque, Jessica Tallet, David Gasq
OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the adverse consequences of spasticity and spastic co-contraction of elbow flexors on motor impairment and upper limb functional limitation. DESIGN: A pilot case-controlled prospective observational study. SUBJECTS: Ten brain-injured adults, and 10 healthy controls. METHODS: The co-contraction index was computed from electromyographic recordings of elbow flexors during sub-maximal (25% Maximal Voluntary Contraction) isometric elbow extension...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Joanna Diong, Martin E Héroux, Simon C Gandevia, Robert D Herbert
It has been hypothesized that force can be transmitted between adjacent muscles. Intermuscle force transmission violates the assumption that muscles act in mechanical isolation, and implies that predictions from biomechanical models are in error due to mechanical interactions between muscles, but the functional relevance of intermuscle force transmission is unclear. To investigate intermuscle force transmission between human flexor pollicis longus and the index finger part of flexor digitorum profundus, we compared finger flexion force produced by passive thumb flexion after one of three conditioning protocols: passive thumb flexion-extension cycling, thumb flexion maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), and thumb extension stretch...
2019: PloS One
Alexander García Antón, Vicente Garza, Jorge Hernández Justribó, Juan Traba
In this work, we analyse factors explaining the distribution and range regression of Dupont's lark in Spain, the only European country in which this threatened alaudid is present. Dupont's lark is an extremely elusive and scarce species, distributed across a reduced and strongly fragmented range, showing a metapopulational structure with unknown dispersive and connective mechanisms. We used maximum entropy modelling (Maxent) on nearly 15,000 Dupont's lark observations (1985-2015) to assess the probability of presence at a 1 km resolution across its European range...
2019: PloS One
Maurice-Pierre Planel
Several innovative drugs including the first gene therapy drugs are expected shortly. In light of the debates on the new products for the treatment of hepatitis C and cancer, this wave of innovation raises questions about the ability of our health insurance systems to bear the expense and pay the price claimed by the laboratories. This situation has led to a reflection on the criteria for setting the price of drugs. Public authorities have developed new regulatory mechanisms and have opened a debate to explore new rules that would take into account - in the construction of contracts and prices - real world evidence...
July 20, 2018: Journal International de Bioéthique et D'éthique des Sciences
Handan Wand, Natashia Morris, Reshmi Dassaye, Tarylee Reddy, Gita Ramjee
South Africa has the highest burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections in the world. There is also growing evidence that an individual's risk of contracting HIV is increased by the presence of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The primary objective of this study was to examine the association between the prevalence of STIs in a cohort of South African women who enrolled in HIV prevention trials (2002-2012). The current study linked the individual factors with the community-level characteristics using geo-referencing...
February 14, 2019: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Abasiama Etuknwa, Kevin Daniels, Constanze Eib
Purpose A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the impact of important personal and social factors on sustainable return to work (RTW) after ill-health due musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and common mental disorders (CMDs) and to compare the effects of these personal and social factors across both conditions. Sustainable RTW is defined as a stable full-time or part-time RTW to either original or modified job for a period of at least 3 months without relapse or sickness absence re-occurrence. Methods A literature search was conducted in 13 databases and 79 studies were selected for the review, of which the methodological design was graded as very high, high and low quality...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation
James A Spudich
Several lines of evidence suggest that the primary effect of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy mutations in human β-cardiac myosin is hypercontractility of the heart, which leads to subsequent hypertrophy, fibrosis, and myofilament disarray. Here, I describe three perspectives on the molecular basis of this hypercontractility. The first is that hypercontractility results from changes in the fundamental parameters of the actin-activated β-cardiac myosin chemo-mechanical ATPase cycle. The second considers that hypercontractility results from an increase in the number of functionally accessible heads in the sarcomere for interaction with actin...
February 15, 2019: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Sonia Busch, Lars Eckardt, Philipp Sommer, Christian Meyer, Hendrik Bonnemeier, Dierk Thomas, Hans-Ruprecht Neuberger, Roland Richard Tilz, Daniel Steven, Christian von Bary, Malte Kuniss, Frederic Voss, Heidi L Estner
Premature ventricular contractions (PVC) are a common, often incidental and mostly benign finding. Treatment is indicated in frequent and symptomatic PVC or in cases of worsening of left ventricular function. Idiopathic ventricular tachycardia (VT) is mostly found in patients with a structurally healthy heart. These PVC/VT usually have a focal origin. The most likely mechanism is delayed post-depolarization. Localization of the origin is based on the creation of an activation map with or without combination of pace mapping...
February 14, 2019: Herzschrittmachertherapie & Elektrophysiologie
Michal Nahman
This paper explores reproductive justice from the perspective of those at the beginning of the value chain of reproduction. This vantage point of egg providers can help lend important insights into the wider processes of family-making across borders today. It centres on ethnographic research conducted on contemporary cross-border egg provision performed by female migrant workers in Spain. Through this intersectional perspective, we stand to gain deeper insights into cross-border reproduction more widely. Egg provision can be a way for migrant women to gain temporary financial benefit...
November 2018: Reproductive Biomedicine & Society Online
Brian J Morris, Catherine A Hankins, Joya Banerjee, Eugenie R Lumbers, Adrian Mindel, Jeffrey D Klausner, John N Krieger
Background: Male circumcision (MC) is proven to substantially reduce men's risk of a number of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We conducted a detailed systematic review of the scientific literature to determine the relationship between MC and risk of STIs and associated conditions in women. Methods: Database searches by "circumcision women" and "circumcision female" identified 68 relevant articles for inclusion. Examination of bibliographies of these yielded 14 further publications...
2019: Frontiers in Public Health
Bryan Weichelt, Elisabeth Hooper, Brian Chow
Introduction: Human parechovirus (HPeV) infections appear common across age groups, and transmission is likely fecal-oral and through respiratory secretions. Cyclical and seasonal patterns have been described; however, HPeV has likely been previously underdiagnosed due to lack of commercially available diagnostic testing. Presentation of Case: We present identical triplets contracting HPeV Type 3. Discussion: The clinical presentation, similar to echoviruses, is broad and includes asymptomatic shedding, severe pulmonary and neurologic disease, and disseminated intravascular coagulation...
2019: IDCases
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