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Disability progression

Tam Ramsey, Houmehr Hojjat, Brian Yuhan, Peter F Svider, Jean Anderson Eloy, Adam J Folbe, Syed Naweed Raza, Andrew M Fribley
OBJECTIVES: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma has a unique worldwide racial and geographic distribution. Our objective was to evaluate socioeconomic disparities in the burden of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) between endemic and nonendemic regions. METHODS: To demonstrate trends regarding societal burden of NPC and socioeconomic development, national disability-adjusted life year (DALY) rates and human development indices (HDI) between 1990 and 2015 were evaluated. Countries were divided based on the endemic versus nonendemic presence of NPC and further analyzed by HDI status as specified by the United Nations Development Program...
March 19, 2019: Laryngoscope
Benjamin J Sherman, Jorge Chahla, Jason Glowney, Rachel M Frank
Individuals with osteoarthritis have a diminished quality of life, and the condition is a major cause of disability. Newer biologic treatments have been developed that are believed to modify disease progression. These predominantly include hyaluronic acid, platelet-rich plasma, bone marrow aspirate concentrate, and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells. There is conflicting evidence regarding the use of orthobiologics for osteoarthritis and for focal chondral defects, although most studies indicate that injections of biologics are safe and without significant adverse effects...
March 1, 2019: Orthopedics
Eleuterio A Sánchez Romero, Josué Fernández-Carnero, Cesar Calvo-Lobo, Victoria Ochoa Sáez, Verónica Burgos Caballero, Daniel Pecos-Martín
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of adding dry needling (DN) to an exercise program on pain intensity and disability in patients with knee osteoarthritis. DESIGN: Double-blind randomized clinical trial with one-year follow-up. SETTING: Older adults in a multicenter study. SUBJECTS: Sixty-two patients with knee osteoarthritis were randomly allocated into one of two groups: exercise plus DN (exercise + DN; N = 31) or exercise plus sham DN (exercise + sham DN; N = 31)...
March 19, 2019: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
Leonardo Arregoces, Rob Hughes, Kate M Milner, Victoria Ponce Hardy, Cally Tann, Arjun Upadhyay, Joy E Lawn
BACKGROUND: Understanding donor, government and out-of-pocket funding for early child development (ECD) is important for tracking progress. We aimed to estimate a baseline for the WHO, UNICEF and World Bank Nurturing Care Framework (NCF) with a special focus on childhood disability. METHODS: To estimate development assistance spending, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development's Creditor Reporting System (OECD-CRS) database was searched for 2007-2016, using key words derived from domains of the NCF (good health, nutrition and growth, responsive caregiving, security and safety, and early learning), plus disability...
April 2019: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Kate M Milner, Raquel Bernal Salazar, Sunil Bhopal, Alexandra Brentani, Pia Rebello Britto, Tarun Dua, Melissa Gladstone, Esther Goh, Jena Hamadani, Rob Hughes, Betty Kirkwood, Maya Kohli-Lynch, Karim Manji, Victoria Ponce Hardy, James Radner, Muneera Abdul Rasheed, Sonia Sharma, Karlee L Silver, Cally Tann, Joy E Lawn
Translating the Nurturing Care Framework and unprecedented global policy support for early child development (ECD) into action requires evidence-informed guidance about how to implement ECD programmes at national and regional scale. We completed a literature review and participatory mixed-method evaluation of projects in Saving Brains®, Grand Challenges Canada® funded ECD portfolio across 23 low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Using an adapted programme cycle, findings from evaluation related to partnerships and leadership, situational analyses, and design for scaling ECD were considered...
April 2019: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Laura V Vandervore, Rachel Schot, Esmee Kasteleijn, Renske Oegema, Katrien Stouffs, Alexander Gheldof, Martyna M Grochowska, Marianne L T van der Sterre, Leontine M A van Unen, Martina Wilke, Peter Elfferich, Peter J van der Spek, Daphne Heijsman, Anna Grandone, Jeroen A A Demmers, Dick H W Dekkers, Johan A Slotman, Gert-Jan Kremers, Gerben J Schaaf, Roy G Masius, Anton J van Essen, Patrick Rump, Arie van Haeringen, Els Peeters, Umut Altunoglu, Tugba Kalayci, Raymond A Poot, William B Dobyns, Nadia Bahi-Buisson, Frans W Verheijen, Anna C Jansen, Grazia M S Mancini
Recessive mutations in RTTN, encoding the protein rotatin, were originally identified as cause of polymicrogyria, a cortical malformation. With time, a wide variety of other brain malformations has been ascribed to RTTN mutations, including primary microcephaly. Rotatin is a centrosomal protein possibly involved in centriolar elongation and ciliogenesis. However, the function of rotatin in brain development is largely unknown and the molecular disease mechanism underlying cortical malformations has not yet been elucidated...
March 16, 2019: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
George P Paraskevas
Hereditary types of ischemic cerebral subcortical small vessel disease (SSVD) are rare, usually autosomal dominant, diseases, due to an abnormality in vessel wall synthesis. They may present with various combinations of migraine with aura, ischemic events (transient ischemic attacks, lacunar strokes) and progressively worsening ischemic lesion load in brain imaging. Eventually, vascular cognitive impairment (usually of the frontal-subcortical type) develops, frequently accompanied by behavioral-psychiatric symptoms and bilateral pyramidal and pseudobulbar signs leading to severe disability and premature death...
January 2019: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Euphrosyni Koutsouraki, Thaleia Kalatha, Effrosyni Grosi, Theodoros Koukoulidis, Dimitrios Michmizos
Cognitive impairment is a common phenomenon in multiple sclerosis (MS), occurring at all stages of the disease, even at the earliest, and can be a major source of disability, social impairment, and impoverished quality of life. Cognitive dysfunction is mainly focused on working memory, conceptual reasoning, verbal fluency, speed of information processing, attention and executive function. Additional clinical factors, including disease course, fatigue and affective disturbance, can impact the degree of MS-related cognitive impairment...
January 2019: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Peter S Azzopardi, Stephen J C Hearps, Kate L Francis, Elissa C Kennedy, Ali H Mokdad, Nicholas J Kassebaum, Stephen Lim, Caleb M S Irvine, Theo Vos, Alex D Brown, Surabhi Dogra, Stuart A Kinner, Natasha S Kaoma, Mariam Naguib, Nicola J Reavley, Jennifer Requejo, John S Santelli, Susan M Sawyer, Vegard Skirbekk, Marleen Temmerman, Jordan Tewhaiti-Smith, Joseph L Ward, Russell M Viner, George C Patton
BACKGROUND: Rapid demographic, epidemiological, and nutritional transitons have brought a pressing need to track progress in adolescent health. Here, we present country-level estimates of 12 headline indicators from the Lancet Commission on adolescent health and wellbeing, from 1990 to 2016. METHODS: Indicators included those of health outcomes (disability-adjusted life-years [DALYs] due to communicable, maternal, and nutritional diseases; injuries; and non-communicable diseases); health risks (tobacco smoking, binge drinking, overweight, and anaemia); and social determinants of health (adolescent fertility; completion of secondary education; not in education, employment, or training [NEET]; child marriage; and demand for contraception satisfied with modern methods)...
March 8, 2019: Lancet
Despo Ierodiakonou, Maria Kampouraki, Ioannis Poulonirakis, Polyvios Papadokostakis, Eleftheria Lintovoi, Dimitris Karanassos, Kyriakos Maltezis, Maria Chorti, Evangelos Petrovitsos, Sofia Dimopoulou, Sam Hamind, Ioannis Gialamas, Polyxeni Athanasiou, Vasiliki Bempi, Irene Lambraki, Ioanna Tsiligianni
BACKGROUND: Frailty is a state of increased vulnerability that has a significant risk of unfavorable outcomes such as increased dependency and/or death, but little is known about frailty in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHOD: We aimed to determine the prevalence of frailty in COPD patients and to identify the associated risk factors. Two hundred fifty-seven COPD patients enrolled from primary care in Greece between 2015 and 2016. Physicians used structured interviews to collect cross-sectional data including demographics, medical history, symptoms and COPD Assessment Tool (CAT) or modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea scale (mMRC) score...
March 15, 2019: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Syed Awais Attique, Muhammad Hassan, Muhammad Usman, Rana Muhammad Atif, Shahid Mahboob, Khalid A Al-Ghanim, Muhammad Bilal, Muhammad Zohaib Nawaz
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have become the leading cause of disability and death worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Hypertension, a major cause of CVD progression, is widely attributable to genetic, behavioral, and environmental risk factors. Among the genetic reasons, angiotensin II enzyme, produced as a result of abnormal functioning of the renin⁻angiotensin system, is reported as the foremost cause of hypertension. A cascade of genes, including those encoding for WNK kinases (WNK1 and WNK4), Bp1, Bp2, angiotensinogen, and other enzymes, is involved in the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II...
March 14, 2019: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Anna F Rumbach, Emma Finch, Grace Stevenson
This aim of this study was to identify assessment practices for non-progressive dysarthria used by Australian speech-language pathologists (SLPs) and to describe these practices within the framework of the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning Disability, and Health (ICF). A 23-item online survey was distributed to Australian SLPs, with 56 responses suitable for data analysis. The majority of SLPs prescribed 'high importance' to the assessment of impairment to speech function (96%, n = 54), activity limitations (91%, n = 51) and participation in society (91%, n = 51) in non-progressive dysarthria...
March 8, 2019: Journal of Communication Disorders
Daniel Čierny, Jozef Michalik, Peter Dubovan, Mária Škereňová, Juraj Javor, Egon Kurča, Dušan Dobrota, Ján Lehotský
In this study, we analysed the association of rs703842 in CYP27B1 gene with multiple sclerosis (MS) risk and disability progression in a group of 496 MS patients and 521 controls. For the first time in Central European Slovak population, we found the rs703842 allele C to be protective factor against MS development (p = 1.09 × 10-5 ). Moreover, the risky genotypes TT and TC were showed to be associated with an increased MS risk, and this was aggravated by the homozygous carriage of the HLA-DRB1*15:01 allele (OR = 2...
March 8, 2019: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Valerie J Block, Riley Bove, Chao Zhao, Priya Garcha, Jennifer Graves, Andrew R Romeo, Ari J Green, Diane D Allen, Jill A Hollenbach, Jeffrey E Olgin, Gregory M Marcus, Mark J Pletcher, Bruce A C Cree, Jeffrey M Gelfand
Importance: Disability measures in multiple sclerosis (MS) fail to capture potentially important variability in walking behavior. More sensitive and ecologically valid outcome measures are needed to advance MS research. Objectives: To assess continuous step count activity remotely among individuals with MS for 1 year and determine how average daily step count is associated with other measures of MS disability. Design, Setting, and Participants: In a prospective longitudinal observational cohort study, 95 adults with relapsing or progressive MS who were able to walk more than 2 minutes with or without an assistive device were recruited between June 15, 2015, and August 8, 2016, and remotely monitored in their natural environment for 1 year...
March 1, 2019: JAMA Network Open
Tobias D Faizy, Gabriel Broocks, Christian Thaler, Geraldine Rauch, Pimrapat Gebert, Klarissa H Stürner, Fabian Flottmann, Hannes Leischner, Helge C Kniep, Jan-Patrick Stellmann, Christoph Heesen, Jens Fiehler, Susanne Gellißen, Uta Hanning
Background and Objective: In multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, Double Inversion Recovery (DIR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used to detect cortical lesions (CL). While the quantity and distribution of CLs seems to be associated with patients' disease course, literature lacks frequent assessments of CL volumes (CL-V) in this context. We investigated the reliability of DIR for the longitudinal assessment of CL-V development with frequent follow-up MRIs and examined the course of CL-V progressions in relation to white-matter lesions (WML), contrast enhancing lesions (CEL) and clinical parameters in patients with Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS)...
2019: Frontiers in Neurology
Isabelle Schrauwen, Béla I Melegh, Imen Chakchouk, Anushree Acharya, Abdul Nasir, Alexis Poston, Diana M Cornejo-Sanchez, Zsolt Szabo, Tamás Karosi, Judit Bene, Béla Melegh, Suzanne M Leal
Roma are a socially and culturally distinct isolated population with genetically divergent subisolates, residing mainly across Central, Southern, and Eastern Europe. We evaluated the genetic etiology of hearing impairment (HI) in 15 Hungarian Roma families through exome sequencing. A family with autosomal dominant non-syndromic HI segregating a rare variant in the Calponin-homology 2 domain of PLS1, or Plastin 1 [p.(Leu363Phe)] was identified. Young adult Pls1 knockout mice have progressive HI and show morphological defects to their inner hair cells...
March 14, 2019: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
Saif Huda, Dan Whittam, Maneesh Bhojak, Jayne Chamberlain, Carmel Noonan, Anu Jacob
Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is an uncommon antibody-mediated disease of the central nervous system. Long segments of spinal cord inflammation (myelitis), severe optic neuritis, and/or bouts of intractable vomiting and hiccoughs (area postrema syndrome) are classic presentations of the disease and may alert the clinician to the diagnosis. Untreated, approximately 50% of NMOSD patients will be wheelchair users and blind, and a third will have died within 5 years of their first attack. Unlike multiple sclerosis, a progressive clinical course is very unusual and the accrual of disability is related to relapses...
March 2019: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
Stéphanie Hostenbach, Ayla Pauwels, Veronique Michiels, Hubert Raeymaekers, Anne-Marie Van Binst, Annick Van Merhaeghen-Wieleman, Peter Van Schuerbeek, Jacques De Keyser, Miguel D'Haeseleer
BACKGROUND: Axonal degeneration is related to long-term disability in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). The underlying mechanism remains ill understood but appears to involve axonal energetic dysfunction. A globally impaired cerebral blood flow (CBF) has been observed in the normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) of patients with MS, which is probably related to astrocytic overexpression of endothelin-1 (ET-1). Cerebral hypoperfusion has been associated with reduced mitochondrial activity and disabling symptoms (e...
March 14, 2019: Trials
Nicolas Cohen, Thao Pham
Prognosis and functional outcomes in patients with spondyloarthritis. Even if the course of spondyloarthritis is difficult to predict at the individual level, the prognosis is globally good. Whatever the phenotype, the functional impact is a possible cause of handicap at all stages of the disease. Pain, stiffness and fatigue are the main symptoms. Severe forms may progress to disabling structural damage. The predictors for poor outcomes are the following: early onset of the disease, hip involvement, peripheral joint involvement, smoking, biological inflammatory syndrome, and poor treatment efficacy...
November 2018: La Revue du Praticien
Ermelinda De Meo, Alessandro Meani, Lucia Moiola, Angelo Ghezzi, Pierangelo Veggiotti, Massimo Filippi, Maria A Rocca
OBJECTIVES: To assess, using MRI, the spatial patterns of gray matter (GM) atrophy in pediatric patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), their dynamic changes over time, and their clinical relevance. METHODS: Sixty-eight pediatric patients with MS (30 with a clinical and MRI follow-up after 3.5 years) and 26 healthy controls (HC) underwent clinical and MRI evaluation. To overcome difficulties in obtaining longitudinal scans in pediatric HC, a group of 317 pediatric HC from an NIH-funded MRI Study of Normal Brain Development was used to estimate GM developmental trajectories...
March 13, 2019: Neurology
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