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Research methods & reporting

Jessica Steffany Miranda, Luciana Patricia Fernandes Abbade, Arthur Pollo Deonizio, Joelcio Francisco Abbade, Lawrence Mbuagbaw, Lehana Thabane
Pressure ulcers (PUs) have a high incidence, especially in hospital units. Randomised clinical trials (RCTs) of therapeutic interventions for PU should include a clear description of the outcomes and results to enhance transparency and replicability. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this study is to assess the completeness of the descriptions of the outcomes of therapeutic interventions in RCTs in adult patients with PU. The secondary objectives are to evaluate the types of reported primary outcomes, measurement methods or tools used to evaluate the outcomes and the results of reported outcomes...
February 15, 2019: BMJ Open
Marisa E Marraccini, Leslie A Brick, Lisa L Weyandt, Alyssa Francis, Christine Clarkin, Yumeng Fang
BACKGROUND: College students are at increased risk for self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (SITB) and sexual risk behaviors (SRB). Although students with a history of SITB appear to be more prone to SRB, the mechanisms linking these risk behaviors remain largely unexplored. Previous research points to emotional control (EC), defined as one's awareness and adaptability of emotions, as a potential mechanism explaining the relationship between SITB and SRB.1 METHODS: Data included 722 college students attending two different universities in the northeast and southeast regions of the United States...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Affective Disorders
Xiaohui Xu, Li Sun, Bo Bai, Honglun Wang, Yourui Suo
With the abundant use of pesticides in agriculture and grassland farming, water contamination unavoidably occurs due to the leaching of pesticide residues into environment. Now, most of the research on degradation of nitroaromatic pesticides residues has focused on nano catalysis-based method, however, effective post-reaction separation and recycling of the tiny nanocatalysts is also a significant technological challenge to be addressed. Herein, we report a simple and versatile strategy for the construction of efficient and recyclable catalysts of polydopamine (PDA)@Ag/polystyrene (PS) films for degradation of pesticides based on multi-purpose PDA microspheres inspired by mussel adhesion...
February 8, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
J O Cáceres, D Sanz-Mangas, S Manzoor, L V Pérez-Arribas, J Anzano
The present work reports on the analysis of atmospheric aerosols in the Antarctic region, Deception Island, collected during austral summer 2016-2017 by field measurements carried from Gabriel de Castilla Spanish Research Station. A low-volume sampler was used to capture the aerosols depositing them onto the air filters. A chemical analysis of the samples using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) provided the total carbon (TC), organic carbon (OC), elemental Carbon (EC) and elements such as Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, S, Cu, Pb, Sr, Ti, Zn and Cr...
February 8, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Hong-Yan Chen, Mi-Xue Jin, Lu Zhang, Ai-Jun Wang, Junhua Yuan, Qian-Li Zhang, Jiu-Ju Feng
Recently, two-dimensional materials have gained increasing research attention due to their large surface area, high physical and chemical stability, and excellent electrocatalytic performances. Herein, we reported a simple and fast one-pot aqueous method for synthesis of two-dimensional porous bimetallic PtPd alloyed nanosheets (NSs) using benzyldimethylhexadecylammonium chloride (HDBAC) as the capping agent and stabilizer. The formation mechanism involved the oriented attachment and self-assembly. The PtPd NSs exhibited excellent oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity with the positive shift (c...
January 29, 2019: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Xin Cynthia Ye, Robin van der Lee, Wyeth W Wasserman
Strabismus refers to the misalignment of the eyes and occurs in 2-4% of individuals. The low-resolution label "strabismus" covers a range of heterogeneous defects, which makes it challenging to unravel this condition. Consequently a coherent understanding of the causes is lacking. Here, we attempt to gain a better understanding of the underlying genetics by combining gene curation, diverse bioinformatic analyses (including gene ontology, pathway mapping, expression and network-based methods) and literature review...
February 14, 2019: Gene
Van Thu Nguyen, Mehdi Benchoufi, BridgetYoung, Lina Ghosn, Philippe Ravaud, Isabelle Boutron
OBJECTIVE: New forms of research involving collective intelligence (CI) of diverse individuals mobilized through crowdsourcing is successfully emerging in various fields. This scoping review aimed to describe these methods across different fields and propose a framework for implementation. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We searched seven electronic databases for reports describing projects that had mobilized CI with crowdsourcing. We used content analysis to develop themes and categories of the methods...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Jessica L Kelleher, Paul Weiss, Amy D Rodriguez, Joe R Nocera, Monica C Serra
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the body weight goals and trends of stroke survivors, despite evidence that overweight and obesity can negatively influence poststroke rehabilitation outcomes. Thus, the purpose of this study was to identify self-reported body weight trends over time in stroke survivors and nonstroke controls (>50 years old) and describe the methods used to attempt to achieve body weight goals. METHODS: Self-reported body weight 1) at age 25 years, 2) 10 years prior to the current assessment, 3) 1 year prior to the current assessment, 4) current weight, and 5) age of heaviest body weight were collected from adults self-reporting a stroke in the 2011-2012 and 2013-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (stroke: N = 387 and nonstroke: N = 5085)...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
C Jacobs, C Beninger, G S Hazlewood, K Orsel, H W Barkema
Digital dermatitis (DD) is an infectious bacterial disease affecting cattle feet. Footbaths are a common herd-level control method for DD; however, variations in product, concentration, and frequency of use complicate comparisons between protocols. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate all walk-through footbath protocols reported that determined efficacy for prevention and treatment of DD lesions in dairy cattle. An extensive literature search was conducted, including electronic databases and gray literature updated until March 2018...
March 1, 2019: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Ebrahim Mahmoudi, Wei Lun Ang, Ching Yin Ng, Law Yong Ng, Abdul Wahab Mohammad, Abdelbaki Benamor
Graphene oxide (GO) has gained popularity in scientific research and industry due to its superior properties, which can be controlled by the synthesis method and graphite feedstock. Despite the availability of different graphite sources, most of the reported studies used natural graphite flake (NGF) as a source of oxidation for GO synthesis. The effect of various alternative graphite feedstocks on the GO properties has not been investigated systematically. This study investigated the influence of graphite feedstock (natural and synthetic) on the characteristics and properties of GO via modified Hummer's method...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Matteo Rovere
α-Synuclein's physiology and pathology have been linked by numerous reports to its ability to bind and remodel membranes, especially at synaptic terminals. It is therefore critical for researchers investigating the determinants of these interactions to rely on methods capable of providing an accurate and complete physicochemical snapshot of the binding events. Circular dichroism (CD) and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) are established techniques for the study of binding equilibria in biological systems and, especially when used in combination, allow a thorough characterization of the protein-lipid interplay...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Yuichi Furuhata, Ayako Sakai, Tomi Murakami, Mone Morikawa, Chikashi Nakamura, Takeshi Yoshizumi, Ushio Fujikura, Keiji Nishida, Yoshio Kato
Genome engineering in plants is highly dependent on the availability of effective molecular techniques. Despite vast quantities of research, genome engineering in plants is still limited in terms of gene delivery, which requires the use of infectious bacteria or harsh conditions owing to the difficulty delivering biomaterial into plant cells through the cell wall. Here, we describe a method that uses electroporation-mediated protein delivery into cultured Arabidopsis thaliana cells possessing an intact cell wall, and demonstrate Cre-mediated site-specific recombination...
February 15, 2019: Scientific Reports
Bridie Angela Evans, Alison Porter, Helen Snooks, Vanessa Burholt
BACKGROUND: Public and patient involvement is a routine element of health services research methods to produce better designed and reported studies. Although co-production is recommended when involving people in research, methods for involving people are usually designed and managed by researchers and there is little evidence about methods to co-produce models for effective public and patient involvement. We report the method used by a group of patient and carer service users to develop and implement a model for involving public members in research...
February 15, 2019: BMC Medical Research Methodology
Gail Dovey-Pearce, Sophie Walker, Sophie Fairgrieve, Monica Parker, Tim Rapley
Patient and public involvement in research includes non-academics working with researchers, on activities from consultative tasks, to joint working, and on user-led initiatives. Health and social care funding bodies require involvement in research projects. A current debate focuses on a perceived lack of empirical "proof" to demonstrate the impact of involvement upon the quality of research. It is also argued that the working relationships between researchers and those becoming involved need to be understood more fully...
February 15, 2019: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
Orazio Schillaci, Manuel Scimeca, Donata Trivigno, Agostino Chiaravalloti, Simone Facchetti, Lucia Anemona, Rita Bonfiglio, Giuseppe Santeusanio, Virginia Tancredi, Elena Bonanno, Nicoletta Urbano, Alessandro Mauriello
The relationship between cancer and inflammation is one of the most important fields for both clinical and translational research. Despite numerous studies reported interesting and solid data about the prognostic value of the presence of inflammatory infiltrate in cancers, the biological role of inflammation in prostate cancer development is not yet fully clarified. The characterization of molecular pathways that connect altered inflammatory response and prostate cancer progression can provide the scientific rationale for the identification of new prognostic and predictive biomarkers...
January 19, 2019: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
Jacek Kłos, Stanisław Lamperski
This paper reports the results of analysis of the electrical double layer (EDL) phenomenon in molten salts to provide information on the influence of short range interaction type on the shape of charge distribution and the effect of the charge distribution shape on capacitance values. A new method of analysis is proposed, which allows a quantitative discussion. It is assumed that EDL can be modelled as a number of capacitor plates connected in series. This paper reports the application of the proposed method in quantitative analysis of the molten salt capacitance data obtained for different short range potentials...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Chemical Physics
Wenrong Yao, Ying Guo, Xi Qin, Lei Yu, Xinchang Shi, Lan Liu, Yong Zhou, Jinpan Hu, Chunming Rao, Junzhi Wang
The therapeutic recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor 1 (rhKGF-1) was approved by the FDA for oral mucositis resulting from hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for hematological malignancies in 2004. However, no recommended bioassay for rhKGF-1 bioactivity has been recorded in the U.S. Pharmacopoeia. In this study, we developed an rhKGF-1-dependent bioassay for determining rhKGF-1 bioactivity based on HEK293 and HaCat cell lines that stably expressed the luciferase reporter driven by the serum response element (SRE) and human fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR2) IIIb...
February 15, 2019: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Tapan Mehta, Hui-Ju Young, Byron Lai, Fuchenchu Wang, Yumi Kim, Mohan Thirumalai, Tracy Tracy, Robert W Motl, James H Rimmer
Background: Recent clinical guidelines for adults with neurological disabilities suggest the need to assess measures of static and dynamic balance using the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and Dynamic Gait Index (DGI) as core outcome measures. Given that the BBS measures both static and dynamic balance, it was unclear as to whether either of these instruments was superior in terms of its convergent and concurrent validity, and whether there was value in complementing the BBS with the DGI. Objective : The objective was to evaluate the concurrent and convergent validity of the BBS and DGI by comparing the performance of these two functional balance tests in people with multiple sclerosis (MS)...
February 15, 2019: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
Chien-Liang Chao, Hsin-Wen Huang, Hui-Chi Huang, Hsin-Fan Chao, Shuen-Wen Yu, Muh-Hwan Su, Chao-Jih Wang, Hang-Ching Lin
Cistanche tubulosa aqueous extract (CTE) is already used as a botanical prescription drug for treating dementia in China. Our previous studies reported that phenylethanoid glycosides of CTE have anti-Alzheimer's disease (AD) activity by inhibiting amyloid β peptide (Aβ) aggregation and deposition. However, recent studies considered that the phenylethanoid glycosides may be metabolized by intestinal bacteria, because all analysis results showed that the bioavailability of phenylethanoid glycosides is extremely low...
February 14, 2019: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Jeong Min Lee, So Young Oh, Tony V Johnston, Seockmo Ku, Geun Eog Ji
Fucosylated oligosaccharide (FO) is known to selectively promote the growth of probiotic bacteria and is currently marketed as a functional health food and prebiotic in infant formula. Despite widespread interest in FO among functional food customers, high production costs due to high raw material costs, especially those related to fucose, are a significant production issue. Therefore, several actions are required before efficient large-scale operations can occur, including (i) identification of inexpensive raw materials from which fucosylated oligosaccharides may be produced and (ii) development of production methods to which functional food consumers will not object (e...
February 14, 2019: Marine Drugs
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