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Samuela Cataldi, Mariapia Viola-Magni
ABSTRACT AIM: This work intends to analyse the structure and the composition of virtosomes and their role. BACKGROUND: Virtosomes are newly synthesized DNA-RNA-lipoprotein complexes released from living cells in a regulated and energy-dependent manner. METHODS: Virtosome fractions were isolated by ultracentrifugation from human lymphocytes cytoplasm and from culture medium before and after stimulation with phitoemoagglutinin (PHA). The composition in DNA, RNA, protein and lipids was determined...
July 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Mariano Garcia-Arranz, Damian Garcia-Olmo, Luz Vega-Clemente, Maurice Stroun
BACKGROUND: A DNA-RNA-lipoprotein complex, termed as virtosome, is released spontaneously from healthy human, other mammalian, avian, amphibian and plant cells in a regulated and energy-dependent manner. Studies on human and mouse lymphocytes, hepatocytes, NIH 3T3 cells and mouse tumour cell lines have shown that virtosomes may be acting as inter-cellular messengers. In particular, virtosomes from non-dividing cells blocked 3H-thymidine incorporation into DNA in tumour cell lines. OBJECTIVE: Study of the effect of virtosomes on tumors "in vivo" and "in vitro"...
2017: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Mariano Garcia-Arranz, Damian Garcia-Olmo, Luz Vega-Clemente, Maurice Stroun, Peter B Gahan
In vitro studies of partially purified virtosomes from rat liver showed inhibition of cell multiplication in four normal and two tumour cell lines. In vivo, the liver virtosomes slowed tumour growth and limited metastases in rats bearing DHD/K12-PROb cell initiated tumours.
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
A R Thierry, S El Messaoudi, P B Gahan, P Anker, M Stroun
While various clinical applications especially in oncology are now in progress such as diagnosis, prognosis, therapy monitoring, or patient follow-up, the determination of structural characteristics of cell-free circulating DNA (cirDNA) are still being researched. Nevertheless, some specific structures have been identified and cirDNA has been shown to be composed of many "kinds." This structural description goes hand-in-hand with the mechanisms of its origins such as apoptosis, necrosis, active release, phagocytosis, and exocytose...
September 2016: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Dimetrie L Peters, Piet J Pretorius
INTRODUCTION: The virtosome fraction of cell-free DNA, being newly synthesised, capable of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) and subsequent genomic incorporation and expression, may play crucial roles in the biological functions of higher organisms. In order to unlock the full potential of cell-free DNA as a biomarker, we need to fully understand its biological roles. AREAS COVERED: Metabolic DNA is possibly the precursor to the bulk of cell-free DNA, which is actively released as lipoprotein complexes...
June 2012: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
Dimetrie L Peters, Piet J Pretorius
The diagnostic value of extracellular occurring DNA (eoDNA) is limited by our lack of understanding its biological function. eoDNA exists in a number of forms, namely vesicle bound DNA (apoptotic bodies, micro particles, micro vesicles and exosomes), histone/DNA complexes or nucleosomes and virtosomes. These forms of DNA can also be categorized under the terms circulating DNA, cell free DNA, free DNA and extracellular DNA. The DNA can be released by means of form-specific mechanisms and seem to be governed by cell cycle phases and apoptosis...
May 12, 2011: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Peter B Gahan, Maurice Stroun
Studies on a range of prokaryote and eukaryote cells and tissues have shown that a newly synthesized DNA/RNA-lipoprotein complex is released in a regulated manner. This complex, termed a virtosome, is a novel cytosolic component of eukaryote cells. The released virtosomes can readily enter other cells where they can modify the biology of the recipient cells. Such modifications include immunological changes and transformation from normal to cancer cells. The virtosomes form a normal component of the circulating nucleic acids in plasma and serum currently used for clinical diagnostic purposes...
October 2010: Cell Biochemistry and Function
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