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Zhenzhu Chen, Junyi Zhang, Rui Li, Fei Tian, Yanting Shen, Xueying Xie, Qinyu Ge, Zuhong Lu
Molecular mechanism of interaction between the bloom-forming cyanobacterial species and attached microbios within cyanobacterial aggregates has not been elucidated yet and understanding of which would help to unravel the cyanobacteria bloom-forming mechanism. In this study, we profiled the metabolically active community by high-throughput metatranscriptome sequencing from cyanobacterial aggregates during cyanobacterial bloom period in Lake Taihu, China. A total of 308 million sequences were obtained using the HiSeq 2500 sequencing platform, which provided a great sequence coverage to carry out the in-depth taxonomic classification, functional classification, and metabolic pathway analysis of the cyanobacterial aggregates...
February 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jesse R Zaneveld, Ryan McMinds, Rebecca Vega Thurber
All animals studied to date are associated with symbiotic communities of microorganisms. These animal microbiotas often play important roles in normal physiological function and susceptibility to disease; predicting their responses to perturbation represents an essential challenge for microbiology. Most studies of microbiome dynamics test for patterns in which perturbation shifts animal microbiomes from a healthy to a dysbiotic stable state. Here, we consider a complementary alternative: that the microbiological changes induced by many perturbations are stochastic, and therefore lead to transitions from stable to unstable community states...
August 24, 2017: Nature Microbiology
A Pieterse, A P Malan, J L Ross
Terrestrial molluscs (Mollusca: Gastropoda) are important economic pests worldwide, causing extensive damage to a variety of crop types, and posing a health risk to both humans and wildlife. Current knowledge indicates that there are eight nematode families that associate with molluscs as definitive hosts, including Agfidae, Alaninematidae, Alloionematidae, Angiostomatidae, Cosmocercidae, Diplogastridae, Mermithidae and Rhabditidae. To date, Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita (Schneider, 1859) Andrássy, 1983 (Rhabditida: Rhabditidae) is the only nematode that has been developed as a biological molluscicide...
September 2017: Journal of Helminthology
O M Drapkina, O N Korneeva
The review demonstrates mechanisms in the relationship of obesity to gut microbiota, as well as possible therapeutic measures to normalize the intestinal microflora. There is evidence that the latter makes a great contribution to the pathogenesis of obesity and related diseases. Investigations have shown the role of the nature of consumed foods (fatty foods) in reducing the amount of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, as well as the effects of bacterial lipopolysaccharides and metabolites from the intestinal microflora (trimethylamine-N-oxide, bile acids, etc...
2016: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
T Witte, D H Pieper, B Heidrich
During recent years, the analysis of the human microbiota has been receiving more and more scientific focus. Deep sequencing analysis enables characterization of microbial communities in different environments without the need of culture-based methods. Hereby, information about microbial communities is increasing enormously. Numerous studies in humans and animal models revealed the important role of the microbiome in emergence and natural course of diseases such as autoimmune diseases and metabolic disorders, e...
July 2017: Der Internist
Ryan M Chanyi, Laura Craven, Brandon Harvey, Gregor Reid, Michael J Silverman, Jeremy P Burton
The composition and activity of microorganisms in the gut, the microbiome, is emerging as an important factor to consider with regard to the treatment of many diseases. Dysbiosis of the normal community has been implicated in inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease, diabetes and, most notoriously, Clostridium difficile infection. In Canada, the leading treatment strategy for recalcitrant C. difficile infection is to receive faecal material which by nature is filled with microorganisms and their metabolites, from a healthy individual, known as a faecal microbiota transplantation...
2017: SAGE Open Medicine
Serap Süzük Yıldız, Banu Kaşkatepe, Salih Altınok, Mustafa Çetin, Alper Karagöz, Sümeyra Savaş
Accurate identification of viridans group streptococci (VGS) frequently encountered as a causative agent of infective endocarditis is always a challenge for the clinical microbiology laboratory. Clinical microbiology laboratories generally use semi automatic/full automatic systems, molecular methods and also conventional methods for the identification of these bacteria. There are recent published studies that have used MALDI-TOF (Matrix Assisted Laser Ionization Mass Spectrometry-Time of Flight) systems in the identification of VGS...
January 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
Pedro A B Pereira, Velma T E Aho, Lars Paulin, Eero Pekkonen, Petri Auvinen, Filip Scheperjans
INTRODUCTION: Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with neuropathological changes in olfactory and gastrointestinal tissues, and PD patients frequently suffer from hyposmia, hyposalivation, and dysphagia. Since hyposmia and gastrointestinal dysfunction are frequently premotor symptoms, it has been speculated that an external, for example microbial, agent could trigger the pathologic process in the corresponding organs, subsequently spreading to the central nervous system. We recently showed evidence for compositional differences between the fecal microbiota of PD patients and control subjects...
May 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Karen A Scott, Masayuki Ida, Veronica L Peterson, Jack A Prenderville, Gerard M Moloney, Takayuki Izumo, Kiera Murphy, Amy Murphy, R Paul Ross, Catherine Stanton, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
Over the last decade, there has been increased interest in the role of the gut microbiome in health including brain health. This is by no means a new theory; Elie Metchnikoff proposed over a century ago that targeting the gut by consuming lactic acid bacteria such as those in yogurt, could improve or delay the onset of cognitive decline associated with ageing. However, there is limited information characterising the relationship between the behavioural and physiological sequelae of ageing and alterations in the gut microbiome...
October 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
J A Fishman
The prevention, diagnosis, and management of infectious disease in transplantation are major contributors to improved outcomes in organ transplantation. The risk of serious infections in organ recipients is determined by interactions between the patient's epidemiological exposures and net state of immune suppression. In organ recipients, there is a significant incidence of drug toxicity and a propensity for drug interactions with immunosuppressive agents used to maintain graft function. Thus, every effort must be made to establish specific microbiologic diagnoses to optimize therapy...
April 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
Tomoya Yamashita
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease. Interventions targeting the inflammatory process could provide new strategies for preventing atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Previously, we have reported that oral administration of anti-CD3 antibodies, or active vitamin D3, reduced atherosclerosis in mice via recruiting regulatory T cells and tolerogenic dendritic cells to the gut-associated lymphoid tissues. From this, it is reasonable to propose that the intestine could be a novel therapeutic target for prevention of atherosclerotic CVD...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
L Bertaiola Monnerat, C Chuard
The clinical microbiology laboratory plays an essential role in the management of Clostri- dium difficile infections, showing an increase in frequency and severity. Many tests (culture, EIA, PCR), detecting bacteria or their antigens, toxin genes or free toxins, allow the microbio- logist to provide the clinician and the infection control specialist with a reliable diagnosis as- sistance, which meet essential criteria for ra- pidity, sensitivity and specificity. This review presents the diagnostic algorithms currently used...
October 7, 2015: Revue Médicale Suisse
Laura V Diness, Maja V Maraldo, Christiane E Mortensen, Anders Mellemgaard, Finn O Larsen
INTRODUCTION: The diagnosis of bacterial infections in patients with solid tumours can be difficult as both the tumour and its treatment can cause symptoms and signs similar to those of infections. Many patients with solid tumours therefore receive antibiotic treatment without having a bacterial infection. In this prospective study, we wanted to investigate the value of procalcitonin (PCT) compared with C-reactive protein (CRP) as an indicator of bacterial infection in adult patients with solid tumours...
December 2014: Danish Medical Journal
Laís Del Prá Netto Machado, Marcelo A Molinari, Larissa dos Santos, Caio M M de Cordova
We have empirical evidence for the unsatisfactory performance of the most accessible commercial kits for mollicute culture. We aimed to evaluate the performance of the 4 commercial kits available for diagnosis of urogenital mollicute infections, compared with culture media (CMMC) produced in our research laboratory. We demonstrated that the NewProv kit had a sensitivity of 17% for Ureaplasma sp. and 33% for Mycoplasma hominis. The Laborclin kit presented a sensitivity of 25% for Ureaplasma sp., although M. hominis isolation was not observed during its evaluation...
September 2014: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
O Rataj, L Martinkovičová, M Šetina
Infective endocarditis can be divided from practical point of view into native valve endocarditis and prosthetic valve endocarditis. With regard to aquired endocarditis, endocarditis in intravenous drug abusers can be separetly differentiated. Echocardiography and microbio-logical cultures are essential for dia-gnosis. Treatment consists of antibio-tic therapy and often surgical procedure is required. We present a case report of an intravenous drug abuser with a tricuspid valve endocarditis, successfully treated with antibio-tic therapy and a following surgical valve repair...
October 2013: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
María Elena Báez Flores, Pável Gaxiola Medina, Sylvia Páz Díaz Camacho, Magdalena de Jesús Uribe Beltrán, María del Carmen De la Cruz Otero, Ignacio Osuna Ramírez, Martín Ernesto Tiznado Hernández
The fungal spore concentration (FSC) in the air poses a risk for human health. This work studied the FSC in university libraries and how it is affected by environmental factors. A total of 347 samples were obtained using a Microbio MB2(®) Aerosol Sampler. The wind speed (WS), cross wind (CW), temperature (T), relative humidity (HR), barometric pressure (BP) and dew point (DP) were recorded using a Kestrel(®) 4500 weather station. The median indoor/outdoor FSC was 360/1230 CFU m(-3). FSC correlated inversely with BP, HR and DP; and positively with WS and CW; whereas T showed negative or positive correlation with FSC, depending on the region or sampling time...
August 2014: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
Jan Schroeter, Ina Wilkemeyer, Frithjof Herrlinger, Axel Pruss
BACKGROUND: CORNEAS NEEDED FOR KERATOPLASTY CAN BE HARVESTED USING TWO TECHNIQUES: whole globe enucleation and in situ excision of the corneoscleral disc. This study evaluates the rate of microbial contamination of the donor cornea organ culture medium according to the method of retrieval. METHODS: All donor corneas of our cornea bank received between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2009 put into organ culture and microbio-logically tested were prospectively analyzed for microbial contamination of the organ culture medium...
December 2012: Transfusion Medicine and Hemotherapy
Jesse Stombaugh, Jeremy Widmann, Daniel McDonald, Rob Knight
SUMMARY: The explosion of interest in non-coding RNAs, together with improvements in RNA X-ray crystallography, has led to a rapid increase in RNA structures at atomic resolution from 847 in 2005 to 1900 in 2010. The success of whole-genome sequencing has led to an explosive growth of unaligned homologous sequences. Consequently, there is a compelling and urgent need for user-friendly tools for producing structure-informed RNA alignments. Most alignment software considers the primary sequence alone; some specialized alignment software can also include Watson-Crick base pairs, but none adequately addresses the needs introduced by the rapid influx of both sequence and structural data...
June 15, 2011: Bioinformatics
Serhat Vançelik, Nazim Ercüment Beyhun, Hamit Acemoğlu
The aim of this study was to show the interactions between nicotine dependency, exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) and smoking status including environmental passive tobacco smoke exposure in a sample of Turkish adolescents. This study was a cross-sectional research conducted among high school students of Erzurum province (n=536). The level of exhaled CO of all participants who accepted to participate in the study was measured by Microbio CO Analyzer (Microbio Med). Nicotine dependency was measured by a six-item version of the Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire...
January 2009: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
Jelica Tiodorović, Gordana Randelović, Biljana Kocić, Danica Tiodorović-Zivković
BACKGROUND/AIM: Non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) is a very common sexually transmitted disease. The etiology of the disease is complex and not completely solved. The aim of this study was to determine the bacteriological finding in the urethra in men with and without non-gonococcal urethritis. METHODS: The study group comprised 200 men with symptoms of urethritis. The control group consisted of 60 men without symptoms of urethritis. The diagnosis of nongonococcal infection was made by finding of an increased number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (> or = 5) under the microscope in a sample of Gram-stain of urethral smear (x 1 000) and without evidence of Neisseria...
December 2007: Vojnosanitetski Pregled. Military-medical and Pharmaceutical Review
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