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plant lateral root

Fatemeh Ghaderiardakani, Ellen Collas, Deborah Kohn Damiano, Katherine Tagg, Neil S Graham, Juliet C Coates
The growing population requires sustainable, environmentally-friendly crops. The plant growth-enhancing properties of algal extracts have suggested their use as biofertilisers. The mechanism(s) by which algal extracts affect plant growth are unknown. We examined the effects of extracts from the common green seaweed Ulva intestinalis on germination and root development in the model land plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Ulva extract concentrations above 0.1% inhibited Arabidopsis germination and root growth. Ulva extract <0...
February 13, 2019: Scientific Reports
Krishna D Puri, Gary E Vallad, Qing-Ming Qin, Ryan J Hayes, Krishna V Subbarao
Verticillium wilt of lettuce, caused by the soilborne pathogen Verticillium dahliae, poses a serious threat to the California lettuce industry. Knowledge of disease development and its impact on postharvest marketability would facilitate better management of the affected fields. This study investigated postharvest marketability of 22 lettuce varieties harvested from two Verticillium-infested commercial lettuce fields in Salinas and Watsonville, CA, in 2005 using a randomized complete block design. Periodic sampling to monitor disease in several crisphead varieties in the field demonstrated that root symptoms developed quickly at later stages of heading, followed by the onset of foliar symptoms as the crop reached harvest maturity...
February 11, 2019: Plant Disease
Lei Xiang, Yanmei Li, Xiaolin Sui, Airong Li
Haustorium formation is the characteristic feature of all parasitic plants and a vital process for successful parasitism. Previous investigations on haustorium initiation and development are constricted to induced processes by host-derived signals or synthetic analogs. Spontaneous haustorium formation in the absence of host signals, a process representing an early stage in the evolution of parasitic plants, remains largely unexplored. Lack of fast and frequent formation of spontaneous haustoria greatly hinders full understanding of haustorium formation in root hemiparasites...
October 2018: Plant Diversity
Fernand Lambein, Silvia Travella, Yu-Haey Kuo, Marc Van Montagu, Marc Heijde
Although grass pea is an environmentally successful robust legume with major traits of interest for food and nutrition security, the genetic potential of this orphan crop has long been neglected. Grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) is a Neolithic plant that has survived millennia of cultivation and has spread over three continents. It is a robust legume crop that is considered one of the most resilient to climate changes and to be survival food during drought-triggered famines. The hardy penetrating root system allows the cultivation of grass pea in various soil types, including marginal ones...
February 5, 2019: Planta
Rui Li, Jia Jiang, Songyao Jia, Xingyu Zhu, Hongzhu Su, Jing Li
Tryptophan is one of the amino acids that cannot be produced in humans and has to be acquired primarily from plants. In Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis), the tryptophan synthase beta subunit (TSB) genes have been found to catalyze the biosynthesis of tryptophan. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of two TSB genes from Brassica oleracea (broccoli), designated BoTSB1 and BoTSB2. Overexpressing BoTSB1 or BoTSB2 in Arabidopsis resulted in higher tryptophan content and the accumulation of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole glucosinolates in rosette leaves...
January 31, 2019: Physiologia Plantarum
Lucila Andrea Acevedo, Jeahoo Kwon, Linda K Nicholson
Protein-based molecular switches play critical roles in biological processes. The importance of the prolyl cis - trans switch is underscored by the ubiquitous presence of peptidyl prolyl isomerases such as cyclophilins that accelerate the intrinsically slow isomerization rate. In rice, a tryptophan-proline (W-P) cis - trans switch in transcription repressor protein OsIAA11 along with its associated cyclophilin LRT2 are essential components in a negative feedback gene regulation circuit that controls lateral root initiation in response to the plant hormone auxin...
January 29, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
V T C B Alencar, A K M Lobo, F E L Carvalho, J A G Silveira
Mechanisms involving ammonium toxicity, excess light, and photosynthesis are scarcely known in plants. We tested the hypothesis that high NH4 + supply in presence of high light decreases photosynthetic efficiency of rice plants, an allegedly tolerant species. Mature rice plants were previously supplied with 10 mM NH4 + or 10 mM NO3 - and subsequently exposed to 400 µmol m-2  s-1 (moderate light-ML) or 2000 µmol m-2  s-1 (high light-HL) for 8 h. HL greatly stimulated NH4 + accumulation in roots and in a minor extent in leaves...
January 29, 2019: Photosynthesis Research
Hongwei Jing, Lucia C Strader
The spacing and distribution of lateral roots are critical determinants of plant root system architecture. In addition to providing anchorage, lateral roots explore the soil to acquire water and nutrients. Over the past several decades, we have deepened our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms governing lateral root formation and development. In this review, we summarize these recent advances and provide an overview of how auxin and cytokinin coordinate the regulation of lateral root formation and development...
January 23, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ying Fan, Xiao-Yan Li, Heng Huang, Xiu-Chen Wu, Kai-Liang Yu, Jun-Qi Wei, Ci-Cheng Zhang, Pei Wang, Xia Hu, Paolo D'Odorico
Shrub encroachment has emerged as a global phenomenon over the past century. Multiple drivers have been put forward to explain the increased shrub dominance in various ecosystems around the world. However, the potential role of phenology in regulating shrub encroachment is not well understood. We address this issue using 3-year continuous monitoring of the phenology of coexisting shrubs and grasses combined with observations of ecohydrological processes (water uptake) and soil conditions (root zone soil moisture, soil texture, and soil temperature) at four study sites in Inner Mongolia, China, with shrub coverage of Caragana microphylla ranging from 0%, to 6...
March 20, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Endong Yang, Leni Sun, Xiaoyuan Ding, Dongdong Sun, Jing Liu, Weiyun Wang
Caulobacter flavus RHGG3T , a novel type species in the genus Caulobacter , originally isolated from rhizosphere soil of watermelon ( Citrullus lanatus ), has the ability to improve the growth of watermelon seedling and tolerate heavy metals. In vitro, C. flavus RHGG3T was able to solubilize phosphate (80.56 mg L-1 ), produce indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) (11.58 mg L-1 ) and was resistant to multiple heavy metals (copper, zinc, cadmium, cobalt and lead). Inoculating watermelon with this strain increased shoot and root length by 22...
February 2019: 3 Biotech
Limin Wang, Man-Yuan Guo, Jean-Baptiste Thibaud, Anne-Aliénor Véry, Hervé Sentenac
Root hairs, as lateral extensions of epidermal cells, provide large absorptive surfaces to the root, and are major actors of plant hydromineral nutrition. In contact with the soil, they also constitute a site of interactions between the plant and rhizospheric microorganisms. In legumes, initiation of symbiotic interactions with N2 -fixing rhizobia is often triggered at the root hair cell membrane in response to nodulation factors secreted by rhizobia, and involves early signaling events with changes in H+ , Ca2+ , K+ and Cl- fluxes inducing transient depolarization of the cell membrane...
January 23, 2019: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Lei Tian, Shaohua Shi, Lina Ma, Xue Zhou, Shasha Luo, Jianfeng Zhang, Baohui Lu, Chunjie Tian
Background: Glomus intraradices is a species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi that, as an obligate endomycorrhiza, can form mutually beneficial associations with plants. Panax ginseng is a popular traditional Chinese medicine; however, problems associated with ginseng planting, such as pesticide residues, reduce the ginseng quality. Methods: In this experiment, we studied the effect of inoculating G . intraradices on several physiological properties and microbial communities of ginseng...
January 2019: Journal of Ginseng Research
Jong Youn Kim, Prakash Babu Adhikari, Chang Ho Ahn, Dong Hwi Kim, Young Chang Kim, Jung Yeon Han, Subramanyam Kondeti, Yong Eui Choi
Background: Interspecific ginseng hybrid, Panax ginseng  ×  Panax quenquifolius ( Pgq ) has vigorous growth and produces larger roots than its parents. However, F1 progenies are complete male sterile. Plant tissue culture technology can circumvent the issue and propagate the hybrid. Methods: Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with different concentrations (0, 2, 4, and 6 mg/L) of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was used for callus induction and somatic embryogenesis (SE)...
January 2019: Journal of Ginseng Research
Aleksandra Pawela, Joanna Banasiak, Wanda Biała, Enrico Martinoia, Michał Jasiński
Abscisic acid (ABA) integrates internal and external signals to coordinate plant development, growth, and architecture. It plays a central role in stomatal closure and prevents germination of freshly produced seeds and germination of non-dormant seeds under unfavorable circumstances. Here, we describe a Medicago truncatula ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, MtABCG20, as an ABA exporter present in roots and germinating seeds. In seeds, MtABCG20 was found in the hypocotyl-radicle transition zone of the embryonic axis...
January 20, 2019: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Linsen Pei, Lu Peng, Xia Wan, Jie Xiong, Zhibin Liu, Xufeng Li, Yi Yang, Jianmei Wang
Abscisic acid (ABA) plays a fundamental role in plant growth and development, as well as in the responses to abiotic stresses. Previous studies have revealed that many components in ABA and drought stress signaling pathways are ubiquitinated by E3 ligases. In this study, AtPPRT1, a putative C3HC4 zinc-finger ubiquitin E3 ligase, was explored for its role in abiotic stress response in Arabidopsis thaliana . The expression of AtPPRT1 was induced by ABA. In addition, the β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene driven by the AtPPRT1 promoter was more active in the root hair zone and root tips of primary and major lateral roots of young seedlings in the presence of ABA...
January 17, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Avishek Banik, Gautam Kumar Dash, Padmini Swain, Upendra Kumar, Subhra Kanti Mukhopadhyay, Tushar Kanti Dangar
Use of plant-associated beneficial microbes, especially endophytes are getting popular day by day as they occupy a relatively privileged niche inside different plant tissues with lesser competition for food and shelter than rhizosphere. The effects of different physical factors like temperature, rainfall, and seasonal variation and UV radiation on plant growth promoting endophytic communities are less pronounced than those on the rhizospheric and phylloplane microbes. This present work has been compromised with further utilization of an indigenous rice (Oryza sativa L...
February 2019: Microbiological Research
Sudhakar Srivastava, V S Pathare, Suvarna Sounderajan, P Suprasanna
In the present study, the effects of nitrogen supply (low nitrogen: LN and high nitrogen: HN) on As stress (25 μM) responses of rice seedlings were monitored for 7 d. The mean length of primary, adventitious and lateral roots and number of adventitious and lateral roots were significantly improved in LN+As, while further reduced in HN+As, as compared to As alone treatment at 7 d. The LN+As treatment resulted in significant decline in As (848 μg g-1 DW) than that in As alone treatment (1434 μg g-1 DW) in roots but no significant effect was seen in shoot...
January 2, 2019: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Vinay Shukla, Lara Lombardi, Sergio Iacopino, Ales Pencik, Ondrej Novak, Pierdomenico Perata, Beatrice Giuntoli, Francesco Licausi
As non-photosynthesizing organs, roots are dependent on diffusion of oxygen from the external environment and, in some instances, from the shoot for their aerobic metabolism. Establishment of hypoxic niches in the developing tissues of plants has been postulated as a consequence of insufficient diffusion of oxygen to satisfy the demands throughout development. Here, we report that such niches are established at specific stages of lateral root primordia development in Arabidopsis thaliana grown under aerobic conditions...
January 11, 2019: Molecular Plant
Funing Meng, Dan Xiang, Jianshu Zhu, Yong Li, Chuanzao Mao
Roots are fundamentally important for growth and development, anchoring the plant to its growth substrate, facilitating water and nutrient uptake from the soil, and sensing and responding to environmental signals such as biotic and abiotic stresses. Understanding the molecular mechanisms controlling root architecture is essential for improving nutrient uptake efficiency and crop yields. In this review, we describe the progress being made in the identification of genes and regulatory pathways involved in the development of root systems in rice (Oryza sativa L...
January 10, 2019: Rice
Chuloh Cho, Eunkyeong Jeon, Shashank K Pandey, Se Hoon Ha, Jungmook Kim
Lateral Organ Boundaries Domain 13 (LBD13), which is expressed in emerged lateral roots and encodes a transcriptional activator, plays an important role in lateral root formation in Arabidopsis. Lateral roots (LRs) are major determinants of root system architecture, contributing to the survival strategies of plants. Members of the LBD gene family encode plant-specific transcription factors that play key roles in plant organ development. Several LBD genes, such as LBD14, 16, 18, 29, and 33, have been shown to play important roles in regulating LR development in Arabidopsis...
January 9, 2019: Planta
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