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Hox AND plant AND model

Artyom Kopp
The diversity of animal and plant forms is shaped by nested evolutionary innovations. Understanding the genetic and molecular changes responsible for these innovations is therefore one of the key goals of evolutionary biology. From the genetic point of view, the origin of novel traits implies the origin of new regulatory pathways to control their development. To understand how these new pathways are assembled in the course of evolution, we need model systems that combine relatively recent innovations with a powerful set of genetic and molecular tools...
November 2011: Evolution & Development
Yu Qiu, Lei Liu, Chen Zhao, Chuanchun Han, Fudong Li, Jiahai Zhang, Yan Wang, Guohong Li, Yide Mei, Mian Wu, Jihui Wu, Yunyu Shi
Histone acetylation is a hallmark for gene transcription. As a histone acetyltransferase, MOZ (monocytic leukemia zinc finger protein) is important for HOX gene expression as well as embryo and postnatal development. In vivo, MOZ forms a tetrameric complex with other subunits, including several chromatin-binding modules with regulatory functions. Here we report the solution structure of the tandem PHD (plant homeodomain) finger (PHD12) of human MOZ in a free state and the 1.47 Å crystal structure in complex with H3K14ac peptide, which reveals the structural basis for the recognition of unmodified R2 and acetylated K14 on histone H3...
June 15, 2012: Genes & Development
Cédric Finet, Yvon Jaillais
Auxin is implicated throughout plant growth and development. Although the effects of this plant hormone have been recognized for more than a century, it is only in the past two decades that light has been shed on the molecular mechanisms that regulate auxin homeostasis, signaling, transport, crosstalk with other hormonal pathways as well as its roles in plant development. These discoveries established a molecular framework to study the role of auxin in land plant evolution. Here, we review recent advances in auxin biology and their implications in both micro- and macro-evolution of plant morphology...
September 1, 2012: Developmental Biology
Fani Papagiannouli, Ingrid Lohmann
Stem cells are fascinating, as they supply the cells that construct our adult bodies and replenish, as we age, worn out, damaged, and diseased tissues. Stem cell regulation relies on intrinsic signals but also on inputs emanating from the neighbouring niche. The Drosophila testis provides an excellent system for studying such processes. Although recent advances have uncovered several signalling, cytoskeletal and other factors affecting niche homeostasis and testis differentiation, many aspects of niche regulation and maintenance remain unsolved...
June 2012: Biotechnology Journal
Maureen E Mazza, Kevin Pang, Adam M Reitzel, Mark Q Martindale, John R Finnerty
BACKGROUND: Homeobox genes are a superclass of transcription factors with diverse developmental regulatory functions, which are found in plants, fungi and animals. In animals, several Antennapedia (ANTP)-class homeobox genes reside in extremely ancient gene clusters (for example, the Hox, ParaHox, and NKL clusters) and the evolution of these clusters has been implicated in the morphological diversification of animal bodyplans. By contrast, similarly ancient gene clusters have not been reported among the other classes of homeobox genes (that is, the LIM, POU, PRD and SIX classes)...
July 5, 2010: EvoDevo
Cynthia L Fisher, Nicolas Pineault, Christy Brookes, Cheryl D Helgason, Hideaki Ohta, Caroline Bodner, Jay L Hess, R Keith Humphries, Hugh W Brock
The Additional sex combs like 1 (Asxl1) gene is 1 of 3 mammalian homologs of the Additional sex combs (Asx) gene of Drosophila. Asx is unusual because it is required to maintain both activation and silencing of Hox genes in flies and mice. Asxl proteins are characterized by an amino terminal homology domain, by interaction domains for nuclear receptors, and by a C-terminal plant homeodomain protein-protein interaction domain. A recent study of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) revealed a high incidence of truncation mutations that would delete the PHD domain of ASXL1...
January 7, 2010: Blood
Robert Sablowski
Floral organ identity genes specify the identity of floral organs in a manner analogous to the specification of body segments by Hox genes in animals. Different combinations of organ identity genes co-ordinate the expression of genes required for the development of each type of floral organ, from organ initiation until final differentiation. Here, I review what is known about the genes and functions subordinate to the organ identity genes. The sets of target genes change as organ development progresses and ultimately organ identity genes modify the expression of thousands of genes with a multitude of predicted functions, particularly in reproductive organs...
February 2010: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Gang G Wang, Jikui Song, Zhanxin Wang, Holger L Dormann, Fabio Casadio, Haitao Li, Jun-Li Luo, Dinshaw J Patel, C David Allis
Histone H3 lysine 4 methylation (H3K4me) has been proposed as a critical component in regulating gene expression, epigenetic states, and cellular identities1. The biological meaning of H3K4me is interpreted by conserved modules including plant homeodomain (PHD) fingers that recognize varied H3K4me states. The dysregulation of PHD fingers has been implicated in several human diseases, including cancers and immune or neurological disorders. Here we report that fusing an H3K4-trimethylation (H3K4me3)-binding PHD finger, such as the carboxy-terminal PHD finger of PHF23 or JARID1A (also known as KDM5A or RBBP2), to a common fusion partner nucleoporin-98 (NUP98) as identified in human leukaemias, generated potent oncoproteins that arrested haematopoietic differentiation and induced acute myeloid leukaemia in murine models...
June 11, 2009: Nature
Robert Lanfear, Lindell Bromham
The Hox genes encode transcription factors that play vital roles in the anterior-posterior patterning of all bilaterian phyla studied to date. Additionally, the gain of Hox genes by duplication has been widely implicated as a driving force in the evolution of animal body plans. Because of this, reconstructing the evolution of the Hox cluster has been the focus of intense research interest. It has been commonly assumed that an ancestral four-gene ProtoHox cluster was duplicated early in animal evolution to give rise to the Hox and ParaHox clusters...
October 2008: Systematic Biology
Abdelaty Saleh, Ayed Al-Abdallat, Ivan Ndamukong, Raul Alvarez-Venegas, Zoya Avramova
Tightly balanced antagonism between the Polycomb group (PcG) and the Trithorax group (TrxG) complexes maintain Hox expression patterns in Drosophila and murine model systems. Factors belonging to the PcG/TrxG complexes control various processes in plants as well but whether they participate in mechanisms that antagonize, balance or maintain each other's effects at a particular gene locus is unknown. CURLY LEAF (CLF), an Arabidopsis homolog of enhancer of zeste (EZ) and the ARABIDOPSIS HOMOLOG OF TRITHORAX (ATX1) control the expression of the flower homeotic gene AGAMOUS (AG)...
2007: Nucleic Acids Research
Juan E Andrade, John R Burgess
Flavonoids are non-nutrient plant phenolic compounds proposed to provide health benefits in humans. The antioxidant and prooxidant effects of the citrus flavanone naringenin have been tested only in vitro. The dose-response effect of naringenin consumption was tested in weanling rats (n=6-8/group) with a 2x4 factorial design using high or low oxidative stress (Hox or Lox, respectively) diets, created by adequate or deficient amounts of vitamin E and selenium, with three increasing naringenin concentrations (30, 60, or 120 mg/kg of diet)...
March 21, 2007: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Elena Menegola, Francesca Di Renzo, Maria Luisa Broccia, Erminio Giavini
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are nuclear and cytoplasmic enzymes that deacetylate a number of substrates, of which histones are the best known and described in the literature. HDACs are present in eukaryotic and bacteria cells, and are fundamental for a number of cellular functions, including correct gene expression. Surprisingly, only up to 20% of the whole genome is controlled by HDACs, but key processes for survival, proliferation, and differentiation have been strictly linked to HDAC enzyme functioning...
December 2006: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
Liusheng Huang, Grzegorz Wojciechowski, Paul R Ortiz de Montellano
Oxidation of SCN-, Br-, and Cl- (X-) by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and other plant and fungal peroxidases results in the addition of HOX to the heme vinyl group. This reaction is not observed with lactoperoxidase (LPO), in which the heme is covalently bound to the protein via two ester bonds between carboxylic side chains and heme methyl groups. To test the hypothesis that the heme of LPO and other mammalian peroxidases is protected from vinyl group modification by the hemeprotein covalent bonds, we prepared the F41E mutant of HRP in which the heme is attached to the protein via a covalent bond between Glu41 and the heme 3-methyl...
July 14, 2006: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Carrie S Ketel, Erica F Andersen, Marcus L Vargas, Jinkyo Suh, Susan Strome, Jeffrey A Simon
The ESC-E(Z) complex of Drosophila melanogaster Polycomb group (PcG) repressors is a histone H3 methyltransferase (HMTase). This complex silences fly Hox genes, and related HMTases control germ line development in worms, flowering in plants, and X inactivation in mammals. The fly complex contains a catalytic SET domain subunit, E(Z), plus three noncatalytic subunits, SU(Z)12, ESC, and NURF-55. The four-subunit complex is >1,000-fold more active than E(Z) alone. Here we show that ESC and SU(Z)12 play key roles in potentiating E(Z) HMTase activity...
August 2005: Molecular and Cellular Biology
Jennifer M Ross, David Zarkower
Polycomb group (PcG) chromatin proteins regulate homeotic genes in both animals and plants. In Drosophila and vertebrates, PcG proteins form complexes and maintain early patterns of Hox gene repression, ensuring fidelity of developmental patterning. PcG proteins in C. elegans form a complex and mediate transcriptional silencing in the germline, but no role for the C. elegans PcG homologs in somatic Hox gene regulation has been demonstrated. Surprisingly, we find that the PcG homologs MES-2 [E(Z)] and MES-6 (ESC), along with MES-3, a protein without known homologs, do repress Hox expression in C...
June 2003: Developmental Cell
S Coventry, R P Kapur, J R Siebert
Holoprosencephaly is a complex congenital malformation of the brain and is often associated with a spectrum of facial anomalies ranging from normocephaly or nondiagnostic changes to cleft lip/palate (premaxillary dysgenesis), cebocephaly, ethmocephaly, and cyclopia. The primary insult is thought to occur during gastrulation, when prechordal mesenchyme and overlying anterior neural plate undergo complex developmental interactions. Exposure to cyclopamine, a steroid isolated from the desert plant Veratrum californicum, causes holoprosencephaly in mammalian embryos...
January 1998: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
O Roche, K Hinsen, M J Field
The glycine decarboxylase complex consists of four different proteins (the L-, P-, H-, and T-proteins). The H-protein plays a central role in communication among the other enzymes, as its lipoamide arm interacts successively with each of the components of the complex. The crystal structures of two states of the H-protein have been resolved: the oxidized form, Hox at 2 A and the methylamine-loaded form, Hmet at 2.2 A. However, the position of the arm for the reduced form, Hred, is still unknown. We have performed numerical free-energy calculations in order to better understand the differences in the structures and to elucidate the conformation of the arm in Hred...
August 1, 1999: Proteins
L Guilhaudis, J P Simorre, M Blackledge, M Neuburger, J Bourguignon, R Douce, D Marion, P Gans
The lipoate-dependent H protein plays a pivotal role in the catalytic cycle of the glycine decarboxylase complex (GDC), undergoing reducing methylamination, methylene transfer, and oxidation. The local structure and backbone dynamics of the methylamine-loaded H (Hmet), oxidized H (Hox), and H apoprotein (Hapo) have been investigated in solution. Filtered NOESY experiments using a [13C]Hmet as well as comparison of the heteronuclear shifts between the Hox and Hmet proteins demonstrate that the methylamine group is located inside a cleft of the protein...
June 29, 1999: Biochemistry
M J Kourakis, V A Master, D K Lokhorst, D Nardelli-Haefliger, C J Wedeen, M Q Martindale, M Shankland
Molecular developmental studies of fly and mouse embryos have shown that the identity of individual body segments is controlled by a suite of homeobox-containing genes called the Hox cluster. To examine the conservation of this patterning mechanism in other segmented phyla, we here describe four Hox gene homologs isolated from glossiphoniid leeches of the genus Helobdella. Based on sequence similarity and phylogenetic analysis, the leech genes Lox7, Lox6, Lox20, and Lox5 are deemed to be orthologs of the Drosophila genes lab, Dfd, Scr, and Antp, respectively...
October 15, 1997: Developmental Biology
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