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beef production

Jacob C Eaton, Pamela Rothpletz-Puglia, Margaret R Dreker, Lora Iannotti, Chessa Lutter, Joyceline Kaganda, Pura Rayco-Solon
BACKGROUND: Adequate nutrients early in life promote cognitive development and are critical for proper growth and functioning. The effect of individual nutrients consumed through food is often not the same as consuming the same nutrients in supplementary form due to 'food synergy', the biological and chemical interrelations that occur between nutrients. Animal-source foods, such as eggs, meat, fish, and dairy, are energy dense and contain multiple micronutrients and essential fatty acids with high bioavailability...
February 19, 2019: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Getahun E Agga, Kimberly L Cook, Annesly M P Netthisinghe, Rebecca A Gilfillen, Paul B Woosley, Karamat R Sistani
Confined animal feeding operations can facilitate the spread of genes associated with antibiotic resistance. It is not known how cattle removal from beef cattle backgrounding operation affects the persistence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the environment. We investigated the effect of cessation of beef cattle backgrounding operation on the persistence and distribution of ARGs in the beef cattle backgrounding environment. The study was conducted at a pasture-feedlot type beef cattle backgrounding operation which consisted of feeding and grazing areas that were separated by a fence with an access gate...
2019: PloS One
Mariana I Giassetti, Michela Ciccarelli, Jon M Oatley
The demand for food will increase to an unprecedented level over the next 30 years owing to human population expansion, thus necessitating an evolution that improves the efficiency of livestock production. Genetic gain to improve production traits of domestic animal populations is most effectively achieved via selective use of gametes from animals deemed to be elite, and this principle has been the basis of selective breeding strategies employed by humans for thousands of years. In modern-day animal agriculture, artificial insemination (AI) has been the staple of selective breeding programs, but it has inherent limitations for applications in beef cattle and pig production systems...
February 15, 2019: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
Chinda Wann, Metha Wanapat, Chaowarit Mapato
Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of bamboo grass (Tiliacora triandra, Diels) pellet (Bamboo-Cass) supplementation on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen microbial population and methane production in Thai native beef cattle. Methods: Four Thai native beef cattle bulls (190 ± 2 kg) were randomly allotted to four respective dietary treatments in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Treatments were the varying levels of Bamboo-Cass supplementation at 0, 50, 100, and 150 g/head/day, respectively...
January 4, 2019: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Michael G Bertram, Jake M Martin, Minna Saaristo, Tiarne E Ecker, Marcus Michelangeli, Nicholas D S Deal, Shu Ly Lim, Moira K O'Bryan, Bob B M Wong
Pharmaceutical contaminants are being detected with increased frequency in organisms and ecosystems worldwide. This represents a major environmental concern given that various pharmaceuticals act on drug targets that are evolutionarily conserved across diverse taxa, are often persistent in the environment, and can bioconcentrate in organisms and bioaccumulate in food chains. Despite this, relatively little is known about the potential for pharmaceutical contaminants to affect animal behaviour, especially across multiple fitness-related contexts...
January 30, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Esther Collantes-Fernández, Javier Moreno-Gonzalo, Roberto Sánchez-Sánchez, Ignacio García-Bocanegra, Pilar Horcajo, Luis M Ortega-Mora
Bovine trichomonosis is a sexually transmitted disease considered as an important cause of early reproductive failure in beef cattle. To investigate the occurrence of the infection in different Spanish beef cattle-producing areas, retrospective data from the SALUVET veterinary diagnostic laboratory (Veterinary Faculty, Madrid, Spain) derived from the analysis of samples from beef bulls that were routinely tested for Tritrichomonas foetus infection, were compiled from 2011 to 2015. In addition, a number of potential risk factors were assessed...
February 2, 2019: Theriogenology
Shanshan Zhao, Yan Zhao, Karyne M Rogers, Ailiang Chen, Tian Zhang, Shuming Yang
RATIONALE: Isotope reference materials are essential to enable reliable and comparable isotope data across multiple laboratories. Although many reference materials already exist, the best reference materials should mimic the unknown samples, so new reference materials continue to evolve with the development of isotope research in new product areas. METHODS: Two defatted beef reference materials, CAAS-1801 and CAAS-1802, with substantially different δ13 C values (due to difference in dietary intake) have been prepared as reference materials for stable C and N isotope analysis of meat tissue...
February 10, 2019: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Sheela Chandra, Kazim Askari, Madhumita Kumari
The ability to synthesize Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is widely associated with the plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). The present work deals with isolation and characterization of such bacteria from the rhizosphere of medicinal plant Stevia rebaudiana and optimization of IAA production from its isolates. The optimization of IAA production was carried out at different pH and temperature with varied carbon and nitrogen sources of culture media. Out of different isolates obtained, three of them were screened as efficient PGPRs on the basis of different plant growth promoting attributes...
December 2018: Journal, Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology
Juan Felipe Rocha, Rodrigo Martínez, Nicolas López-Villalobos, Steve Todd Morris
BACKGROUND: Ticks have a negative effect on dairy and beef cattle production systems around the world, with the concomitant risk they represent for the transmission of some important infectious diseases. Colombian cattle breeds are distributed across different agroecological regions and are exposed to different environmental challenges. In humid and warmer climates such as those from the tropics, tick burden and heat stress are important factors that can compromise livestock performance...
February 7, 2019: Parasites & Vectors
P McGilchrist, R J Polkinghorne, A J Ball, J M Thompson
A simple index that reflects the potential eating quality of beef carcasses is very important for producer feedback. The Meat Standards Australia (MSA) Index reflects variation in carcass quality due to factors that are influenced by producers (hot carcass weight, rib fat depth, hump height, marbling and ossification scores along with milk fed veal category, direct or saleyard consignment, hormonal growth promotant status and sex). In addition, processor impacts on meat quality are standardised so that the MSA Index could be compared across time, breed and geographical regions...
February 6, 2019: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Emilia Fornal, Magdalena Montowska
The detection of adulteration and mislabeling of food products, including intensively processed meat, is a challenge which needs urgent solutions to protect consumers' rights. The aim of the study was to demonstrate the feasibility of species-specific peptide-based LC-MS methods for monitoring duck, goose and chicken in processed meat products. Food commodities of various compositions, subjected to various treatments, including homogenization, cooking, roasting, drying, and sterilization during production, were examined to ensure that MS-based methods are resistant to matrix composition changes...
June 15, 2019: Food Chemistry
Katarzyna Nalazek-Rudnicka, Ilona Kłosowska-Chomiczewska, Andrzej Wasik, Adam Macierzanka
The abundance of protein markers in different types of meat cuts was explored in the context of authentication of raw meat (pork, beef and chicken) and processed meat products. Peptides originating from myoglobin (Mb) and myosin (My) were analyzed using multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM-MS). Analytical protocol was optimized for good repeatability (CV < 10%) and high sensitivity. The MS signal intensity of Mb marker peptides in raw pork depended significantly on the cut type (e.g. ham vs knuckle)...
June 15, 2019: Food Chemistry
Enrique Jesús Delgado-Suárez, Rocío Ortíz-López, Wondwossen A Gebreyes, Marc W Allard, Francisco Barona-Gómez, María Salud Rubio-Lozano
Multi-drug resistant (MDR) non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) is increasingly common worldwide. While food animals are thought to contribute to the growing antimicrobial resistance (AMR) problem, limited data is documenting this relationship, especially in low and middle-income countries (LMIC). Herein, we aimed to assess the role of non-clinical NTS of bovine origin as reservoirs of AMR genes of human clinical significance. We evaluated the phenotypic and genotypic AMR profiles in a set of 44 bovine-associated NTS...
February 5, 2019: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
Anatoly V Skalny, Tatiana I Burtseva, Elena V Salnikova, Olga P Ajsuvakova, Margarita G Skalnaya, Anatoly A Kirichuk, Alexey A Tinkov
The objective of the present study was investigation of the selenium (Se) levels in environmental samples, main consumed food products, as well as human hair in the areas of the Orenburg region. Se levels in the environmental objects (water, soil, wheat), frequently consumed food products (wheat bread, ryebread, beef, pork, chicken, milk, cottage cheese), as well as human hair samples in the western (n = 210), central (n = 195), and eastern (n = 120) areas were assessed using inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometry and atomic absorption spectrometry (soil)...
January 25, 2019: Environmental Research
Matteo Paolo Beccalli, Claudia Picozzi, Nicola Mangieri, Ileana Vigentini, Roberto Foschino
Some microbiological criteria were monitored for 6 months in vacuum-packaged roast beef (15 production batches), raw beef (10 batches), and other meat products (12 batches) produced in an Italian small to medium-size enterprise. Fifty-five environmental swab samples also were analyzed. The main bacterial groups were identified by cultural methods according to International Organization for Standardization standards. Listeria monocytogenes was enumerated with the most-probable-number protocol, and species identification was confirmed with a specific PCR assay...
January 2019: Journal of Food Protection
Fatma Özdemir, Seza Arslan
Bacillus species are common in the environment due to their spore-forming ability and nutritional versatility and cause food contamination. Bacilli play a significant role in foodborne illnesses and food spoilage. In this study, 52 Bacillus isolates from retail fish and ground beef were identified and differentiated based on 16S rRNA, gyrB, and rpoB gene sequencing. The presence of genes encoding emetic toxin (ces), hemolytic enterotoxin hemolysin BL (hbl), nonhemolytic enterotoxin (nhe) and cytotoxin K (cytK1) was assessed in all Bacillus isolates...
January 28, 2019: Journal of Food Science
C A Olson, G E Carstens, A D Herring, D S Hale, W C Kayser, R K Miller
Objectives were to evaluate the effects of temperament at feedlot arrival and breed type on productivity, feed efficiency, feeding behavior, and carcass quality traits in finishing beef heifers, and to examine interactions between temperament and breed type. Heifers (Angus, Braford, Brangus, and Simbrah, N = 411, BW = 280 kg) were fed a high-grain diet (ME = 3.0 Mcal/kg DM) in pens equipped with electronic feed bunks. Quality grade (QG), yield grade (YG) and Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) force values (d 1 and 14 post-mortem) were evaluated...
January 26, 2019: Journal of Animal Science
Dirk Philipp, Ben Putman, Greg Thoma
Livestock production is increasingly subjected to environmental and economic challenges related to water quantities being utilized, expressed as green (evapotranspiration from rainwater), blue (surface and groundwater), or grey (waste) water footprints at each stage of the product life cycle. Published data indicated that the largest share of water being used for producing beef in the U.S. can be traced back to growing forage and feed (> 90%), whereby the green water footprint was substantially greater (12,933 L water/kg of product) than the blue water footprint, as only a small amount of pasture- and cropland is irrigated (525 L/kg)...
January 21, 2019: Journal of Animal Science
Cristina Bacci, Alice Vismarra, Silvia Dander, Elena Barilli, Paola Superchi
European legislation stipulates that food no longer intended for human consumption, due to commercial reasons, manufacturing problems, or some defect, can be used in pet feed. However, the presence of former foodstuffs in pet diets could constitute a public health issue because pets can act as reservoirs of antimicrobial resistance genes. In this study, for the first time, biological hazards due to the presence of Escherichia coli and Salmonella in former foodstuff meat products were evaluated. Among the 112 samples of packaged fresh meat (poultry, pork, and beef) collected from cold storage warehouses of a mass market retailer, the overall prevalence of E...
January 28, 2019: Journal of Food Protection
Kathryn J Nickelson, T Matthew Taylor, Davey B Griffin, Jeffrey W Savell, Kerri B Gehring, Ashley N Arnold
Foodborne salmonellosis has been traced to undercooked ground beef and other beef products in the past, and peripheral lymph node (LN) presence in the fatty tissues of beef carcasses is one possible source of Salmonella contamination. Researchers have previously reported higher rates of Salmonella prevalence in LNs from cattle raised and harvested in Mexico compared with rates typically observed from cattle harvested in the United States. With cattle of Mexican origin comprising the majority of U.S. live cattle imports, the objectives of this study were designed to determine whether Salmonella prevalence in LNs differed (i) between cattle of Mexican and U...
January 25, 2019: Journal of Food Protection
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