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Animal breeding and genetics,

Gopal R Gowane, Arun Kumar, Chanda Nimbkar
Animal breeding in India has a long and chequered history. High pressure on agricultural land and increasing human population opened a new opportunity for the livestock and poultry sector as a promising food industry. Productivity of livestock in India is low due to less coverage of livestock under structured breeding programmes, inadequate nutrition and its entanglement with several socio-economic issues. A bottom-up approach to breeding policy formulation addressing local needs is required with assured flow of investments...
March 15, 2019: Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics
Solomon Antwi Boison, Bjarne Gjerde, Borghild Hillestad, Shokouh Makvandi-Nejad, Hooman K Moghadam
Amoebic gill disease (AGD) is one of the most important parasitic diseases of farmed Atlantic salmon. It is a source of major economic loss to the industry and poses significant threats to animal welfare. Previous studies have shown that resistance against this disease has a moderate, heritable genetic component, although the genes and the genetic pathways that contribute to this process have yet to be elucidated. In this study, to identify the genetic mechanisms of AGD resistance, we first investigated the molecular signatures of AGD infection in Atlantic salmon through a challenge model, where we compared the transcriptome profiles of the naïve and infected animals...
2019: Frontiers in Genetics
E M Heuß, M J Pröll-Cornelissen, C Neuhoff, E Tholen, C Große-Brinkhaus
Piglet mortality has a negative impact on animal welfare and public acceptance. Moreover, the number of weaned piglets per sow mainly determines the profitability of piglet production. Increased litter sizes are associated with lower birth weights and piglet survival. Decreased survival rates and performance of piglets make the control of diseases and infections within pig production even more crucial. Consequently, selection for immunocompetence becomes an important key aspect within modern breeding programmes...
March 15, 2019: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Dan Chen, Yang Zou, Zhao Li, Sha-Sha Wang, Shi-Chen Xie, Lian-Qin Shi, Feng-Cai Zou, Jian-Fa Yang, Guang-Hui Zhao, Xing-Quan Zhu
BACKGROUND: Giardia duodenalis is an important intestinal protozoan infecting both humans and animals, causing significant public health concern and immeasurable economic losses to animal husbandry. Sheep and goats have been reported as common reservoirs of G. duodenalis, but only a limited amount of information is available for native breeds of these small ruminants in China. The present study investigated the prevalence and multilocus genotypes of G. duodenalis in black-boned sheep and goats, two important native breeds in Yunnan Province, southwestern China...
March 13, 2019: Parasites & Vectors
Bolun Yu, Dongxin Huai, Li Huang, Yanping Kang, Xiaoping Ren, Yuning Chen, Xiaojing Zhou, Huaiyong Luo, Nian Liu, Weigang Chen, Yong Lei, Manish K Pandey, Hari Sudini, Rajeev K Varshney, Boshou Liao, Huifang Jiang
BACKGROUND: Aflatoxin contamination caused by Aspergillus flavus is a major constraint to peanut industry worldwide due to its toxicological effects to human and animals. Developing peanut varieties with resistance to seed infection and/or aflatoxin accumulation is the most effective and economic strategy for reducing aflatoxin risk in food chain. Breeding for resistance to aflatoxin in peanut is a challenging task for breeders because the genetic basis is still poorly understood. To identify the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for resistance to aflatoxin contamination in peanut, a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population was developed from crossing Zhonghua 10 (susceptible) with ICG 12625 (resistant)...
March 12, 2019: BMC Genetics
Qiao Xu, Ximing Liu, Zhe Chao, Kejun Wang, Jue Wang, Qiguo Tang, Yabiao Luo, Jie Zheng, Shuyi Tan, Meiying Fang
Coat color is one of the most important characteristics for distinguishing Chinese indigenous pig breeds. In Wuzhishan pigs, the animals have black on the back and white on the abdomen. However, the molecular genetic basis of this phenotype is unclear. In this study, we used high-throughput RNA sequencing to compare expression profiles of coding and non-coding RNAs from white and black skin samples obtained from individual Wuzhishan pigs. The expression profiling revealed that 194 lncRNAs (long non-coding RNAs), 189 mRNAs (messenger RNAs), and 162 miRNAs (microRNAs) had significantly different levels of expression (|log₂ fold change| > 1, p -value < 0...
March 7, 2019: Genes
Ibsa Fite Merga, Leena Tripathi, Anne Kathrine Hvoslef-Eide, Endale Gebre
Enset ( Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman) is one of the Ethiopia's indigenous sustainability crops supporting the livelihoods of about 20 million people, mainly in the densely populated South and Southwestern parts of the country. Enset serves as a food security crop for humans, animal feed, and source of fiber for the producers. The production of enset has been constrained by plant pests, diseases, and abiotic factors. Among these constraints, bacterial wilt disease has been the most important limiting factor for enset production since its outbreak five decades ago...
2019: Frontiers in Plant Science
David N Fisher, Alastair J Wilson, Stan Boutin, Ben Dantzer, Jeffrey E Lane, David W Coltman, Jamie C Gorrell, Andrew G McAdam
Organisms can affect one another's phenotypes when they socially interact. Indirect genetic effects occur when an individual's phenotype is affected by genes expressed in another individual. These heritable effects can enhance or reduce adaptive potential, thereby accelerating or reversing evolutionary change. Quantifying these social effects is therefore crucial for our understanding of evolution, yet estimates of indirect genetic effects in wild animals are limited to dyadic interactions. We estimated indirect phenotypic and genetic effects, and their covariance with direct effects, for the date of spring breeding in North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) living in an array of territories of varying spatial proximity...
March 11, 2019: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Jannice Schau Slettemeås, Marianne Sunde, Charlotte Rosenberg Ulstad, Madelaine Norström, Astrid Louise Wester, Anne Margrete Urdahl
Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) is frequent among Escherichia coli from various food products and animals in several countries. The objective of this study was to characterize quinolone resistant E. coli (QREC) from Norwegian turkey meat regarding resistance profiles, genetic mechanisms for quinolone resistance, genetic relatedness, and to investigate whether PMQR genes were present. In total, 78 QREC were isolated by a selective method from 156 samples throughout 2013. Isolates were subjected to susceptibility testing, characterization of resistance mechanisms, serotyping, phylotyping and multi-locus variable-tandem repeat analysis (MLVA)...
2019: PloS One
M Jaeger, K Brügemann, S Naderi, H Brandt, S König
Black and White dual-purpose cattle (DSN) are kept in diverse production systems, but the same set of genetic parameters is used for official national genetic evaluations, neglecting the herd or production system characteristics. The aim of the present study was to infer genetic (co)variance components within and across defined herd descriptor groups or clusters, considering only herds keeping the local and endangered DSN breed. The study considered 3659 DSN and 2324 Holstein Friesian (HF) cows from parities one to three...
March 11, 2019: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Deirdre P Campion, Fiona J Dowell
As targeted personalized therapy becomes more widely used in human medicine, clients will expect the veterinary clinician to be able to implement an evidence-based strategy regarding both the prescribing of medicines and also recognition of the potential for adverse drug reactions (ADR) for their pet, at breed and individual level. This review aims to provide an overview of current developments and challenges in pharmacogenetics in medicine for a veterinary audience and to map these to developments in veterinary pharmacogenetics...
2019: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Arash Chegini, Navid Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh, Seyed Hossein Hosseini Moghaddam, Abdol Ahad Shadparvar
The objective of this study was to estimate heritability as well as genetic and environmental relationships between days to first heat (DFH), days to first service (DFS), interval from calving to conception (ICC), calving interval (CI) and number of inseminations per conception (NIS) with mastitis (Mast), number of mastitis occurrence (NumMast), different measures of somatic cell count (SCC) and fat to protein ratio (F:P) in the first lactation of Holstein cows in Iran using linear and threshold animal and sire models...
February 27, 2019: Theriogenology
S P McGovern, D C Purfield, S C Ring, T R Carthy, D A Graham, D P Berry
Infection of cattle with bovine paratuberculosis (i.e., Johne's disease) is caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) and results in a chronic incurable gastroenteritis. This disease, which has economic ramifications for the cattle industry, is increasing in detected prevalence globally; subclinically infected animals can silently shed the bacterium into the environment for years, exposing contemporaries and hampering disease-control programs. The objective of the present study was to first quantify the genetic parameters for humoral response to MAP in dairy cattle...
March 6, 2019: Journal of Dairy Science
M L Mueller, J B Cole, T S Sonstegard, A L Van Eenennaam
Disbudding and dehorning are commonly used cattle management practices to protect animals and humans from injury. They are unpleasant, costly processes subject to increased public scrutiny as an animal welfare issue. Horns are a recessively inherited trait, so one option to eliminate dehorning is to breed for polled (hornlessness). However, due to the low genetic merit and scarcity of polled dairy sires, this approach has not been widely adopted. In March 2018, only 3 Holstein and 0 Jersey active homozygous polled sires were registered with the National Association of Animal Breeders...
March 6, 2019: Journal of Dairy Science
Martha M Robbins, Moses Akantorana, Joseph Arinaitwe, Peter Kabano, Charles Kayijamahe, Maryke Gray, Katerina Guschanski, Jack Richardson, Justin Roy, Vastine Tindimwebwa, Linda Vigilant, Andrew M Robbins
Dispersal is a key event in the life of an animal and it influences individual reproductive success. Male mountain gorillas exhibit both philopatry and dispersal, resulting in a mixed one-male and multimale social organization. However, little is known about the relationship between male dispersal or philopatry and reproductive careers in Bwindi mountain gorillas. Here we analyze data spanning from 1993 to 2017 on social groups in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda to examine the proportion of males that disperse, age of dispersal, pathways to attaining alpha status, fate of dispersing males and philopatric males, and male tenure length as well as make comparisons of these variables to the Virunga mountain gorilla population...
March 7, 2019: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Eileen A Lacey, Risa Takenaka, Katie LaBarbera, Mauro N Tammone
Catastrophic events can significantly impact the demographic processes that shape natural populations of organisms. However, linking the outcomes of such events to specific demographic parameters is often challenging due to a lack of detailed pre-event data. The eruption of the Puyehue-Cordon Caulle volcanic complex on 4 June 2011 had profound consequences for the biota of southwestern Argentina. Our long-term behavioral, ecological, and demographic studies of two species of tuco-tucos (Ctenomys sociabilis and C...
2019: PloS One
Jing Xiang Cui, Qi Fan Zeng, Wei Chen, Hong Zhang, Yong Qing Zeng
Fat deposition in muscle includes intramuscular fat (IMF) and intermuscular fat. IMF content is an index of pork quality; however, because IMF content is difficult to measure in vivo in young animals, conventional breeding for IMF content is difficult to carry out. The mechanism and progression of animal fat deposition is not well understood, and there are currently no effective control methods. In this study, using Laiwu and large white pigs as the research subjects and RNA sequencing technology, we analyzed the genetic mechanism of animal fat deposition in pigs...
March 6, 2019: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
Zinan Luo, Jordan Brock, John M Dyer, Toni Kutchan, Daniel Schachtman, Megan Augustin, Yufeng Ge, Noah Fahlgren, Hussein Abdel-Haleem
There is a need to explore renewable alternatives (e.g., biofuels) that can produce energy sources to help reduce the reliance on fossil oils. In addition, the consumption of fossil oils adversely affects the environment and human health via the generation of waste water, greenhouse gases, and waste solids. Camelina sativa , originated from southeastern Europe and southwestern Asia, is being re-embraced as an industrial oilseed crop due to its high seed oil content (36-47%) and high unsaturated fatty acid composition (>90%), which are suitable for jet fuel, biodiesel, high-value lubricants and animal feed...
2019: Frontiers in Plant Science
Manuel Plate, Richard Bernstein, Andreas Hoppe, Kaspar Bienefeld
Stochastic simulation studies of animal breeding have mostly relied on either the infinitesimal genetic model or finite polygenic models. In this study, we investigated the long-term effects of the chosen model on honeybee breeding schemes. We implemented the infinitesimal model, as well as finite locus models, with 200 and 400 gene loci and simulated populations of 300 and 1000 colonies per year over the course of 100 years. The selection was of a directly and maternally influenced trait with maternal heritability of [Formula: see text], direct heritability of [Formula: see text], and a negative correlation between the effects of rmd = - 0...
2019: PloS One
J Casellas, M Martín de Hijas-Villalba, S Id-Lahoucine
Circular data originates in a wide range of scientific fields and can be analyzed on the basis of directional statistics and special distributions wrapped around the circumference. However, both propensity to transform non-linear to linear data and complexity of directional statistics limited the generalization of the circular paradigm in the animal breeding framework, among others. Here, we generalized a circular mixed (CM) model within the context of Bayesian inference. Three different parametrizations with different hierarchical structures were developed on basis of the von Mises distribution; moreover, both goodness of fit and predictive ability from each parametrization were compared through the analyses of 110 116 lambing distribution records collected from Ripollesa sheep herds between 1976 and 2017...
March 6, 2019: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
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