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André Lencastre, Rita Ramos Pinheiro
Treatment options for superficial bladder cancer and carcinoma in situ include Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunotherapy. It frequently produces local and/or systemic side effects. One, however, is the rarely reported genital infection by BCG. We report one such case and a scoping review of all cases published so far, with an emphasis on histological presentation. Immunotherapy-related BCGitis has been described as an iatrogenic event. Lesions are most often located on the genital region, although dissemination may occur which justifies caution and prompt initiation of therapy...
March 20, 2019: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
Ryan A Shields, Peter H Tang, Zachary M Bodnar, Stephen J Smith, A Ruwan Silva
A 34-year-old woman presented after recovering from a disseminated Coccidioides immitis infection of the lungs, blood, brain, and placenta. The patient was asymptomatic for visual complaints. Visual acuity was 20/20 in both eyes. Fundus examination demonstrated bilateral chorioretinal infiltrates worse in the left eye. Fluorescein angiography (FA) was unable to be performed as the patient was breastfeeding, prompting the use of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) imaging to further investigate the infiltrates...
March 1, 2019: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
Abhijit V Lele, Brianna Mills, Qian Qiu, Nina Schloemerkemper, Bhiken Ishwarlal Naik, James Williams, Lakshmikumar Venkat-Raghavan, Monica S Vavilala
INTRODUCTION: The perioperative management of patients with external ventricular drains (EVDs) is not well defined, and adherence to published management guidelines unknown. This study investigates practice, patterns, and variability in the perioperative management of patients with EVDs. METHODS: A 31-question survey was sent to 1830 anesthesiologists from 27 institutions in North America, Europe, and Asia. A perioperative EVD Guideline Adherence Score was calculated for the preoperative, transport and intraoperative periods...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
John E Lochman, Caroline L Boxmeyer, Francesca L Kassing, Nicole P Powell, Sara L Stromeyer
This article briefly overviews the history of cognitive behavioral intervention (CBI) for children displaying early signs, or actual diagnoses, of conduct disorders. A series of randomized control trials have identified evidence-based CBI programs for children with these behavior problems at various developmental stages from preschool through adolescence. Although it is critically important for the field to disseminate these existing programs as developed, we argue that it is important to also move beyond the existing evidence-based programs...
March 20, 2019: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
Jorge César Correia, Olivia Braillard, Florence Somers, Marie Tschopp, Alain Golay
The potential of information and communication technologies has quickly been identified for health and in particular to promote weight loss. Several types of technologies exist with varying degrees of efficiency. These include programs on the Internet, using text messages, smartphone applications or portable devices. All these technologies are based on a set of weight loss strategies known to be effective, such as self-monitoring, feedback and social support. Despite promising results, several important limitations must be addressed such as the quality of the information being disseminated, the risk of promoting eating disorders, the place of these tools in patient follow-up, as well as data confidentiality issues...
March 20, 2019: Revue Médicale Suisse
Jørgen Slots, Henrik Slots
Four billion individuals worldwide have a history of periodontitis, with the poorest people in society most affected. Periodontitis can lead to unsightly drifting of teeth and tooth loss that may interfere with the wellbeing of daily living and has also been linked to at least 57 medical diseases and disabilities. The etiology of severe periodontitis includes active herpesviruses, specific bacterial pathogens, and destructive immune responses, but herpesviruses seem to be the major pathogenic determinant. Periodontal herpesviruses that disseminate via the systemic circulation to nonoral sites may represent a major link between periodontitis and systemic diseases...
February 2019: Periodontology 2000
Natália Op Maciel, Susana Johann, Luciana R Brandão, Sona Kucharíková, Camila G Morais, Alexandre P Oliveira, Gustavo Jc Freitas, Beatriz M Borelli, Franciane M Pellizzari, Daniel A Santos, Patrick Van Dijck, Carlos A Rosa
BACKGROUND: Opportunistic pathogenic yeast species are frequently associated with water habitats that have pollution sources of human or animal origin. Candida albicans has already been suggested as a faecal indicator microorganism for aquatic environments. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to investigate the occurrence of C. albicans and other opportunistic yeasts in sand and seawater samples from beaches in Brazil to assess their correlation with Escherichia coli, and to characterise the pathogenic potential of the yeast isolates...
March 14, 2019: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Mark John McVey, Mazharul Maishan, Kaj E C Blokland, Nathan Bartlett, Wolfgang Michael Kuebler
Both physiological homeostasis and pathological disease processes in the lung typically result from complex, yet coordinated multicellular responses which are synchronized via paracrine and endocrine intercellular communication pathways. Of late, extracellular vesicles have emerged as important information shuttles that can coordinate and disseminate homeostatic and disease signals. In parallel, extracellular vesicles in biological fluids such as sputum, mucus, epithelial lining fluid, edema fluid, the pulmonary circulation, pleural fluid, and lymphatics have emerged as promising candidate biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis in lung disease...
March 20, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
K I Quintyne, P Kavanagh
Aims Several international professional bodies have produced and disseminated clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for smoking cessation. However, to date, the quality of guidelines for use in the Irish context has never been appraised and explored. The aim of this study was to identify and evaluate the quality of methodological rigours and transparency used in guidelines for smoking cessation (for speci
February 14, 2019: Irish Medical Journal
Xiaoyan Zhou, Yi Zhang, Chaojian Shen, Ailing Liu, Youming Wang, Qi Yu, Fusheng Guo, Archie C A Clements, Carl Smith, John Edwards, Baoxu Huang, Ricardo J Soares Magalhães
The avian influenza (AI) virus of the H7N9 subtype emerged in China in 2013. Live bird markets (LBMs) selling live meat chickens were indicated to present a high risk for the virus dissemination. This study aimed to quantify the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) on AI and to measure associated risk factors among different actors along the live chicken market chain within H7N9-affected Eastern provinces in China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in these provinces from June to July 2014...
March 19, 2019: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
M J Donohue, D King, S Pfaller, J H Mistry
AIM: Premise plumbing may disseminate the bacteria Legionella pneumophila and Mycobacterium avium, the causative agents for legionellosis and pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterium disease respectively. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using quantitative PCR, the occurrence and persistence of L. pneumophila, L. pneumophila serogroup (Sg)1 and M. avium were evaluated in drinking water samples from 108 cold water taps (residences: n = 43) and (office buildings: n = 65). Mycobacterium avium, L...
March 20, 2019: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Sagar V Parikh, Jolene R Bostwick, Danielle S Taubman
OBJECTIVE: Psychopharmacology requires practitioners to continually upgrade knowledge and skills, but attendance at live continuing medical education events presents many barriers. In addition, technology has generated new learning approaches. In response, a videoconference-based course on psychopharmacology was developed and evaluated for feasibility and acceptability. Specific goals included whether learners would engage and whether the technology would work well for both learners and instructors...
March 19, 2019: Academic Psychiatry
Wenbo Hao, Xinxin Shan, Dexi Li, Stefan Schwarz, Su-Mei Zhang, Xin-Sheng Li, Xiang-Dang Du
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the presence and transferability of the poxtA gene and identify the genetic context of poxtA in two enterococcal plasmids from swine. METHODS: MICs were determined by broth microdilution. A total of 114 porcine enterococci with florfenicol MICs of ≥16 mg/L were screened for the presence of the poxtA gene by PCR. Transferability of poxtA was investigated by conjugation and transformation. The poxtA-carrying plasmids were completely sequenced using the Illumina Miseq and PacBio RSII platform...
March 19, 2019: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Estefania Delgado Betancourt, Benjamin Hamid, Benedikt T Fabian, Christian Klotz, Susanne Hartmann, Frank Seeber
Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic intracellular parasite, able to infect any warm-blooded animal via ingestion of infective stages, either contained in tissue cysts or oocysts released into the environment. While immune responses during infection are well-studied, there is still limited knowledge about the very early infection events in the gut tissue after infection via the oral route. Here we briefly discuss differences in host-specific responses following infection with oocyst-derived sporozoites vs. tissue cyst-derived bradyzoites...
2019: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Saurav Suman, Aleksander Lenert
Tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi) have become the cornerstone for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other systemic autoimmune conditions. However, these biologic DMARDs can lead to various opportunistic infections such as viral infection, tuberculosis, and histoplasmosis. Furthermore, these biologics can also cause severe systemic inflammatory reactions known as hemophagocytosis lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) that can lead to multiorgan failure and high mortality. Due to overlapping clinical features and time-intensive microbiological culture methods, distinguishing between HLH and opportunistic infections can be challenging early in the disease course...
2019: Case Reports in Rheumatology
Helen R Fielding, Trevelyan J McKinley, Matthew J Silk, Richard J Delahay, Robbie A McDonald
Network analyses can assist in predicting the course of epidemics. Time-directed paths or 'contact chains' provide a measure of host-connectedness across specified timeframes, and so represent potential pathways for spread of infections with different epidemiological characteristics. We analysed networks and contact chains of cattle farms in Great Britain using Cattle Tracing System data from 2001 to 2015. We focused on the potential for between-farm transmission of bovine tuberculosis, a chronic infection with potential for hidden spread through the network...
February 2019: Royal Society Open Science
Syed Sohail Ahmad, Kaleem Khalilullah, Katherine McGowan, Katrina Dillon
Rectal cancer metastasis to the breast is rare with around 19 cases reported in literature. It signifies diffuse disseminated disease or highly aggressive tumour, such that surgical intervention other than palliation has a limited role. We report a case of a 43-year-old with the above presentation. As the management differs and because of its rarity the importance of the diagnosis between primary and the metastatic breast cancer is imperative.
March 2019: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
Eleni Gavriilaki, Achilles Anagnostopoulos, Dimitrios C Mastellos
Thrombotic microangiopathies (TMAs) are a heterogeneous group of syndromes presenting with a distinct clinical triad: microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and organ damage. We currently recognize two major entities with distinct pathophysiology: thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Beyond them, differential diagnosis also includes TMAs associated with underlying conditions, such as drugs, malignancy, infections, scleroderma-associated renal crisis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), malignant hypertension, transplantation, HELLP syndrome (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets), and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
Djuro Karanovic, Ian C Michelow, Anthony R Hayward, Suk See DeRavin, Ottavia M Delmonte, Michael E Grigg, Adam Kerry Dobbs, Julie E Niemela, Jennifer Stoddard, Zaid Alhinai, Natasha Rybak, Nancy Hernandez, Stefania Pittaluga, Sergio D Rosenzweig, Gulbu Uzel, Luigi D Notarangelo
Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) plays an integral role in lymphocyte function. Mutations in PIK3CD and PIK3R1 , encoding the PI3K p110δ and p85α subunits, respectively, cause increased PI3K activity and result in immunodeficiency with immune dysregulation. We describe here the first cases of disseminated and congenital toxoplasmosis in a mother and child who share a pathogenic mutation in PIK3R1 and review the mechanisms underlying susceptibility to severe Toxoplasma gondii infection in activated PI3Kδ syndrome (APDS) and in other forms of primary immunodeficiency...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
Gregory Kiar, Shawn T Brown, Tristan Glatard, Alan C Evans
Neuroscience has been carried into the domain of big data and high performance computing (HPC) on the backs of initiatives in data collection and an increasingly compute-intensive tools. While managing HPC experiments requires considerable technical acumen, platforms, and standards have been developed to ease this burden on scientists. While web-portals make resources widely accessible, data organizations such as the Brain Imaging Data Structure and tool description languages such as Boutiques provide researchers with a foothold to tackle these problems using their own datasets, pipelines, and environments...
2019: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
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