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organ AND protection

Maria Celeste Dias, Nuno Mariz-Ponte, Conceição Santos
The interaction of lead (Pb) with plant hormonal balance and oxidative stress remains under discussion. To evaluate how Pb induces oxidative stress, and modulates the antioxidant enzymes and the phytohormones pool, four-week old Pisum sativum plants were exposed during 28 days to 10, 100 and 500 mg kg-1 Pb in soil. In comparison to leaves, roots showed higher Pb accumulation, oxidative damages and changes in phytohormone pools. Contrarily to leaves, where glutathione reductase (GR) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities were more stimulated than catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), roots showed a stimulation of SOD, GR and APX in all doses, and of CAT in the highest dose...
February 11, 2019: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Lijie Zhou, Wei-Qin Zhuang, Yashika De Costa, Siqing Xia
With the rapid development and application of consumer products containing nanoparticles (NPs), especially titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) NPs, the potential effects of suspended NPs on wastewater treatment has been a concern over the recent years. This study investigated the potential effects of suspended TiO2 NPs on activated sludge flocculation properties in a membrane bioreactor (MBR). Results showed that suspended TiO2 NPs inhibited the viability of activated sludge flocs, and led to bacterial protein secretion for bacterial protection, causing an overall protein increase of soluble microbial products...
February 11, 2019: Chemosphere
L Squiers, M Lynch, S Dolina, S Ray, B Kelly, J Herrington, M Turner, D Chawla, S Becker-Dreps, L Stamm, L McCormack
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to understand what information the US media communicated about Zika virus (ZIKV) and travel in 2016 and 2017. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a content analysis of news coverage about ZIKV and travel from April 5, 2016 to March 31, 2017. METHODS: We obtained a stratified, random sample of English language, US print newspaper and television news coverage about ZIKV and travel. We developed a coding scheme to assess key messages in the news, including how ZIKV is transmitted, the symptoms and outcomes of ZIKV infection, and recommended prevention behaviors...
February 13, 2019: Public Health
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra, Ruiz-Hernández Ixchel Mariel, Hernández-Bolio Gloria Ivonne, Hernández-Núñez Emanuel, Díaz-Gamboa Raúl, Colli-Dula Reyna Cristina
The common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) is a carnivorous cetacean thriving in marine environment that is one of the apex predators of the marine food web. They are found in coastal and estuarine ecosystems which are known to be sensitive to environmental impacts. Dolphins are considered sentinel organisms for monitoring the health of coastal marine ecosystems in their role as predators that can bioaccumulate contaminants. Although recent studies have focused on capturing the circulating metabolomes of these mammals, as well as in the context of pollutants and exposures in the marine environment, the skin and blubber are important surface and protective organs that have not been probed for metabolism...
February 10, 2019: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
Jian Ma, Yongfei Wang, Xiaoding Ma, Lingzhi Meng, Ruonan Jing, Fan Wang, Shuai Wang, Zhijun Cheng, Xin Zhang, Ling Jiang, Jiulin Wang, Jie Wang, Zhichao Zhao, Xiuping Guo, Qibing Lin, Fuqing Wu, Shanshan Zhu, Wu Chuanyin, Yulong Ren, Cailin Lei, Huqu Zhai, Jianmin Wan
Lesion mimic mutants that exhibit spontaneous hypersensitive response (HR)-like necrotic lesions are ideal experimental systems for elucidating molecular mechanisms involved in plant cell death and defense responses. Here we report identification of a rice lesion mimic mutant, spotted leaf 35 (spl35), and cloning of the causal gene by TAIL-PCR strategy. spl35 exhibited decreased chlorophyll content, higher accumulation of H2 O2 , up-regulated expression of defense-related marker genes, and enhanced resistance to both fungal and bacterial pathogens of rice...
February 16, 2019: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Alexandra Legge, Susan Kirkland, Kenneth Rockwood, Pantelis Andreou, Sang-Cheol Bae, Caroline Gordon, Juanita Romero-Diaz, Jorge Sanchez-Guerrero, Daniel J Wallace, Sasha Bernatsky, Ann E Clarke, Joan T Merrill, Ellen M Ginzler, Paul Fortin, Dafna D Gladman, Murray B Urowitz, Ian N Bruce, David A Isenberg, Anisur Rahman, Graciela S Alarcón, Michelle Petri, Munther A Khamashta, M A Dooley, Rosalind Ramsey-Goldman, Susan Manzi, Kristjan Steinsson, Asad A Zoma, Cynthia Aranow, Meggan Mackay, Guillermo Ruiz-Irastorza, S Sam Lim, Murat Inanc, Ronald F van Vollenhoven, Andreas Jonsen, Ola Nived, Manuel Ramos-Casals, Diane L Kamen, Kenneth C Kalunian, Soren Jacobsen, Christine A Peschken, Anca Askanase, John G Hanly
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the properties of a frailty index (FI), constructed using data from the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) inception cohort, as a novel health measure in SLE. METHODS: For this secondary analysis, the baseline visit was defined as the first study visit at which both organ damage (SLICC/ACR Damage Index [SDI]) and health-related quality of life (Short-Form 36 [SF-36]) were assessed. The SLICC-FI was constructed using baseline data...
February 16, 2019: Arthritis & Rheumatology
Greg Stapleton, Wybo Dondorp, Peter Schröder-Bäck, Guido de Wert
Developments in Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing (NIPT) and cell-free fetal DNA analysis raise the possibility that antenatal services may soon be able to support couples in non-invasively testing for, and diagnosing, an unprecedented range of genetic disorders and traits coded within their unborn child's genome. Inevitably, this has prompted debate within the bioethics literature about what screening options should be offered to couples for the purpose of reproductive choice. In relation to this problem, the European Society of Human Genetics (ESHG) and American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) tentatively recommend that any expansion of this type of screening, as facilitated by NIPT, should be limited to serious congenital and childhood disorders...
February 15, 2019: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Pengfei Pan, Yunlin Song, Xinxin Du, Linlin Bai, Xiaoli Hua, Yawen Xiao, Xiangyou Yu
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can cause non-neurological injuries to other organs such as the intestine. Newer studies have shown that paracellular hyperpermeability is the basis of intestinal barrier dysfunction following TBI. Ischemia-reperfusion injury, inflammatory response, abnormal release of neurotransmitters and hormones, and malnutrition contribute to TBI-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction. Several interventions that may protect intestinal barrier function and promote the recovery of TBI have been proposed, but relevant studies are still limited...
February 15, 2019: Neurological Sciences
Baozhong Lü, Yifa Chen, Pengyu Li, Bo Wang, Klaus Müllen, Meizhen Yin
Radical anions of electron-deficient systems are widely used, but are easily reoxidized upon exposure to air. Therefore, the stabilization of radical anions under ambient conditions is of great significance, but still remains a scientific challenge. Herein, perylenediimide is employed to prepare a crystalline metal-organic framework for stabilizing radical anions without extensive chemical modification. The porous, three-dimensional framework of perylenediimide can trap electron donors such as amine vapors and produce radical anions in-situ through photo-induced electron transfer...
February 15, 2019: Nature Communications
Kasper B Assersen, Poul F Høilund-Carlsen, Michael H Olsen, Sara V Greve, Jens C Gam-Hadberg, Poul-Erik Braad, Mads Damkjaer, Peter Bie
AIMS: In patients with essential hypertension abnormal renal sodium handling includes exaggerated natriuresis in response to extracellular volume expansion. We tested the hypothesis that exaggerated natriuresis is associated with increases in medullary and/or cortical renal blood flow. METHODS: Patients with mild essential hypertension, but no signs of end organ damage, and control subjects were studied after four days of dietary standardization (<60 mmol Na+ day-1 ) preceded in patients by a 14-days drug washout period...
February 15, 2019: Acta Physiologica
Pusen Wang, Weitao Que, Mingman Zhang, Xiaoke Dai, Kanru Yu, Chunguang Wang, Zhihai Peng, Lin Zhong
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Three-dimensional (3D) printing has been used to support organ translations. However, whether it helps remains unclear. This study aimed to present and assess the application of 3D printed liver models in pediatric living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). METHODS: 3D images were printed to touchable liver models with transparent liver parenchyma, specific colored hepatic vessels, and biliary structures. A total of 30 consecutive recipients were enrolled into the study, 10 were operated with the support of 3D printing (3D printing group) and 20 (Control group) without...
February 15, 2019: Liver Transplantation
Fernando Maya, Brett Paull
This review summarizes recent development made in the incorporation of functional materials into organic polymer monoliths, together with new monolithic forms and formats, which enhance their application as supports and stationary phase materials for sample preparation and chromatographic separations. While polymer monoliths are well known supports for the separation of large molecules, recent development have been made to improve their features for the separation of small molecules. The selectivity and performance of organic polymer monoliths has been improved by the incorporation of different materials, such as metal-organic frameworks, covalent organic frameworks, or other types of nanostructured materials (carbon nanohorns, nanodiamonds, polyoxometalates, layered double hydroxides, or attapulgite)...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Separation Science
Winsor H Lowe, Brett R Addis
Populations optimize the match of phenotype to environment by localized natural selection, adaptive phenotypic plasticity, and habitat choice. Habitat choice may also be achieved by several mechanisms, including matching habitat choice, where individuals distribute themselves based on self-assessment of the phenotype-environment match. Matching habitat choice is a relatively untested concept, but one that could advance our understanding of the interplay of movement ecology and intraspecific phenotypic variation...
February 15, 2019: Ecology
Yue Zhao, Cong Wang, Xue Hong, Jinhua Miao, Yulin Liao, Fan Fan Hou, Lili Zhou, Youhua Liu
In type 2 cardiorenal syndrome, chronic heart failure is thought to cause or promote chronic kidney disease; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We investigated the role of Wnt signaling in heart and kidney injury in a mouse model of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). At 8 weeks after TAC, cardiac hypertrophy, inflammation, and fibrosis were prominent, and echocardiography confirmed impaired cardiac function. The cardiac lesions were accompanied by upregulation of multiple Wnt ligands and activation of β-catenin, as well as activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS)...
February 8, 2019: Kidney International
Hui Yun Penny Oh, Sandrine Ellero-Simatos, Ravikumar Manickam, Nguan Soon Tan, Hervé Guillou, Walter Wahli
Living organisms display internal biological rhythms, which are an evolutionarily conserved adaptation to the environment that drives their rhythmic behavioral and physiological activities. The gut microbiota has been proposed, in association with diet, to regulate the intestinal peripheral clock. However, the effect of gut dysbiosis on liver remains elusive, despite that germfree mice show alterations in liver metabolic functions and the hepatic daily rhythm. We analyzed whether the disruption of gut microbial populations with various antibiotics would differentially impact liver functions in mice...
February 14, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Rumi Tanoue, Luigi Margiotta-Casaluci, Belinda Huerta, Tamsin J Runnalls, Akifumi Eguchi, Kei Nomiyama, Tatsuya Kunisue, Shinsuke Tanabe, John P Sumpter
There is concern that psychoactive drugs present in the aquatic environment could affect the behaviour of fish, and other organisms, adversely. There is considerable experimental support for this concern, although the literature is not consistent. To investigate why, fish were exposed to three concentrations of the synthetic opiate tramadol for 23-24 days, and their anxiolytic behaviour in a novel tank diving test was assessed both before and after exposure. The results were difficult to interpret. The positive control drug, the anti-depressant fluoxetine, produced the expected results: exposed fish explored the novel tank more, and swam more slowly while doing so...
February 6, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Jie Liu, Shulin Li, Dong Sun
Micro-vascular diseases and its associated complications continue to be a significant health problem worldwide. Vascular lesions from microvascular involvement lead to impaired blood flow and contribute to damage and dysfunction of one or more target organs, that is, the heart, kidneys, eyes, and nervous system. Calcium Dobesilate Drug (CAD) is an established vasoactive and angioprotective drug that has shown a unique, multitarget mode of action in several experimental studies and in different animal models of diabetic microvascular complications...
February 12, 2019: Life Sciences
Chunyan Wang, Michael C Petriello, Beibei Zhu, Bernhard Hennig
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants that contribute to inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis, and macrophages play a key role in the overall inflammatory response. Depending on specific environmental stimuli, macrophages can be polarized either to pro-inflammatory (e.g., M1) or anti-inflammatory (e.g., M2) phenotypes. We hypothesize that dioxin-like PCBs can contribute to macrophage polarization associated with inflammation. To test this hypothesis, human monocytes (THP-1) were differentiated to macrophages and subsequently exposed to PCB 126...
February 12, 2019: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Patrícia Pereira, Malgorzata Korbas, Vitória Pereira, Tiziana Cappello, Maria Maisano, João Canário, Armando Almeida, Mário Pacheco
Neuronal and sensory toxicity of mercury (Hg) compounds has been largely investigated in humans/mammals with a focus on public health, while research in fish is less prolific and dispersed by different species. Well-established premises for mammals have been governing fish research, but some contradictory findings suggest that knowledge translation between these animal groups needs prudence [e.g. the relative higher neurotoxicity of methylmercury (MeHg) vs. inorganic Hg (iHg)]. Biochemical/physiological differences between the groups (e...
February 12, 2019: Biochimica et biophysica acta. General subjects
Peter Schnuelle, Katharina Drüschler, Wilhelm H Schmitt, Urs Benck, Martin Zeier, Bernhard K Krämer, Gerhard Opelz
Therapeutic hypothermia, hypothermic pulsatile machine perfusion (MP), and renal-dose dopamine administered to stable brain-dead donors have shown efficacy to reduce the dialysis requirement after kidney transplantation. In a head-to-head comparison of the three major randomized controlled trials in this field, we estimated the number-needed-to-treat for each method, evaluated costs and inquired into special features regarding long-term outcomes. The MP and hypothermia trials used any dialysis requirement during the first post-operative week, while the dopamine trial assessed >1 dialysis session as primary endpoint...
July 31, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
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