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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30901391/prehospital-interventions-performed-in-afghanistan-between-november-2009-and-march-2014
#1
Julio Lairet, Vikhyat S Bebarta, Joseph K Maddry, Lauren Reeves, Alejandra Mora, Lorne Blackbourne, Todd Rasmussen
OBJECTIVE: Care provided to a casualty in the prehospital combat setting can influence subsequent medical interactions and impact patient outcomes; therefore, we aimed to describe the incidence of specific prehospital interventions (lifesaving interventions (LSIs)) performed during the resuscitation and transport of combat casualties. METHODS: We performed a prospective observational, IRB approved study between November 2009 and March 2014. Casualties were enrolled as they were cared for at nine U...
March 1, 2019: Military Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30900651/evaluation-of-knowledge-regarding-emergency-management-of-avulsed-traumatic-dental-injuries-in-children-among-general-dental-practitioners-in-india
#2
Pratik Bipinkumar Kariya, Sweta Singh, Seema Bargale, Swara Shah, Narayan Kulkarni, Bhavna H Dave
Context: Traumatic dental injuries (TDIs) leading to dental avulsion occur very frequently in society. Management of avulsion is critical for the dentist, as it requires appropriate knowledge. Aim: The study was conducted to evaluate the knowledge of the general dental practitioners (GDPs) regarding the emergency management of TDI leading to avulsion in children. Setting and Design: Questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey design was utilized to assess the knowledge...
January 2019: Indian Journal of Dental Research: Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30899797/physician-based-on-scene-airway-management-in-severely-injured-patients-and-in-hospital-consequences-is-the-misplaced-intubation-an-underestimated-danger-in-trauma-management
#3
Orkun Özkurtul, Manuel F Struck, Johannes Fakler, Michael Bernhard, Silja Seinen, Hermann Wrigge, Christoph Josten
Background: Endotracheal intubation (ETI) is the gold standard for the out-of-hospital emergency airway management in severely injured patients. Due to time-critical circumstances, poor patient presentation and hostile environments, it may be prone for mechanical complications and failure. Methods: In a retrospective study (January 2011 to December 2013), all patients who underwent out-of-hospital ETI before admittance to a level 1 trauma center were analyzed consecutively...
2019: Trauma surgery & acute care open
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30898290/analysis-of-transport-to-an-american-college-of-surgeons-level-i-trauma-center
#4
Daniel Hakakian, Karen Kong, Dorian Atanas Bogdanovski, Andrew Benvenuto, Louis Thomas DiFazio, Renay Durling-Grover, Rolando Hector Rolandelli, Zoltan H Nemeth
INTRODUCTION: Efficient patient transportation by ground emergency medical services (GEMS) or helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) to a trauma center is vital for optimal care. We investigated differences between the modes of transport in terms of demographics, injury, scene location, and outcome. SETTING: Morristown Medical Center (MMC), Morristown, NJ METHODS: All 903 trauma admissions in 2016 by advanced life support (ALS) to MMC, a Level I Trauma Center, were retrospectively analyzed...
March 2019: Air Medical Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30898283/a-smartphone-video-transmission-system-for-verification-of-transfusion
#5
Youichi Yanagawa, Kei Jitsuiki, Hiroki Nagasawa, Ikuto Takeuchi, Shunsuke Madokoro, Hiromichi Ohsaka, Kouhei Ishikawa, Kazuhiko Omori, Satoru Suwa
A physician-staffed helicopter emergency medical service called a doctor helicopter (DH) in Eastern Shizuoka was equipped with a smartphone video transmission system in April 2018. We herein report on the introduction of this system for the verification of transfusion in the DH. A 51-year-old man visited a local hospital after cutting his left neck himself. He was diagnosed with jugular vein injury and underwent compressive hemostasis. As he entered profound hemorrhagic shock, he underwent tracheal intubation, massive fluid resuscitation, and administration of 3 vasopressor agents to maintain circulation...
March 2019: Air Medical Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30897507/expression-of-wild-rice-porteresia-coarctata-pcnhx1-antiporter-gene-pcnhx1-in-tobacco-controlled-by-pcnhx1-promoter-pcnhx1p-confers-na-specific-hypocotyl-elongation-and-stem-specific-na-accumulation-in-transgenic-tobacco
#6
Vidya Jegadeeson, Kumkum Kumari, Shalini Pulipati, Ajay Parida, Gayatri Venkataraman
Soil salinization is a major abiotic stress condition that affects about half of global agricultural lands. Salinity leads to osmotic shock, ionic imbalance and/or toxicity and build-up of reactive oxygen species. Na⁺/H⁺ antiporters (NHXs) are integral membrane transporters that catalyze the electro-neutral exchange of K⁺/Na⁺ for H⁺ and are implicated in cell expansion, development, pH/ion homeostasis and salt tolerance. Porteresia coarctata is a salt secreting halophytic wild rice that thrives in the coastal-riverine interface...
March 12, 2019: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30896190/repetitive-mild-concussion-in-subjects-with-a-vulnerable-cholinergic-system-lasting-cholinergic-attentional-impairments-in-cht-mice
#7
Ajeesh Koshy Cherian, Natalie C Tronson, Vinay Parikh, Aaron Kucinski, Randy D Blakely, Martin Sarter
Previous research emphasized the impact of traumatic brain injury on cholinergic systems and associated cognitive functions. Here we addressed the converse question: Because of the available evidence indicating cognitive and neuronal vulnerabilities in humans expressing low-capacity cholinergic systems or with declining cholinergic systems, do injuries cause more severe cognitive decline in such subjects, and what cholinergic mechanisms contribute to such vulnerability? Using mice heterozygous for the choline transporter (CHT+/- mice) as a model for a limited cholinergic capacity, we investigated the cognitive and neuronal consequences of repeated, mild concussion injuries (rmCc)...
March 21, 2019: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30894888/analysis-of-provincial-mortalities-among-bus-minibus-users-over-twelve-years-east-azerbaijan-iran
#8
Sadeghi-Bazargani Homayoun, Samadirad Bahram, Golestani Mina, Shahedifar Nasrin, Jamali Milad
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiological features of bus/minibus users' road traffic injury mortalities during 2006-2017, in the East Azerbaijan province of Iran. Methods: All 245 bus/minibus users' mortalities, registered in the forensic medicine database, were analyzed by STATA 13 statistical software package. Results: The majority of victims (mean age: 41.5±18.6 years) were men (70%), adults (79.18%), illiterate (22.4%) and self-employed (25.3%). Passersby and police played an almost null role in transporting victims since 2014...
October 2018: Journal of Medicine and Life
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30893573/evaluation-of-trauma-triage-criteria-performance-in-a-regional-trauma-system
#9
Nichole Bosson, Amy H Kaji, Marianne Gausche-Hill, Dennis Kim, Brant Putnam, Shira Schlesinger, George Singer, Roger J Lewis
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the performance of individual trauma triage criteria using data from a regional trauma registry. METHODS: Los Angeles County (LAC) paramedics use triage criteria adapted from the 2011 Center for Disease Control (CDC) guidelines to triage injured patients to Trauma Centers (TCs). TCs report outcomes to a LAC EMS registry. We abstracted data for patients 15 years or older from 2013 to 2015 and identified all trauma triage criteria that were met for each encounter...
March 20, 2019: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30890961/differential-response-to-injury-in-fetal-and-adolescent-sheep-hearts-in-the-immediate-post-myocardial-infarction-period
#10
Mitchell C Lock, Jack R T Darby, Jia Yin Soo, Doug A Brooks, Sunthara Rajan Perumal, Joseph B Selvanayagam, Mike Seed, Christopher K Macgowan, Enzo R Porrello, Ross L Tellam, Janna L Morrison
Aim: Characterizing the response to myocardial infarction (MI) in the regenerative sheep fetus heart compared to the post-natal non-regenerative adolescent heart may reveal key morphological and molecular differences that equate to the response to MI in humans. We hypothesized that the immediate response to injury in (a) infarct compared with sham, and (b) infarct, border, and remote tissue, in the fetal sheep heart would be fundamentally different to the adolescent, allowing for repair after damage. Methods: We used a sheep model of MI induced by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30890468/regulation-of-intracellular-ph-by-electrogenic-na-hco3-co-transporters-in-embryonic-neural-stem-cell-derived-radial-glia-like-cells
#11
Tommy Nordström, Leif C Andersson, Karl E O Åkerman
A stroke causes a hypoxic brain microenvironment that alters neural cell metabolism resulting in cell membrane hyperpolarization and intracellular acidosis. We studied how intracellular pH (pHi ) is regulated in differentiated mouse neural progenitor cells during hyperpolarizing conditions, induced by prompt reduction of the extracellular K+ concentration. We found that the radial glia-like population in differentiating embryonic neural progenitor cells, but not neuronal cells, was rapidly acidified under these conditions...
March 16, 2019: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. Biomembranes
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30890144/exogenous-2-3-4-dichlorophenoxy-triethylamine-ameliorates-the-soil-drought-effect-on-nitrogen-metabolism-in-maize-during-the-pre-female-inflorescence-emergence-stage
#12
Tenglong Xie, Wanrong Gu, Mingquan Wang, Liguo Zhang, Congfeng Li, Caifeng Li, Wenhua Li, Lijie Li, Shi Wei
BACKGROUND: Nitrogen (N) metabolism plays an important role in plant drought tolerance. 2-(3,4-Dichlorophenoxy) triethylamine (DCPTA) regulates many aspects of plant development; however, the effects of DCPTA on soil drought tolerance are poorly understood, and the possible role of DCPTA on nitrogen metabolism has not yet been explored. RESULTS: In the present study, the effects of DCPTA on N metabolism in maize (Zea mays L.) under soil drought and rewatering conditions during the pre-female inflorescence emergence stage were investigated in 2016 and 2017...
March 19, 2019: BMC Plant Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30888877/severity-of-motorcycle-crashes-in-dar-es-salaam-tanzania
#13
Jimoku Hinda Salum, Angela E Kitali, Hannibal Bwire, Thobias Sando, Priyanka Alluri
OBJECTIVE: Motorcycles are a common mode of transportation in low- and middle-income countries. Tanzania, in particular, has experienced an increased use of motorcycles in the last decade. In Dar es Salaam, motorcycles provide door-to-door travel and often operate where more conventional services are uneconomical or physically impossible to maneuver. Although motorcycles play a crucial role in improving mobility in the city, they have several safety issues. This study focuses on identifying factors influencing the severity of motorcycle crashes...
March 19, 2019: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30886620/therapeutic-inhibition-of-the-complement-system-in-diseases-of-the-central-nervous-system
#14
REVIEW
Sarah M Carpanini, Megan Torvell, Bryan Paul Morgan
The complement system plays critical roles in development, homeostasis, and regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) throughout life; however, complement dysregulation in the CNS can lead to damage and disease. Complement proteins, regulators, and receptors are widely expressed throughout the CNS and, in many cases, are upregulated in disease. Genetic and epidemiological studies, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma biomarker measurements and pathological analysis of post-mortem tissues have all implicated complement in multiple CNS diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS), neuromyelitis optica (NMO), neurotrauma, stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and Huntington's disease (HD)...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30886525/a-review-of-microrna-biomarkers-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#15
REVIEW
Hamna Atif, Steven D Hicks
There is growing public concern surrounding traumatic brain injury (TBI). TBI can cause significant morbidity, and the long-term sequelae are poorly understood. TBI diagnosis and management rely on patient-reported symptoms and subjective clinical assessment. There are no biologic tools to detect mild TBI or to track brain recovery. Emerging evidence suggests that microRNAs (miRNAs) may provide information about the injured brain. These tiny epigenetic molecules are expressed throughout the body. However, they are particularly important in neurons, can cross the blood-brain barrier, and are securely transported from cell to cell, where they regulate gene expression...
2019: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30886232/n-1-carbamoyl-2-phenylethyl-butyramide-reduces-antibiotic-induced-intestinal-injury-innate-immune-activation-and-modulates-microbiota-composition
#16
Adriano Lama, Chiara Annunziata, Lorena Coretti, Claudio Pirozzi, Francesca Di Guida, Allegra Nitrato Izzo, Claudia Cristiano, Maria Pina Mollica, Lorenzo Chiariotti, Alessandra Pelagalli, Francesca Lembo, Rosaria Meli, Giuseppina Mattace Raso
The use/misuse of antibiotics leads to pathological features referring to antibiotic-induced intestinal injury (AIJ), a clinical issue that plays a prominent role in the development of severe digestive disturbances. AIJ is characterized by loss of intestinal architecture and function, dysbiosis and bacterial translocation into the liver, triggering hepatic inflammation. This study aimed at determining the beneficial effect of N-(1-carbamoyl-2-phenylethyl) butyramide (FBA), a butyrate releasing compound, in ceftriaxone-induced intestinal injury...
March 18, 2019: Scientific Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30885166/a-newborn-with-seizures-born-to-a-mother-diagnosed-with-primary-carnitine-deficiency
#17
Si Chen, Yingying Hu, Yumei Huang, Yan Nan, Xiaojian Zhou, Shangqin Chen, Jin Lin, Zhenlang Lin
BACKGROUND: Maternofetal carnitine transport through the placenta is the main route of fetal carnitine uptake. Decreased free carnitine levels discovered by newborn screening has identified many asymptomatic adult women with systemic primary carnitine deficiency (PCD). Here, we presented amplitude integrated electroencephalogram (aEEG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings from a neonate with epilepsy whose mother was carnitine deficient. CASE PRESENTATION: A one-day-old female newborn was admitted after experiencing seizures for half a day; status epilepticus was found on the continuous normal voltage background pattern with immature sleep-wake cycling during aEEG monitoring...
March 18, 2019: BMC Pediatrics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30878225/the-relationships-between-democratic-experience-adult-health-and-cause-specific-mortality-in-170-countries-between-1980-and-2016-an-observational-analysis
#18
Thomas J Bollyky, Tara Templin, Matthew Cohen, Diana Schoder, Joseph L Dieleman, Simon Wigley
BACKGROUND: Previous analyses of democracy and population health have focused on broad measures, such as life expectancy at birth and child and infant mortality, and have shown some contradictory results. We used a panel of data spanning 170 countries to assess the association between democracy and cause-specific mortality and explore the pathways connecting democratic rule to health gains. METHODS: We extracted cause-specific mortality and HIV-free life expectancy estimates from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 and information on regime type from the Varieties of Democracy project...
March 13, 2019: Lancet
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30877037/activation-of-perk-eif2%C3%AE-atf4-pathway-contributes-to-diabetic-hepatotoxicity-attenuation-of-er-stress-by-morin
#19
Vivek Kumar Pandey, Alpana Mathur, Mohammad Fareed Khan, Poonam Kakkar
Hyperglycemia associated ER stress has been found as a critical contributor in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, reports regarding molecular mechanisms involved are limited. This study was aimed to identify the role of ER stress in regulating hepatic glucose metabolism and its link with oxidative stress. Further, this study explores the novel role of Morin, a flavonol, in modulating ER stress in STZ/nicotinamide induced type 2 diabetic male Wistar rats. Results demonstrate that hyperglycemia induced ER stress in rats and significantly lowered the expression of glucose transporter proteins resulting in impaired glucose metabolism during diabetes...
March 12, 2019: Cellular Signalling
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30876707/trends-in-cause-specific-mortality-among-children-aged-5-14-years-from-2005-to-2016-in-india-china-brazil-and-mexico-an-analysis-of-nationally-representative-mortality-studies
#20
Shaza A Fadel, Cynthia Boschi-Pinto, Shicheng Yu, Luz Myriam Reynales-Shigematsu, Geetha R Menon, Leslie Newcombe, Kathleen L Strong, Qiqi Wang, Prabhat Jha
BACKGROUND: With global survival increasing for children younger than 5 years of age, attention is required to reduce the approximately 1 million deaths of children aged 5-14 years occurring every year. Causes of death at these ages remain poorly documented. We aimed to explore trends in mortality by causes of death in India, China, Brazil, and Mexico, which are home to about 40% of the world's children aged 5-14 years and experience more than 200 000 deaths annually at these ages. METHODS: We examined data on 244 401 deaths in children aged 5-14 years from four nationally representative data sources that obtained direct distributions of causes of death: the Indian Million Death Study, the Chinese Disease Surveillance Points, mortality data from the Mexican Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía, and mortality data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics...
March 8, 2019: Lancet
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