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Volatile Solvent Abuse

Shawn A Kucera, Michael S Zamloot, Michael M Crowley, Lindsay H Burns, Nadav Friedmann, Remi Barbier
OBJECTIVE: These in vitro studies compared abuse-deterrent properties of REMOXY ER (extended-release oxycodone), a novel, high-viscosity gel formulation, versus the two currently marketed ER oxycodone formulations. METHODS: Tampering methods were tailored to each product to maximize oxycodone release with the least complexity, time, and effort, based on the physical/chemical properties of each formulation. Oral abuse was simulated by extracting oxycodone from each manipulated formulation in Common Ingestible Liquids and in Advanced Solvents (not ingestible and requiring additional separation)...
November 2018: Journal of Opioid Management
Wesley N Wayman, John J Woodward
Abuse rates for inhalants among adolescents continue to be high, yet preclinical models for studying mechanisms underlying inhalant abuse remain limited. Our laboratory has previously shown that, in male rats, an acute binge-like exposure to toluene vapor that mimics human solvent abuse modifies the intrinsic excitability of mPFC pyramidal neurons projecting to the NAc. These changes showed region (infralimbic; IL vs prelimbic; PRL), layer (shallow; 2/3 vs deep; 5/6), target (core vs shell), and age (adolescent vs adult) dependent differences (Wayman and Woodward, 2017)...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Yasue Yamada, Kohei Ohtani, Akinori Imajo, Hanae Izu, Hitomi Nakamura, Kohei Shiraishi
These are many volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are synthesized, produced from petroleum or derived from natural compounds, mostly plants. Fragrant and volatile organic compounds from plants have been used as food additives, medicines and aromatherapy. Several clinical and pathological studies have shown that chronic abuse of VOCs, mainly toluene, causes several neuropsychiatric disorders. Little is known about the mechanisms of neurotoxicity of the solvents. n-Octanal, nonanal, and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, which are used catalyzers or intermediates of chemical reactions, are released into the environment...
2015: Toxicology Reports
Hanaa Malloul, Ferdaousse M Mahdani, Mohammed Bennis, Saadia Ba-M'hamed
Occupational exposure and sniffing of volatile organic solvents continue to be a worldwide health problem, raising the risk for teratogenic sequelae of maternal inhalant abuse. Real life exposures usually involve simultaneous exposures to multiple solvents, and almost all the abused solvents contain a mixture of two or more different volatile compounds. However, several studies examined the teratogenicity due to industrial exposure to a single volatile solvent but investigating the teratogenic potential of complex chemical mixture such as thinner remains unexplored...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Rose Crossin, Sheree Cairney, Andrew J Lawrence, Jhodie R Duncan
OBJECTIVE: Abuse of inhalants containing the volatile solvent toluene is a significant public health issue, especially for adolescent and Indigenous communities. Adolescent inhalant abuse can lead to chronic health issues and may initiate a trajectory towards further drug use. Identification of at-risk individuals is difficult and diagnostic tools are limited primarily to measurement of serum toluene. Our objective was to identify the effects of adolescent inhalant abuse on subsequent drug use and growth parameters, and to test the predictive power of growth parameters as a diagnostic measure for inhalant abuse...
February 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
Keith L Shelton
Inhalants are a loosely organized category of abused compounds defined entirely by their common route of administration. Inhalants include volatile solvents, fuels, volatile anesthetics, gasses, and liquefied refrigerants, among others. They are ubiquitous in modern society as ingredients in a wide variety of household, commercial, and medical products. Persons of all ages abuse inhalants but the highest prevalence of abuse is in younger adolescents. Although inhalants have been shown to act upon a host of neurotransmitter receptors, the stimulus effects of the few inhalants which have been trained or tested in drug discrimination procedures suggest that their discriminative stimulus properties are mediated by a few key neurotransmitter receptor systems...
2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
S H Jayanth, Basappa S Hugar, S Praveen, Y P Girish Chandra
Inhalant abuse refers to the inhalation of volatile substances for their euphoric effects. Glues and adhesives have been abused inhalants for decades and so the term "glue sniffing" attached to the habit. These days many substances used are not adhesives and the most accurate title of "solvent abuse" has been given to this widespread and dangerous habit. The various methods of inhalational abuse include huffing, bagging, dusting, glading, and sniffing. We report one such case of a 22-year-old male who was found in an unresponsive state at his residence with a plastic cover around his head and empty tubes of "Fevibond" glue beside him...
March 2017: Medico-legal Journal
Tania Campos-Ordonez, Oscar Gonzalez-Perez
Cyclohexane is a volatile solvent used as a harmless substitute for dangerous organic solvents in several products, such as paint thinners, gasoline and adhesives. Many of these products are used as drugs of abuse and can severely damage neural tissue and impair neurological functions. However, there is very little information on the effects of cyclohexane on the brain. In humans, cyclohexane produces headaches, sleepiness, dizziness, limb weakness, motor changes, and verbal memory impairment. Recent studies in mice have demonstrated behavioral alterations, reactive gliosis, microglial reactivity, and oxidative stress in the brains of cyclohexane-exposed animals...
2015: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Jeffrey C Raber, Sytze Elzinga, Charles Kaplan
Cannabis concentrates are gaining rapid popularity in the California medical cannabis market. These extracts are increasingly being consumed via a new inhalation method called 'dabbing'. The act of consuming one dose is colloquially referred to as "doing a dab". This paper investigates cannabinoid transfer efficiency, chemical composition and contamination of concentrated cannabis extracts used for dabbing. The studied concentrates represent material available in the California medical cannabis market. Fifty seven (57) concentrate samples were screened for cannabinoid content and the presence of residual solvents or pesticides...
December 2015: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Soumya Sachdeva, Raghu Gandhi, Pankaj Verma, Arshdeep Kaur, Rohit Kapoor
Substance abuse has been defined as the use of chemical substances for non medical purposes in order to achieve alterations in psychological functioning. The substances commonly abused in India include nicotine, alcohol, cannabis and opioids. However, the use of solvents and propellants is also on the rise as these are inexpensive, legally available household, industrial, office and automobile products; which are more commonly available to children and adolescents. We hereby describe a 16-year-old boy with combined volatile and alcohol abuse; who presented with increasing ataxia, visual and hearing disturbances...
August 2015: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
S P Callan, J H Hannigan, S E Bowen
Volatile organic solvent abuse continues to be a worldwide health problem, including the neurobehavioral teratogenic sequelae of toluene abuse during pregnancy. Although abuse levels of prenatal toluene exposure can lead to a Fetal Solvent Syndrome, there is little research examining these effects on memory. Consumption of toluene can have detrimental effects on the developing hippocampus which could lead to specific spatial learning and memory deficits. This study used a rat model to determine how prenatal exposure to abuse levels of toluene would affect performance in a spatial learning and memory task, the Morris Water Maze (MWM)...
February 7, 2017: Neuroscience
Alec Lindsay Ward Dick, Tine Pooters, Sarah Gibbs, Emma Giles, Ashleigh Qama, Andrew John Lawrence, Jhodie Rubina Duncan
The purposeful inhalation of volatile solvents, such as toluene, to induce self-intoxication is prevalent, particularly within adolescent populations. Chronic misuse results in cognitive and neurobiological impairments, as well as an increased risk for addictive behaviours in adulthood. Toluene-induced neuroadaptations within mesocorticolimbic circuitry are thought, in part, to mediate some of the adverse outcomes of toluene misuse, however our understanding of the neuroadaptive processes remains equivocal...
October 22, 2015: Brain Research
Julian Kalhoff, Gebrekidan Gebresilassie Eshetu, Dominic Bresser, Stefano Passerini
Lithium-ion batteries are becoming increasingly important for electrifying the modern transportation system and, thus, hold the promise to enable sustainable mobility in the future. However, their large-scale application is hindered by severe safety concerns when the cells are exposed to mechanical, thermal, or electrical abuse conditions. These safety issues are intrinsically related to their superior energy density, combined with the (present) utilization of highly volatile and flammable organic-solvent-based electrolytes...
July 8, 2015: ChemSusChem
Ranganath R Kulkarni, R G Hemanth Kumar, Pratibha R Kulkarni, Raghavendra B Kotabagi
Toluene (methylbenzene; volatile hydrocarbon) is an industrial solvent that causes major injury to the lungs; the organ being the first capillary bed encountered. We report an unusual case of suicide by a 24-year-old male, paramedical professional, with fatal outcome within 16 h of intentional, intravenous self-administration of toluene, with clinical presentation of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Psychological autopsy revealed severe depressive disorder and solvent (inhalant) abuse, with marital disharmony as the precipitating stressor for suicide...
April 2015: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
Alberto Amadasi, Lavinia Mastroluca, Laura Marasciuolo, Marina Caligara, Luca Sironi, Guendalina Gentile, Riccardo Zoja
Volatile substances are used widespread, especially among young people, as a cheap and easily accessible drug. Tetrachloroethylene is one of the solvents exerting effects on the central nervous system with experiences of disinhibition and euphoria. The case presented is that of a 27-year-old female, found dead by her father at home with cotton swabs dipped in the nostrils. She was already known for this type of abuse and previously admitted twice to the hospital for nonfatal acute poisonings. The swabs were still soaked in tetrachloroethylene...
May 2015: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Mahesh Gowda, Bhavin M Patel, S Preeti, M Chandrasekar
Xylophagia is a condition involving the consumption of paper and form of eating disorder known as pica. Pica is an unusual craving for ingestion of either edible or inedible substances. Inhalants are volatile substances, which produce chemical vapors that can be inhaled to induce a psycho-active or mind altering effect. Although, pica is not linked to solvent abuse, here we report an adolescent case of paper-eating with solvent dependence.
January 2014: Industrial Psychiatry Journal
Silvia L Cruz, María Teresa Rivera-García, John J Woodward
It has long been known that individuals will engage in voluntary inhalation of volatile solvents for their rewarding effects. However, research into the neurobiology of these agents has lagged behind that of more commonly used drugs of abuse such as psychostimulants, alcohol and nicotine. This imbalance has begun to shift in recent years as the serious effects of abused inhalants, especially among children and adolescents, on brain function and behavior have become appreciated and scientifically documented...
2014: Journal of Drug and Alcohol Research
Latha Sundar, Frederick Rowell
This paper describes a method for lifting cyanoacrylate (CNA)-developed latent fingermarks from a glass surface and the detection of five drugs in lifted marks from fingers that had been in contact with the drugs, using Surface Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (SALDI-TOF-MS) or Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation TOF-MS (MALDI-TOF-MS). Two drugs of abuse (cocaine and methadone) and three therapeutic drugs (aspirin, paracetamol and caffeine) were used as contact residues...
February 7, 2014: Analyst
Mourad H Senussi, Shyam Chalise
Ethyl chloride (CH3CH2Cl) or chloroethane is a colorless volatile halogenated hydrocarbon gas found in many commercially available solvents, and it may be used as an inhalant of abuse. Neurologic toxicity has been reported, as well as deaths. We present a case of a 47-year-old HIV-positive man who presented with acute reversible neurologic deficits secondary to inhalational exposure to ethyl chloride. Laboratory studies and neuroimaging are nondiagnostic in ethyl chloride-induced neurotoxicity and thus requires a high index of clinical suspicion...
March 2015: American Journal of Therapeutics
Karim Fifel, Mohamed Bennis, Saâdia Ba-M'hamed
Abuse of volatile inhalants has become a worldwide issue mainly among adolescents of low income social class. Acute and chronic exposure to these substances results in serious neurological and behavioral impairments. Although real exposure consists largely of simultaneous inhalation of multiple solvents, the vast majority of basic research studies have evaluated the actions of a single volatile component leaving the behavioral and neuronal effects of chemical mixture not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the acute behavioral effects of 300, 450 and 600 ppm of paint thinner inhalation on anxiety, locomotor activity and spatial memory...
June 2014: Metabolic Brain Disease
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