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Euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis

Dimitrios Stoimenis, Christina Spyridonidou, Sofia Theofanidou, Nikolaos Petridis, Nikos Papaioannou, Christina Iasonidou, Nikolaos Kapravelos
Euglycemic ketoacidosis is defined by the triad of high anion gap acidosis, increased plasma ketones, and the absence of hyperglycemia. Apart from diabetes mellitus, the disorder may occur in prolonged fasting, excessive alcohol consumption, pregnancy, and inborn errors of metabolism. Here, we highlight the diagnosis of euglycemic ketoacidosis in a pediatric nondiabetic patient with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) type 1 (Werdnig-Hoffmann disease), who, subsequently to her postoperative admission to the intensive care unit following a spinal surgery, developed high anion gap metabolic acidosis...
2019: Case Reports in Pediatrics
Rachel J Perry, Aviva Rabin-Court, Joongyu D Song, Rebecca L Cardone, Yongliang Wang, Richard G Kibbey, Gerald I Shulman
Sodium-glucose transport protein 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a class of anti-diabetic agents; however, concerns have been raised about their potential to induce euglycemic ketoacidosis and to increase both glucose production and glucagon secretion. The mechanisms behind these alterations are unknown. Here we show that the SGLT2 inhibitor (SGLT2i) dapagliflozin promotes ketoacidosis in both healthy and type 2 diabetic rats in the setting of insulinopenia through increased plasma catecholamine and corticosterone concentrations secondary to volume depletion...
February 1, 2019: Nature Communications
Stephan Siebel, Alfonso Galderisi, Neha S Patel, Lori R Carria, William V Tamborlane, Jennifer L Sherr
OBJECTIVE: We have shown that "euglycemic DKA" in patients with type 1 diabetes receiving a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2-inhibitor (SGLT2i) is due to normal increases in rates of ketogenesis but blunted increases in plasma glucose levels. In this analysis, we assessed whether rescue treatment of early ketoacidosis with insulin is altered by SGLT2i use. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Participants received 0.2 U/kg of aspart insulin after two 6-h interruptions of basal insulin that increased beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) by 1...
January 28, 2019: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
Sang Mok Yeo, Hayeon Park, Jin Hyuk Paek, Woo Yeong Park, Seungyeup Han, Sung Bae Park, Kyubok Jin
RATIONALE: Dapagliflozin (a sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 [SGLT2] inhibitor) represents the most recently approved class of oral medications for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Dapagliflozin lowers plasma glucose concentration by inhibiting the renal reuptake of glucose in the proximal renal tubules. In 2015, the US Food and Drug Administration released a warning concerning a potential increased risk of ketoacidosis in patients taking this medication. PATIENT CONCERNS: We present the case of a 23-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes treated with dapagliflozin (10 mg, once a day) for 2 years who presented to the emergency department with abdominal pain...
January 2019: Medicine (Baltimore)
Katherine Donnan, Lakshman Segar
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) has risen in the United States and worldwide, with an increase in global prevalence from 4.7% to 8.5% between 1980 and 2014. A variety of antidiabetic drugs are available with different mechanisms of action, and multiple drugs are often used concomitantly to improve glycemic control. One of the newest classes of oral antihyperglycemic agents is the sodium glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors or "flozins". Recent clinical guidelines have suggested the use of SGLT2 inhibitors as add-on therapy in patients for whom metformin alone does not achieve glycemic targets, or as initial dual therapy with metformin in patients who present with higher glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels...
March 5, 2019: European Journal of Pharmacology
Amit Bardia, Mabel Wai, Manuel L Fontes
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors are a relatively new class of drugs used in the management of diabetes mellitus. This review will highlight key pharmacologic characteristics of this class of drugs; discuss their potential role in management of patients with cardiac disease; and raise several perioperative concerns for anesthesiologists caring for patients on SGLT-2 inhibitors. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent trials have shown a strong mortality benefit in diabetic patients on SGLT 2 inhibitors especially in patients with a high cardiovascular burden...
February 2019: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
Xiaofang Yu, Saifei Zhang, Long Zhang
Euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis (EDKA) was considered a rare condition with its specific definition and precipitating factors. However, with the wide use of sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors, the newest class of antidiabetic agents, EDKA has come back into the spotlight. Relevant cases are increasingly being reported along with insights into the mechanism of EDKA. It seems increasingly clear that EDKA is more common than we used to believe. The SGLT-2 inhibitor-associated EDKA also indicates a necessary review of our previous understanding of "diabetic" ketoacidosis, since the SGLT-2 inhibitor predisposes patients to DKA in a "starvation" way...
2018: International Journal of Endocrinology
Pablo Lucero, Sebastián Chapela
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is an acute complication of diabetes mellitus, both type I and type II, as well as other types with diabetes such gestacional diabetes mellitus. It is characterized by blood glucose levels greater than 250 mg/dL and metabolic acidosis (pH < 7.3 and serum bicarbonate < 15 mEq/dL) with an increased anion gap and the presence of ketone bodies in the blood or urine. Within this pathology, there is a subgroup of pathologies which are characterized by being present with no signs of hyperglycemia, posing a diagnostic challenge due to the absence of the main sign of the pathology and the diversity of their pathophysiology...
2018: Case Reports in Critical Care
Jemma Dowsett, Rebecca Humphreys, Robert Krones
Obesity is a global epidemic. Obesity in those with type I diabetes (T1DM) contributes to poor glycemic control and complications. Bariatric surgery as management for obesity is increasing in those with T1DM. However, there is limited data pertaining to these patients and their potential post-operative complications. These complications include severe hyperglycemia and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). This case study describes a 43-year-old woman with T1DM whose post-operative period following her bariatric surgery was complicated by euglycemic DKA...
October 17, 2018: Obesity Surgery
Vasilis Tsimihodimos, Sebastien Filippas-Ntekouan, Moses Elisaf
Sodium Glucose Cotransporters 1 (SGLT1) play important roles in the intestinal absorption of glucose and the renal reabsorption of glucose, especially in patients with uncontrolled diabetes and those receiving SGLT2 inhibitors. As a consequence, the inhibition of SGLT1 transporters may represent an interesting therapeutic option in patients with diabetes. However, genetic models of SGLT1 inactivation indicate that the malfunction of these transporters may have adverse effects on various tissues. In this review, we discuss the available evidence on the beneficial and detrimental effects that the inhibition of SGLT1 transporters might have...
November 5, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Ahmed M Darwish
Canagliflozin is a novel drug for diabetes mellitus with the mechanisms of inducing glucosuria through inhibition of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 in the kidney independent of insulin activity. We are reporting euglycemic ketoacidosis with severe life-threatening metabolic acidosis. The 2 patients described had type 2 diabetes mellitus and were in a state of relative starvation after abdominal surgery. The first patient had been given an oral diet but was restricted with regard to calorie and sugar intake...
September 18, 2018: A&A Practice
Karun Badwal, Tooba Tariq, Diane Peirce
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors are a class of medications used for glycemic control in type II diabetes mellitus. Their mechanism of action involves preventing resorption of glucose at the proximal kidney, thereby promoting glucosuria and weight loss. However, they have also been found to be associated with euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis (euDKA). This case describes a 25-year-old male with a history of type II diabetes on metformin, sitagliptin, and dapagliflozin who was admitted with his third episode of pancreatitis secondary to hypertriglyceridemia...
2018: Case Reports in Endocrinology
Zeynep Karakaya, Fatih Esad Topal, Firdes Topal, Umut Payza, Pınar Yeşim Akyol
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious and potentially life-threatening acute complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2(SGLT-2) inhibitors are new orally administered antihyperglycemic agents. These agents are related with rarely seen euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis (eDKA) cases, which are difficult to diagnose in emergency department (ED) because of absence of an evident hyperglycemia and may result with potentially dangerous outcomes if missed. In this study, we present a clinical case of a patient, admitted to ED with altered mental status after SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin administration...
August 21, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Carlos Hernandez-Quiles, Nieves Ramirez-Duque, Domingo Acosta-Delgado
INTRODUCTION: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2(SGLT2)-inhibitors are new antihyperglycemic agents that have shown a reduction in cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Recent warnings have been developed about an increased risk of euglycemic and moderate hyperglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis with the use of SGLT2 inhibitors, but its real incidence is not available yet. CASE REPORT: We present a case of DKA with moderate hyperglycemia in a patient treated with metformin and empagliflozin...
July 25, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
Alejandro González-Castro, María Ortiz Lasa, Andrés Jiménez Alfonso
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 12, 2018: Medicina Clínica
Lydia Zhang, Michael Tamilia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 25, 2018: Canadian Medical Association Journal: CMAJ
Yu-Mou Chou, Chen-June Seak, Zhong Ning Leonard Goh, Joanna Chen-Yeen Seak, Chen-Ken Seak, Chih-Chuan Lin
RATIONALE: Diabetic ketoacidosis is a serious and potentially life-threatening acute complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). Euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis (eDKA) is however challenging to identify in the emergency department (ED) due to absence of marked hyperglycemia, often leading to delayed diagnosis and treatment. eDKA has been recently found to be associated with sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, one of the newest classes of antidiabetics, though there are very limited reports implicating dapagliflozin as the offending agent in ED patients...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Thomas Danne, Torben Biester, Olga Kordonouri
The sodium-glucose cotransporter type 1 (SGLT1) is the primary transporter for absorption of glucose and galactose in the gastrointestinal tract. Inhibition blunts and delays postprandial glucose (PPG) excursion. Sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 (SGLT2) is expressed in the kidney, where it reabsorbs 90% of filtered glucose. Thus, a dual SGLT1 and SGLT2 inhibition (compared with selective SGLT2 inhibition) could result in lower PPG and robust A1c reduction even in patients with reduced kidney function. Sotagliflozin is an oral potent dual inhibitor of the insulin-independent SGLT1 and SGLT2...
June 2018: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
Valentina Guarnotta, Enrica Vigneri, Giuseppe Pillitteri, Alessandro Ciresi, Giuseppe Pizzolanti, Carla Giordano
Background: Idiopathic type 1 diabetes mellitus (IDM) is characterized by an onset with insulinopenia and ketoacidosis with negative β-cell autoimmunity markers and lack of association with HLA. The aim of the study is to compare the clinical and metabolic parameters, the macro and microvascular complications, the adipose tissue dysfunction and the insulin secretion and sensitivity indexes in patients with IDM and autoimmune type 1 diabetes mellitus (ADM) at clinical onset. Methods: Thirty patients with IDM and 30 with ADM, matched for age and gender, were retrospectively analyzed...
2018: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
Dimitrios Patoulias, Alexandros Manafis, Christos Mitas, Konstantinos Avranas, Georgios Lales, Ioanna Zografou, Christos Sambanis, Asterios Karagiannis
BACKGROUND: SGLT-2 inhibitors are a novel class of antidiabetic drugs, recently approved for the treatment of patients with T2DM. Their cardioprotective and renoprotective action, along with their beneficial effects on metabolic parameters, makes them an attractive therapeutic option. Since 2015, when the US FDA issued warning regarding the increased risk of euDKA in the setting of SGLT-2 inhibitors administration, a vivid discussion upon the direct connection between this novel class and the major metabolic complication of diabetes mellitus is still ongoing...
2018: Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets
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