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Skin immunology

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30762788/biochip-detection-of-bp180-autoantibodies-in-blister-fluid-for-the-serodiagnosis-of-bullous-pemphigoid-a-pilot-study
#1
Alvise Sernicola, Irene Russo, Andrea Saponeri, Mauro Alaibac
Bullous pemphigoid is an autoimmune subepidermal blistering skin disease immunologically defined by autoantibodies directed against basement membrane zone antigens, the main of which is BP180. Laboratory tests are essential for diagnosis and include direct immunofluorescence and serologic assessments with indirect immunofluorescence and ELISA. Serology may be performed on blister fluid, in alternative to blood serum. This study investigated the use of a Biochip-based indirect immunofluorescence approach for the serum diagnosis of bullous pemphigoid on blister fluid...
February 2019: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30760975/serum-amyloid-alpha-is-downregulated-in-peripheral-tissues-of-parkinson-s-disease-patients
#2
Lille Kurvits, Ene Reimann, Liis Kadastik-Eerme, Laura Truu, Külli Kingo, Triin Erm, Sulev Kõks, Pille Taba, Anu Planken
We report the changed levels of serum amyloid alpha, an immunologically active protein, in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients' peripheral tissues. We have previously shown that Saa-1 and -2 (serum amyloid alpha-1,-2, genes) were among the top downregulated genes in PD patients' skin, using whole-genome RNA sequencing. In the current study, we characterized the gene and protein expression profiles of skin and blood samples from patients with confirmed PD diagnosis and age/sex matched controls. qRT-PCR analysis of PD skin demonstrated downregulation of Saa-1 and -2 genes in PD patients...
2019: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30759552/the-effects-of-a-therapeutic-formalin-bath-on-selected-immunological-and-oxidative-stress-parameters-in-common-carp-cyprinus-carpio
#3
Nikola Hodkovicova, Livia Chmelova, Pavla Sehonova, Jana Blahova, Veronika Doubkova, Lucie Plhalova, Emma Fiorino, Libor Vojtek, Monika Vicenova, Zuzana Siroka, Vladimira Enevova, Radka Dobsikova, Martin Faldyna, Zdenka Svobodova, Caterina Faggio
Formalin is commonly used as a component of antiparasitic baths in fisheries. In this study the impact of this bath on the immune profile and oxidative stress parameters was evaluated. A formalin bath was prepared in the concentration of 185.3 mg L-1 (0.17 mL L-1 ) at a temperature of 20 °C. A total of 96 common carp Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758) individuals were immersed in this bath for 60 min. The effects were monitored immediately, and then after 24, 48 h and 10 days following the treatment...
February 25, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30753483/immunotherapy-for-skin-cancer
#4
Kelly G Paulson, Miranda Lahman, Aude G Chapuis, Isaac Brownell
Among all tumor types, skin cancers are profoundly sensitive to immunotherapy. Indeed, the recently reported response rates for anti-PD-1 (anti-programmed-death 1) therapy for cutaneous malignant melanomas (MM), Merkel cell carcinomas, basal cell carcinomas, cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas and Kaposi sarcomas are all above 40%. This unique immunogenicity renders skin cancers as a paradigm for tumor-immune interactions and is driven by high mutational burdens, overexpressed tumor antigens and/or viral antigens...
February 8, 2019: International Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30747288/protean-neurologic-manifestations-of-two-rare-dermatologic-disorders-sweet-disease-and-localized-craniofacial-scleroderma
#5
REVIEW
Asya I Wallach, Cynthia M Magro, Andrew G Franks, Lee Shapiro, Ilya Kister
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe diverse neurologic and neuroradiologic presentations of two rare, immunologically mediated skin conditions: Sweet disease and localized scleroderma (morphea). RECENT FINDINGS: Core syndromes of neuro-Sweet disease (NSD) are steroid responsiveness, recurrent meningitis, and encephalitis. Focal neurologic, neuro-vascular, and neuro-ophthalmologic syndromes have been reported recently in NSD. A variety of steroid-sparing treatments and biologics have been used for relapsing NSD...
February 12, 2019: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30745900/immunobiochemical-reconstruction-of-influenza-lung-infection-melanoma-skin-cancer-interactions
#6
Evgeni V Nikolaev, Andrew Zloza, Eduardo D Sontag
It was recently reported that acute influenza infection of the lung promoted distal melanoma growth in the dermis of mice. Melanoma-specific CD8+ T cells were shunted to the lung in the presence of the infection, where they expressed high levels of inflammation-induced cell-activation blocker PD-1, and became incapable of migrating back to the tumor site. At the same time, co-infection virus-specific CD8+ T cells remained functional while the infection was cleared. It was also unexpectedly found that PD-1 blockade immunotherapy reversed this effect...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30744173/advances-in-understanding-the-immunological-pathways-in-psoriasis
#7
REVIEW
Simona-Roxana Georgescu, Mircea Tampa, Constantin Caruntu, Maria-Isabela Sarbu, Cristina-Iulia Mitran, Madalina-Irina Mitran, Clara Matei, Carolina Constantin, Monica Neagu
Psoriasis vulgaris is a chronic, immune-mediated, inflammatory, polygenic skin disorder affecting approximately 2% of the population. It has a great impact on quality of life; patients often experience depression, anxiety, stigma as well as suicidal behavior. Even though psoriasis is one of the most studied dermatological conditions, the pathogenesis of the disease is still not completely elucidated. The complex interactions between keratinocytes, dendritic cells, T-lymphocytes, neutrophils and mast cells are responsible for the histopathological changes seen in psoriasis...
February 10, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30743202/microbiosis-in-pathogenesis-and-intervention-of-atopic-dermatitis
#8
REVIEW
Jianhua Dou, Jinrong Zeng, Kathy Wu, Wenbin Tan, Lihua Gao, Jianyun Lu
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, non-contagious, inflammatory skin disorder characterized by relapsing eczematous lesions. Its pathogenesis remains incompletely understood. The current evidence has emerged to show that skin and gut microbiome play critical roles in the pathogenesis and progression of AD. Skin mircrobiome mainly refers to skin commensal organisms that promote normal immune system functions and prevent the colonization of pathogens; while gut microbiome can modulate immunologic, metabolic and neuroendocrine functions...
February 8, 2019: International Immunopharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30738958/pemphigus-and-mucous-membrane-pemphigoid-an-update-from-diagnosis-to-therapy
#9
REVIEW
Alessio Buonavoglia, Patrizia Leone, Rosanna Dammacco, Giuseppe Di Lernia, Massimo Petruzzi, Domenico Bonamonte, Angelo Vacca, Vito Racanelli, Franco Dammacco
Pemphigus diseases (PDs) and mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP) are a group of immune-mediated mucocutaneous disorders clinically characterized by the formation of blisters, erosions and ulcers. The skin and mucous membranes are predominantly affected, with the oropharyngeal mucosa as the initially involved site. Ocular involvement is also a frequent feature of these diseases. Because of the considerable overlap in their clinical presentations, the diagnosis of PDs vs. MMP can be challenging. A recognition of their specific immunological and histopathologic features is crucial in the differential diagnosis...
February 7, 2019: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30734376/clinical-and-immunological-differences-between-asymptomatic-hdm-sensitized-and-hdm-allergic-rhinitis-patients
#10
Mihaela Zidarn, Maša Robič, Anja Krivec, Mira Šilar, Yvonne Resch-Marat, Susanne Vrtala, Peter Kopač, Nissera Bajrović, Rudolf Valenta, Peter Korošec
BACKGROUND: Confirmation of the clinical relevance of sensitisation is important for the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the usefulness of an in vitro basophil activation test and component-resolved diagnosis in distinguishing between symptomatic allergic rhinitis patients and asymptomatic sensitization to house dust mites (HDMs). METHODS: Thirty-six subjects with a positive skin prick test (SPT) for HDM were divided into a symptomatic (n=17) and an asymptomatic (n=19) group on the basis of their clinical history and a nasal provocation test...
February 7, 2019: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30723751/skin-resident-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-exhibit-site-specific-morphology-and-activation-states
#11
Abigail S Marshall, Jaqueline Raymondi Silva, Courtney A Bannerman, Ian Gilron, Nader Ghasemlou
Skin-resident γδ T cells play an important role in maintaining the immune barrier at the epithelial surface. Their roles in wound healing, regulation of immune response to injury, and reepithelialization have been characterized extensively in the mouse, though their function in human skin remains largely unknown. Human skin-resident γδ T cells sparsely populate the skin and are often small and rounded in appearance. Those in the mouse ear and back, which line the dermal barrier, are highly arborized cells with many processes extending from the cell body...
2019: Journal of Immunology Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30710906/appearance-of-lentigines-in-psoriasis-patient-treated-with-guselkumab
#12
Erica B Lee, Kelly A Reynolds, Deeti J Pithadia, Jashin J Wu
Development of lentigines in areas of resolving psoriatic plaques is a rare phenomenon that has been reported following various treatment modalities including phototherapy, topical therapies, and biologics. Although the exact mechanism is unknown, evidence suggests that the cause may be multifactorial, with factors such as skin type, sun exposure, inflammation, and immunologic cytokines all playing a potential role. Herein, we present the first reported case of a patient developing multiple lentigines following treatment of psoriasis with the IL-23 inhibitor guselkumab...
January 15, 2019: Dermatology Online Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30710790/improved-early-diagnosis-of-difficult-cases-of-tuberculous-pleural-effusion-by-combination-of-throracoscopy-with-immunological-tests
#13
Zhenyu Huo, Mei Yang, Jie Chen, Li Peng
INTRODUCTION: Although pleural effusion is a common clinical manifestation, differential diagnosis of the cause of pleural effusion is often challenging, especially in early distinguishing tuberculous pleurisy (TP) from other pleural effusion. This study is aimed at evaluating the values of commonly used laboratory tests for early diagnosis of difficult cases of pleural effusion. METHODS: Patients with undiagnosed pleural effusion were enrolled and subjected to 5 laboratory tests including thoracoscopy, pleural fluid adenosine deaminase assay (ADA), serum tuberculosis antibody test (TB-antibody), tuberculin skin test (TST), and T-SPOT...
January 30, 2019: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30703548/thymosin-participates-in-antimicrobial-immunity-in-zebrafish
#14
Song-Song Zou, Jing Wang, Bao-Xia Li, Gui-Wen Yang, Jie-Jie Sun, Hui-Ting Yang
Thymosin hormones, which were shown to be involved in immune system development and differentiation in previous studies, have antimicrobial functions in different animals. Zebrafish are a useful model for immunology research. Although thymosin has been reported to be involved in the embryonic development of zebrafish, it is necessary to uncover the antimicrobial function of thymosin in zebrafish. In this study, we expressed thymosin β (Tβ) in zebrafish in vitro and studied its antimicrobial function. The Tβ protein consists of 45 amino acids and is conserved among its family members, especially the actin-binding motif (LKKTET)...
January 28, 2019: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30702169/guidance-for-assessment-of-erythroderma-in-neonates-and-infants-for-the-pediatric-immunologist
#15
REVIEW
Hagen Ott
Neonatal and infantile erythroderma (NIE) represent the common clinical phenotype of heterogenous diseases ranging from benign and transient skin conditions to fatal multiorgan disorders. NIE regularly demands a comprehensive diagnostic workup in a multiprofessional setting, especially if newborns and young infants with the disease develop a failure to thrive and concomitant infectious, neurological or metabolic complications. By obtaining a detailed medical history and performing a thorough clinical examination, targeted diagnostic steps can be scheduled for most affected children...
January 31, 2019: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30695975/disseminated-cutaneous-sporotrichosis-an-unusual-case
#16
Monica Rueda, Natalie Torres, Francisco Bravo
Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous mycosis caused by Sporothrix schenckii with endemic regions in the American continent. Clinical features depend on the immunological patient state and some characteristics of the fungus. Disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis is a rare variant usually described in immunocompromised patients. A 42-year-old man was admitted with multiple verrucous and erythematous papules and plaques of the face and limbs. Many lesions showed an ulcerated and crusted component, some papules displayed linear arrangement, and some verrucous plaques exhibited black spots...
November 15, 2018: Dermatology Online Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30691274/immune-evasion-and-current-immunotherapy-strategies-in-mycosis-fungoides-mf-and-s%C3%A3-zary-syndrome-ss
#17
Doaa Shalabi, Anna Bistline, Onder Alpdogan, Saritha Kartan, Anjali Mishra, Pierluigi Porcu, Neda Nikbakht
Mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sézary syndrome (SS) are two well-characterized skin limited and leukemic subtypes of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL), respectively. Progressive global immune dysfunction and a multitude of specific immunological abnormalities have long been recognized as features of MF and SS. Therefore, a variety of immune-based therapies have been explored and used in the clinic for decades in the attempt to restore the immune imbalance in these malignancies. With recent advances in the development of novel immunotherapies in cancer treatment, new treatment modalities have emerged to complement the existing repertoire...
January 9, 2019: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30683146/the-evaluation-of-vitiligous-lesions-repigmentation-after-the-administration-of-atorvastatin-calcium-salt-and-simvastatin-acid-sodium-salt-in-patients-with-active-vitiligo-evraas-a-pilot-study-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Anna Niezgoda, Andrzej Winnicki, Tomasz Kosmalski, Bogna Kowaliszyn, Jerzy Krysiński, Rafał Czajkowski
BACKGROUND: Vitiligo is a chronic skin disorder presenting with depigmentation, the pathogenesis of which is complex but the autoimmune theory is now preferred. Multiple immunologic processes, including stimulation of the T-helper (Th)1 response, formation of autoreactive melanocyte-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes, a decrease in the blood concentration of T regulatory (Treg) cells, and an increase in interleukin (IL)-17 and interferon (IFN) concentration, have been shown to contribute to vitiligo progression and maintenance...
January 25, 2019: Trials
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30681811/skin-barrier-insights-from-bricks-and-mortar-to-molecules-and-microbes
#19
REVIEW
Carol A. Bosko
Recent advances in genomics, spectroscopy, and immunology have increased our understanding of the skin barrier. A new model of barrier lipid organization has emerged owing to the application of advanced modeling and microscopy techniques. The contribution of filaggrin gene mutations to atopic dermatitis has increased our appreciation of the role barrier perturbations play in inflammatory dermatoses. Next generation sequencing techniques have led to a greater understanding of the diversity of resident skin microorganisms and the close association between microbes and the host immune system...
January 1, 2019: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30679972/potential-pathogenic-mechanisms-involved-in-the-association-between-lichen-planus-and-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#20
REVIEW
Simona Roxana Georgescu, Mircea Tampa, Madalina Irina Mitran, Cristina Iulia Mitran, Maria Isabela Sarbu, Ilinca Nicolae, Clara Matei, Constantin Caruntu, Monica Neagu, Mircea Ioan Popa
Lichen planus (LP) is an immune-mediated inflammatory disease that particularly affects the skin and mucous membranes. Its etiology remains elusive, however some trigger factors, including viral or bacterial antigens, drugs and metals, have been postulated. There is a higher prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among patients with LP, with some geographical variations. HCV is an enveloped RNA virus that belongs to the Flaviviridae family and in most instances causes chronic liver infections. It has been hypothesized that HCV may contribute to LP development, but the link between the two disorders is not fully understood...
February 2019: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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