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Ionut Bebu, Barbara H Braffett, Trevor J Orchard, Gayle M Lorenzi, John M Lachin
OBJECTIVE: The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT)/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study has demonstrated the major role of hyperglycemia as a risk factor for clinical cardiovascular outcomes in type 1 diabetes (T1D). We assessed whether and to what extent the effect of glycemia is mediated by other established cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In the DCCT, 1,441 participants were randomized to receive either intensive or conventional diabetes therapy...
March 20, 2019: Diabetes Care
Dicky Struik, Marleen B Dommerholt, Johan W Jonker
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Several members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family have been identified as key regulators of energy metabolism in rodents and nonhuman primates. Translational studies show that their metabolic actions are largely conserved in humans, which led to the development of various FGF-based drugs, including FGF21-mimetics LY2405319, PF-05231023, and pegbelfermin, and the FGF19-mimetic NGM282. Recently, a number of clinical trials have been published that examined the safety and efficacy of these novel therapeutic proteins in the treatment of obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D), nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and cholestatic liver disease...
March 18, 2019: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Sangeeta Singh, Satyendra Kumar Sonkar, Gyanendra Kumar Sonkar, Abbas Ali Mahdi
Diabetic kidney disease is one of the most serious microvascular complications and among the leading causes of end stage renal disease. Persistently increasing albuminuria has been considered to be central hallmark of nephropathy. However, albuminuria can indicate kidney damage for clinicians, it is not a specific biomarker for prediction of diabetic kidney disease prior to the onset of this devastating complication and in fact all individuals with microalbuminuria do not progress to overt nephropathy. Controlled glycemia is unable to prevent nephropathy in all diabetic individuals indicating the role of other factors in progression of diabetic kidney disease...
March 20, 2019: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
B Lormeau, S Pichat, L Dufaitre, A Chamouine, M Gataa, J Rastami, C Coll-Lormeau, G Goury, A-L François, V Etien, J-L Blanchard, D Hervé, A Sola-Gazagnes
BACKGROUND: Recreational scuba diving has been authorized for type 1 diabetics over 18 years old - the age of majority in France - since 2004, but it remained forbidden for younger diabetics by the French underwater federation (FFESSM). Here, we present a study to evaluate: - the conditions under which diving could be authorized for 14- to 18 year olds with type 1 diabetes; - the value of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) while diving. A secondary objective was to monitor the impact of diving on the teenagers' quality of life...
March 15, 2019: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Livia Pinto-Santini, Rodolfo Ungerfeld
The aim of this study was to compare circadian rhythms of serum cortisol and insulin concentrations, glycemia, glycemia:insulin ratio (GLY:INS), rectal, vaginal and surface (ST) temperatures as well behavioral patterns during the follicular (FOL) and luteal (LUT) phases in ewes. All the variables were measured during both phases of the estrous cycle in 8 West African ewes during a 24 h period. Cortisol concentrations were greater during FOL than LUT (30.9 ± 2.1 ng mL-1 vs 24.1 ± 2.1 ng mL-1 ; P < 0...
March 13, 2019: Physiology & Behavior
Soyeon Yoo, Eun Jin Yang, Gwanpyo Koh
BACKGROUND: We performed this study to identify factors related to intact incretin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: We cross-sectionally analyzed 336 patients with T2DM. Intact glucagon-like peptide 1 (iGLP-1) and intact glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (iGIP) levels were measured in a fasted state and 30 minutes after ingestion of a standard mixed meal. The differences between 30 and 0 minute iGLP-1 and iGIP levels were indicated as ΔiGLP-1 and ΔiGIP...
February 20, 2019: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
Ling-Shan Tse, Po-Lin Liao, Chi-Hao Tsai, Ching-Hao Li, Jiunn-Wang Liao, Jaw-Jou Kang, Yu-Wen Cheng
Hedychium coronarium has a long history of use worldwide as a food and in folk medicine. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of an aqueous extract of H. coronarium leaves (HC) on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Two types of animal models were used in this study: Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced T2DM (Wistar rats; N = 8) and C57BKSdb/db mice ( N = 5). After treatment with HC for 28 days, glucose tolerance improved in both of the diabetic animal models. As significant effects were shown after 14 days of treatment in the STZ-induced T2DM model, we carried out the experiments with it...
March 14, 2019: Nutrients
Sophie Pelegrin, Florence Galtier, Anne Chalançon, Jean-Pierre Gagnol, Anne-Marie Barbanel, Yves Pélissier, Michel Larroque, Samuel Lepape, Marie Faucanié, Isabelle Gabillaud, Pierre Petit, Hugues Chevassus
Nigella sativa seeds (NSS), also known as black cumin, have been claimed to have antidiabetic and lipid-lowering properties. Our pilot study investigated the effects of powdered NSS on insulin secretion and lipid profile in healthy male volunteers. We conducted a double blind randomized placebo-controlled 4-week trial in 30 subjects, receiving NSS powder (1 g/day) or placebo orally (15 subjects/group). Insulin secretion as determined by the hyperglycemic clamp technique, insulin sensitivity as well as cholesterol and triglycerides serum concentrations, were measured before and after treatment...
March 15, 2019: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
M V Matveeva, Yu G Samoilova, N G Zhukova, D A Kudlay, M A Rotkank, O P Leyman
The study of potential mechanisms of cognitive impairments associated with gene expression in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) is becoming increasingly important due to the increase in the prevalence of dementia in this category of patients. DM is associated with the alteration of neurogenesis, and the variability of glycemia causes the changes in plasma and mitochondria, promotes the formation of free radicals, oxidative stress, activation of apoptosis of neurons, circulation of proinflammatory agents and other pathological factors...
2019: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Maria J Pena, Susana G Guerreiro, Júlio C Rocha, Tiago Morais, Sofia S Pereira, Mariana P Monteiro, Nuno Borges
Amino acid mixtures (AAM) are protein substitutes used for phenylketonuria treatment, but their metabolic effects have not been well characterized. The objective of this study was to compare the acute glycemic response to free amino acids (free AA) from AAM with the response to intact protein (iProtein). Male Wistar rats (n = 14) were administered by gavage a bolus of free AA (n = 7) or iProtein as albumin (n = 7) containing equivalent amounts of nitrogen. Blood glucose and insulin levels were measured at baseline and 15, 30, 60 and 120 minutes later, when gut GLP-1 content and pancreatic insulin, GLP-1 receptor and Ki67 expression were quantified at 120 minutes time point...
March 14, 2019: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Nima Vakilzadeh, Anne Zanchi, Bastien Milani, Jean-Baptiste Ledoux, Philippe Braconnier, Michel Burnier, Menno Pruijm
AIM: Animal studies have suggested that acute hyperglycemia induces transient renal hypoxia and kidney damage, yet this has not been tested in humans. Therefore, we assessed in human subjects the effect of acute hyperglycemia on renal tissue oxygenation as measured with blood oxygenation level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-MRI). METHODS: In this single center prospective interventional study, healthy overweight subjects were recruited. BOLD-MRI was performed before and immediately after the intravenous administration of 0...
March 11, 2019: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Janusz Krzymien, Piotr Ladyzynski
The aim of this review was to investigate existing guidelines and scientific evidence on determining insulin dosage in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and in particular to check whether the prandial insulin dose should be calculated based on glycemia or the meal composition, including the carbohydrates, protein and fat content in a meal. By exploring the effect of the meal composition on postprandial glycemia we demonstrated that several factors may influence the increase in glycemia after the meal, which creates significant practical difficulties in determining the appropriate prandial insulin dose...
March 13, 2019: Nutrients
Helena W Rodbard, Srikanth Bellary, Irene Hramiak, Yutaka Seino, Robert Silver, Lars Holm Damgaard, Gurudutt Nayak, Jeppe Zacho, Vanita R Aroda
OBJECTIVE: Semaglutide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog for the once-weekly treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D). In the global SUSTAIN clinical trial program, semaglutide demonstrated superior HbA1c and body weight reductions vs comparators. This post hoc analysis compared the proportion of patients achieving combined reductions in glycemia and body weight vs comparators. METHODS: A total of 5,119 subjects with T2D in the phase 3 SUSTAIN 1-5 and 7 trials, from 33 countries, were included in this post hoc analysis...
March 13, 2019: Endocrine Practice
Dalia Samanta Aguilar-Ávila, Mario Eduardo Flores-Soto, Carolina Tapia-Vázquez, Omar Alonso Pastor-Zarandona, Rocío Ivette López-Roa, Juan Manuel Viveros-Paredes
Neuropathic pain (NP) is associated with chronic hyperglycemia and emotional disorders such as depression in diabetic patients, complicating the course of treatment. Drugs currently used to treat NP have undesirable side effects, so research on other natural sources has been required. β-caryophyllene (BCP), a natural sesquiterpene found in some food condiments and considered an agonist to cannabinoid receptor type 2, could have potential therapeutic effects to treat conditions such as NP and emotional disorders...
March 13, 2019: Journal of Medicinal Food
Henrique Bosso, Giovanna Emanuella Piffer Soares Arantes, Sandra Maria Barbalho, Élen Landgraf Guiguer, Maricelma da Silva Soares de Souza, Patrícia Cincotto Dos Santos Bueno, Agnaldo Bruno Chies, Priscilla Bianca de Oliveira, Claudemir Gregório Mendes, Adriano Cressoni Araújo
Many studies have shown that plants can be therapeutic alternatives in the prevention or treatment of various diseases. Among these, green coffee may present different pharmacological effects related to the regulation of glycemia and lipid metabolism and is related to the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. The objective of our study was to evaluate the effects of using green and ripe coffee on the metabolic profile and muscular enzymes after the practice of physical exercises in Wistar rats. We included six groups: G1 (control group), G2 (group submitted to swimming), G3 (group that consumed green coffee), G4 (group that consumed green coffee and was submitted to swimming), G5 (group that consumed ripe coffee), and G6 (group that consumed ripe coffee and was submitted to swimming)...
March 13, 2019: Journal of Medicinal Food
Sara Machado, Rui Marques, Edite Nascimento, Ana Matos, Carla Henriques
INTRODUCTION: Diabetes Control and Complications Trial has established the importance of glycemic control in reducing the progression of retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy in type 1 diabetics. There is little literature linking the frequency of glycemic monitoring with glycated hemoglobin A (HbA1c) in type 2 diabetics. The objectives were to assess the influence of glycemic self-monitoring on HbA1c in three groups of patients with type 2 diabetes (with insulin, with oral antidiabetics and with combination therapy)...
December 1, 2018: Romanian Journal of Internal Medicine
Aksam Yassin, Ahmad Haider, Karim S Haider, Monica Caliber, Gheorghe Doros, Farid Saad, W Timothy Garvey
OBJECTIVE: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a public health threat. Prediabetes represents a window of opportunity for intervention to prevent T2D. Men with T2D and prediabetes often have low testosterone. Since testosterone improves glycemic control in T2D, we investigated whether testosterone therapy (TTh) in men with hypogonadism and prediabetes prevents progression to T2D. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Three hundred sixteen men with prediabetes (defined as HbA1c 5.7-6...
March 12, 2019: Diabetes Care
Mads F Hjorth, George A Bray, Yishai Zohar, Lorien Urban, Derek C Miketinas, Donald A Williamson, Donna H Ryan, Jennifer Rood, Catherine M Champagne, Frank M Sacks, Arne Astrup
Efforts to identify a preferable diet for weight management based on macronutrient composition have largely failed, but recent evidence suggests that satiety effects of carbohydrates may depend on the individual's insulin-mediated cellular glucose uptake. Therefore, using data from the POUNDS LOST trial, pre-treatment fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting insulin (FI), and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were studied as prognostic markers of long-term weight loss in four diets differing in carbohydrate, fat, and protein content, while assessing the role of dietary fiber intake...
March 11, 2019: Nutrients
Ju-Ming Lu
The improvement of glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is an urgent need in Asia. East Asian T2D patients have distinct characteristics, including relatively low body weight, early impairment of islet beta cell function with reduced insulin secretion and a marked increase in postprandial blood glucose levels. Control of postprandial hyperglycemia and beta cell preservation are key elements of the therapeutic strategy for these patients. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) reduce HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose, and (in particular) postprandial glucose levels, and slow gastric emptying, while minimizing the risk of hypoglycemia and weight gain...
March 11, 2019: Advances in Therapy
Dong Cui, Xinfeng Liu, Minmin Liu, Weifang Cao, Yazhuo Xue, Yongxin Guo, Yancheng Guo, Aixia Lu, Qing Jiao
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a risk factor for cognitive impairment and potentially Alzheimer's disease. However, the precise mechanism underlying the effects of glucose on brain abnormalities is not fully understood. The differential effects of glucose alteration on brain changes in patients with T2D and those with prediabetes are also unclear. MRI data were collected from 21 patients with T2D (male/female, 7/14); 21 patients with prediabetes (male/female, 8/13); and 21 age-matched, sex-matched, and education-matched normal controls (male/female, 7/14)...
March 6, 2019: Neuroreport
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