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Small RNAs

Shruti Mishra, Sumit S Verma, Vipin Rai, Nikee Awasthee, Srinivas Chava, Kam Man Hui, Alan Prem Kumar, Kishore B Challagundla, Gautam Sethi, Subash C Gupta
The long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are the crucial regulators of human chronic diseases. Therefore, approaches such as antisense oligonucleotides, RNAi technology, and small molecule inhibitors have been used for the therapeutic targeting of lncRNAs. During the last decade, phytochemicals and nutraceuticals have been explored for their potential against lncRNAs. The common lncRNAs known to be modulated by phytochemicals include ROR, PVT1, HOTAIR, MALAT1, H19, MEG3, PCAT29, PANDAR, NEAT1, and GAS5. The phytochemicals such as curcumin, resveratrol, sulforaphane, berberine, EGCG, and gambogic acid have been examined against lncRNAs...
March 16, 2019: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Lena Qawasmi, Maya Braun, Irene Guberman, Emiliano Cohen, Lamis Naddaf, Anna Mellul, Olli Matilainen, Noa Roitenberg, Danielle Share, Doron Stupp, Haya Chahine, Ehud Cohen, Susana M D A Garcia, Yuval Tabach
Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is an autosomal-dominant inherited disorder caused by the expansion of CTG repeats in the 3' untranslated region of the DMPK gene. The RNAs bearing these expanded repeats have a range of toxic effects. Here we provide evidence from a Caenorhabditis elegans DM1 model that the RNAi machinery plays a key role in causing RNA toxicity and disease phenotypes. We show that the expanded repeats systematically affect a range of endogenous genes bearing short non-pathogenic repeats and that this mechanism is dependent on the small RNA pathway...
March 13, 2019: Journal of Molecular Biology
Julia Maul, Dominik Alterauge, Dirk Baumjohann
T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are critical mediators of germinal center (GC) formation and essential for potent humoral immunity. In contrast, T follicular regulatory (Tfr) cells, which share characteristics of both stimulatory Tfh cells and suppressive regulatory T (Treg) cells, restrain excessive GC responses. Tfh cell differentiation is a multistep process that involves continuous interaction with antigen-presenting cells, co-stimulatory signals, an appropriate cytokine milieu, and directed migration toward distinct microanatomical structures...
March 2019: Immunological Reviews
Jinggang Cui, Wei Li, Guohua Liu, Xiaojun Chen, Xiaolai Gao, Huiling Lu, Dang Lin
More and more circular RNAs (circRNAs) revealed to play a critical role in the initiation and progression of cancer, however, the effects of circRNAs on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain largely undetermined. In the present study, we screened the dysregulated circRNAs in paired NSCLC and normal samples from GEO database and identified circ_0043278 was to be significantly up-regulated in NSCLC and demonstrated it promotes NSCLC progression in vitro and in vivo. Then, we revealed the expression of miR-520f, a downstream factor of circ_0043278, was significantly down-regulated in NSCLC and acted as a tumor inhibitor...
December 2019: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Yuanyue Shan, Xiaoming Zhou, Ru Huang, Da Xing
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short noncoding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. It has been proved that the aberrant expression of miRNAs is related to disease and miRNAs can serve as potential biomarkers for early tumor diagnosis. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas13a is recently discovered CRISPR-RNA (crRNA) guided RNA manipulation tools. The recognition of target RNA can morphologically activate the robust non-specific trans ribonuclease activity of Cas13a...
March 15, 2019: Analytical Chemistry
Andrey Turchinovich, Oxana Drapkina, Alexander Tonevitsky
Exosomes and microvesicles are two major categories of extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by almost all cell types and are highly abundant in biological fluids. Both the molecular composition of EVs and their release are thought to be strictly regulated by external stimuli. Multiple studies have consistently demonstrated that EVs transfer proteins, lipids and RNA between various cell types, thus mediating intercellular communication, and signaling. Importantly, small non-coding RNAs within EVs are thought to be major contributors to the molecular events occurring in the recipient cell...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
Mingfeng Yang, Heshu Lu, Feiyan Xue, Lanqing Ma
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenously short noncoding regulatory RNAs implicated in plant development and physiology. Nine small RNA (sRNA) libraries from three typical seed developmental stages (young, intermediate, and mature) were generated by deep sequencing to identify the miRNAs of J. curcas, a potential oilseed crop for the production of renewable oil. Strict criteria were adopted to identify 93 high confidence miRNAs including 48 conserved miRNAs and 45 novel miRNAs. Target genes of these miRNAs were involved in a broad range of physiological functions, including gene expression regulation, primary & secondary metabolism, growth & development, signal transduction, and stress response...
March 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
Cui Liang, Lu Gao, Yuan Liu, Yuzhou Liu, Rui Yao, Yapeng Li, Lili Xiao, Leiming Wu, Binbin Du, Zhen Huang, Yanzhou Zhang
AIMS: MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) are a large class of small noncoding RNAs. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of miR-451 on cardiac remodeling in diabetic cardiomyopathy. MAIN METHODS: Mice were injected with streptozotocin (STZ) to induce diabetes. Twelve weeks after final STZ injection, mice were subjected to myocardial injection of adenovirus (Ad)-shmiR-451 to knock down miR-451. Mouse heart endothelial cells (MHECs) were treated with a miR-451 antagomir to inhibit miR451 and were exposed to high glucose...
March 11, 2019: Life Sciences
Megha Sravani Bondada, Yongxiu Yao, Venugopal Nair
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that fine-tune the responses of the cell by modulating the cell transcriptome and gene expression. MicroRNA 155 (miR-155) is a conserved multifunctional miRNA involved in multiple roles including the modulation of the immune responses. When deregulated, miR-155 can also contribute to cancer as has been demonstrated in several human malignancies such as diffuse large B cell lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, as well as in Epstein⁻Barr virus (EBV)-induced B cell transformation...
March 13, 2019: Non-Coding RNA
Juanjuan Yi, Shubin Li, Chao Wang, Nana Cao, Hang Qu, Cuilin Cheng, Zhenyu Wang, Lu Wang, Liping Zhou
In the recent years, plant polyphenols have gained significant attention in oncotherapy. Accumulating evidence indicates that polyphenols have potential antitumor properties for multiple types of cancer. But their regulatory mechanisms are still elusive. Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) were identified involving in regulating tumorigenesis and tumor progression. Recent evidence has suggested that a number of ncRNAs, including main small ncRNAs (microRNA, miRNA) and long ncRNAs (lncRNAs), play crucial roles concerning the anticancer effects of polyphenols...
March 11, 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy
Kerrie L Ford, Maryam Anwar, Rachael Heys, Eltayeb Mohamed Ahmed, Massimo Caputo, Laurence Game, Barnaby C Reeves, Prakash P Punjabi, Gianni D Angelini, Enrico Petretto, Costanza Emanueli
This study aimed to optimise techniques for whole transcriptome and small RNA analyses on clinical tissue samples from patients with cardiovascular disease. Clinical samples often represent a particular challenge to extracting RNA of sufficient quality for robust RNA sequencing analysis, and due to availability, it is rarely possible to optimise techniques on the samples themselves. Therefore, we have used equivalent samples from pigs undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass surgery to test different protocols for optimal RNA extraction, and then validated the protocols in human samples...
2019: PloS One
Haishuo Ji, Xiaofeng Xu, Xiufeng Jin, Hong Yin, Jianxun Luo, Guangyuan Liu, Qiang Zhao, Ze Chen, Wenjun Bu, Shan Gao
In this study, we used a small RNA sequencing (sRNA-seq) based method to annotate the mitochondrial genome of the insect Erthesina fullo Thunberg at 1 bp resolution. The high-resolution annotations cover both entire strands of the mitochondrial genome without any gaps or overlaps. Most of the new annotations were consistent with the previous annotations which had been obtained using PacBio full-length transcripts. Two important findings were that animals transcribe both entire strands of mitochondrial genomes and the tandem repeats in the control region of the E...
March 14, 2019: RNA Biology
Nadine G Assis, Rodolfo A Ribeiro, Larissa G da Silva, Alexandre M Vicente, Isabelle Hug, Marilis V Marques
Small RNAs are important for post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression, affecting stability and activity of their target mRNAs. The bacterial Sm-like protein Hfq is required to promote pairing between both RNAs when their sequence complementarity is limited. To provide a first global view on the post-transcriptional landscape of the α-proteobacterium Caulobacter crescentus, we have identified the Hfq-binding RNAs employing High-throughput sequencing of RNA isolated by cross-linking immunoprecipitation (HITS-CLIP)...
March 14, 2019: RNA Biology
Itamar Lev, Hila Gingold, Oded Rechavi
In Caenorhabditis elegans , RNA interference (RNAi) responses can transmit across generations via small RNAs. RNAi inheritance is associated with Histone-3-Lysine-9 tri-methylation (H3K9me3) of the targeted genes. In other organisms, maintenance of silencing requires a feed-forward loop between H3K9me3 and small RNAs. Here, we show that in C. elegans not only is H3K9me3 unnecessary for inheritance, the modification's function depends on the identity of the RNAi-targeted gene. We found an asymmetry in the requirement for H3K9me3 and the main worm H3K9me3 methyltransferases, SET-25 and SET-32...
March 14, 2019: ELife
Ludmila Rodrigues Pinto Ferreira
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs (typically 19-23 nucleotides) which act by annealing to partially complementary binding sites present on the 3' untranslated regions (UTR) of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) leading to inhibition of protein translation or by inducing mRNA decay. Since their discovery, miRNAs have come to be recognized as master regulators of gene expression in plant and mammals, controlling tissue-specific protein expression. Up to one-third of mammalian mRNAs are susceptible to miRNA-mediated regulation...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Noriaki Sunaga, Yosuke Miura, Yusuke Tsukagoshi, Norimitsu Kasahara, Tomomi Masuda, Reiko Sakurai, Kyoichi Kaira, Takeshi Hisada
Despite the high frequency of KRAS mutations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), therapeutic modalities targeting KRAS -mutated NSCLC have not been established. Based on our previous findings that mutant KRAS knockdown sensitized NSCLC cells to a p38 inhibitor, the growth-inhibitory effect of dual MEK and p38 inhibition on tumor growth in NSCLC cells harboring KRAS mutations was investigated. In KRAS -mutated NSCLC cells, the MEK inhibitor, selumetinib, inhibited cell growth in a dose-dependent manner, and its growth-inhibitory effect was enhanced by combined treatment with the p38 inhibitor LY2228820...
March 2019: Oncology Letters
Guowen Lin, Haoyue Sheng, Huyang Xie, Qiupeng Zheng, Yijun Shen, Guohai Shi, Dingwei Ye
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a specific form of non-coding RNAs, that serve a pivotal role in the development of human diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and cancer; however, only a few are known with respect to cancer. The present study identified a novel circRNA, circ lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1 (LPAR1) (hsa_circ_0087960), derived from two exons 226 base pairs in length, in muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) tissues. circLPAR1 was identified to be lowly expressed in MIBC tissues in a cohort of 125 cases, and predicted a poor disease-specific survival time, compared with patients with high circLPAR1 expression (52...
March 2019: Oncology Letters
Qingfu Lu, Zhaoji Guo, Haixin Qian
In China, breast cancer is the most commonly occurring cancer in women. MicroRNAs (miRs) are a group of endogenous small non-coding RNAs, which serve a role in many biological processes through the regulation of target genes. In the current study, miR-150-5p expression was significantly up-regulated in breast cancer tissues and cell lines. To investigate the cellular function and underlying molecular mechanism of miR-150-5p in breast cancer, TargetScan7.2 was used to identify miR-150-5p target genes. SRC kinase signaling inhibitor 1 (SRCIN1) was identified as a direct target gene of miR-150-5p and the current study demonstrated that SRCIN1 was negatively regulated by miR-150-5p in breast cancer cells...
March 2019: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Xiao-Lin Ma, Xu Yang, Rui Fan
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a leading cause of death, and microRNAs (miRNAs) are widely involved in physiological and pathological processes of CAD. We chose the targetscore method calculated via the variational Bayesian Gaussian mixture model (VB-GMM) as the prediction method of target genes. By observing the density overlap, we selected the thresholds of miRNA-1 and miRNA-155. In total, 18 target genes of miRNA-1, and 19 target genes of miRNA-155 were identified. The threshold of miRNA-146a was selected using the |logFC| value, and 16 target genes were screened out...
March 2019: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Xinde Hu, Yifeng Liu, Ping Ai, Shuguang He, Lingzhi Liu, Chaoying Chen, Yuansheng Tan, Ting Wang
MicroRNAs (miRs), a class of small non-coding RNAs, have been demonstrated to be involved in the development and progression of human malignancies, including cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). miR-186 serves a suppressive role in certain common types of human cancer; however, its exact function in CSCC has not been reported previously. In the present study, the expression of miR-186 was significantly increased in CSCC tissues compared with adjacent non-tumour tissues. Overexpression of miR-186 significantly promoted CSCC cell proliferation while inhibiting cell apoptosis...
March 2019: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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