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Preventive medical screening

Anjail Z Sharrief, Evelyn Hinojosa, Gail Cooksey, Munachi N Okpala, Elenir B Avritscher, Claudia Pedroza, Mary Carter Denny, Joshua Samuels, Jon E Tyson, Sean I Savitz
INTRODUCTION: Hypertension is a major risk factor for recurrent stroke, and blood pressure (BP) reduction is associated with decreased risk of stroke recurrence. However, many stroke survivors have poorly controlled BP after their initial stroke. The Stroke Transitions Education and Prevention (STEP) Clinic was established to provide a comprehensive approach to stroke risk factor reduction. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This randomised comparative effectiveness study was designed to assess the impact of care in the STEP clinic versus usual care on poststroke BP reduction...
February 19, 2019: BMJ Open
Maxim Eskin, Scot H Simpson, Dean Trevor Eurich
OBJECTIVES: Healthy user bias, whereby health-seeking patients are more likely to initiate preventive therapies and engage in healthy lifestyle behaviours, is well known in observational studies, particularly with statins. However, its influence in studies of oral antihyperglycemic therapies is unknown. We sought to explore the healthy user effects in metformin users vs. nonusers on various health outcomes that should not be associated with metformin use. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using data from Alberta, between 2008 and 2015, to examine the association between metformin use and various health outcomes...
December 13, 2018: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
Quan M Bui, Lori B Daniels
Cardiovascular disease continues to be the leading cause of death among women in the United States. One of the barriers to improving cardiovascular disease outcomes in women is the lack of reliable, effective screening modalities. Breast arterial calcification has emerged as a potential risk stratification tool. Localized deposition in the media of the artery, known as Mönckeberg medial calcific sclerosis, is notably different from the intimal atherosclerotic process commonly associated with coronary artery disease...
February 19, 2019: Circulation
Shanlee M Davis, Mitchell E Geffner
Individuals with Turner syndrome (TS) have a higher morbidity and mortality compared to the general population. Diabetes and cardiovascular disease are the major contributors to this burden. Precursors to diabetes and cardiovascular disease make up what is known as metabolic syndrome, including abdominal obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and elevated fasting glucose. These features of poor cardiometabolic health are also prevalent among women with TS. Youth with TS also exhibit many of these features, indicating that the pathogenesis of these cardiometabolic conditions may begin early in life...
February 18, 2019: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part C, Seminars in Medical Genetics
Neelam Kaushal, Divya Vohora, Rajinder K Jalali, Sujeet Jha
Objectives: An understanding of bone mineral density (BMD) pattern in a population is crucial for prevention and diagnosis of osteoporosis and management of its complications in later life. This study aimed to screen the bone health status and factors associated with osteoporosis in an apparently healthy Indian population. Methods: A retrospective review of medical records was done in a tertiary-care hospital for the subjects who had undergone preventive health-check-ups that included BMD measurements at femur-neck, total-femur, and lumbar-spine...
June 2018: Osteoporosis and Sarcopenia
Maria Gogou, Labrini Damianidou, Theodotis Papageorgiou, Athanasios Tragiannidis, Katerina Haidopoulou, Andreas Giannopoulos, Emmanuel Hatzipantelis
We describe the case of a 5-year-old girl with severe congenital neutropenia presenting with recurrent skin and respiratory infections. Sequence analysis of ELANE and HAX1 genes identified a mutation in heterozygous state in exon 2 of the ELANE gene: c.157C > G (p.His53Asp), not previously described in the literature at the exon coding level. Given the autosomal dominant inheritance and the location of the mutation within a "hotspot," this mutation was considered as clinically relevant. ELANE should be screened in patients with congenital neutropenia of no obvious etiology...
March 2019: Journal of Pediatric Genetics
K Leber, J M M B Otten, A C T M Depla, D P M Brandjes, F N Lauw
BACKGROUND: Patients with a chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection or patients who have recovered from an HBV infection are at risk for HBV reactivation (HBVr), especially if they need treatment with chemotherapy. International guidelines recommend routine HBV screening for all patients starting with chemotherapy. This study evaluates the implementation of a routine HBV screening protocol. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed between January 2015 and October 2016 at the Medical Centre Slotervaart Amsterdam...
January 2019: Netherlands Journal of Medicine
Lei Zhang, Yining Bao, Moeen Riaz, Jane Tiller, Danny Liew, Xun Zhuang, David J Amor, Aamira Huq, Lara Petelin, Mark Nelson, Paul A James, Ingrid Winship, John J McNeil, Paul Lacaze
PURPOSE: To consider the impact and cost-effectiveness of offering preventive population genomic screening to all young adults in a single-payer health-care system. METHODS: We modeled screening of 2,688,192 individuals, all adults aged 18-25 years in Australia, for pathogenic variants in BRCA1/BRCA2/MLH1/MSH2 genes, and carrier screening for cystic fibrosis (CF), spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), and fragile X syndrome (FXS), at 71% testing uptake using per-test costs ranging from AUD$200 to $1200 (~USD$140 to $850)...
February 18, 2019: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
Robert J Lentz, Andrew D Lerner, Jasleen K Pannu, Christopher M Merrick, Lance Roller, Charla Walston, Sarah Valenti, Tracey Goddard, Heidi Chen, John T Huggins, Otis B Rickman, Lonny Yarmus, Ioannis Psallidas, Najib M Rahman, Richard W Light, Fabien Maldonado
BACKGROUND: In patients with non-expandable lung, removal of pleural fluid can result in excessively negative pleural pressure, which is associated with chest discomfort, pneumothorax, and re-expansion pulmonary oedema. Pleural manometry is widely used to safeguard against pressure-related complications during thoracentesis despite little evidence to support the approach. We investigated whether monitoring of pleural pressure with manometry during thoracentesis could protect against complications compared with assessment of symptoms alone...
February 13, 2019: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
Nicolas Biard
In the hospital sector, care is often considered only from a curative perspective. However, improving screening for frailties and providing support with regard to risk factors would help care pathways evolve and place more emphasis on prevention. The hospital has a role as an institutional partner and whistleblower in the area of preventive health. Some initiatives have been put in place, notably in terms of healthy ageing. An interview with Professor Eric Boulanger, medical director of the Longevity Health Prevention Center at the Institut Pasteur in Lille...
January 2019: Soins; la Revue de Référence Infirmière
Nooria Atta, Saadettin Kilickap, Deniz Yuce, Mutlu Hayran
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of some gynecological cancer risk factors in a population of female relatives of cancer patients in Hacettepe University Oncology Hospital. Additionally, what are the levels of the women's awareness /behavior toward available screening tools? METHODS: An individual cancer risk assessment questionnaire has been developed in the Department of Preventive Oncology, which questions the medical history, health behaviors and cancer awareness, as well as their behavior toward available cancer screening tools...
February 15, 2019: BMC Cancer
Fuzhong Li, Peter Harmer, Elizabeth Eckstrom, Kathleen Fitzgerald, Li-Shan Chou, Yu Liu
Importance: Exercise has been shown to reduce injurious falls in older adults. Evidence, however, is lacking regarding the types of intervention that are most effective in preventing injurious falls among older adults at high risk of falling. Objective: To determine the longer-term effectiveness of therapeutic tai ji quan intervention vs multimodal exercise and stretching exercise in decreasing injurious falls among older adults at high risk of falling. Design, Setting, and Participants: This trial involves a prespecified analysis with the data analyzed by intent-to-treat...
February 1, 2019: JAMA network open
Jaram Park, Jeong-Whun Kim, Borim Ryu, Eunyoung Heo, Se Young Jung, Sooyoung Yoo
BACKGROUND: Prevention and management of chronic diseases are the main goals of national health maintenance programs. Previously widely used screening tools, such as Health Risk Appraisal, are restricted in their achievement this goal due to their limitations, such as static characteristics, accessibility, and generalizability. Hypertension is one of the most important chronic diseases requiring management via the nationwide health maintenance program, and health care providers should inform patients about their risks of a complication caused by hypertension...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Medical Internet Research
L Aubree Shay, Susanne Schmidt, Shayda I Dioun, Allison Grimes, Leanne Embry
PURPOSE: Our study aims to determine whether receipt of a written survivorship care plan (SCP) is associated with five self-reported health behaviors known to be correlated with positive long-term outcomes for cancer survivors: (1) attending a recent medical appointment, (2) exercise in the past month, (3) non-smoking status, (4) mammography in the past 2 years, and (5) up-to-date colorectal cancer screening. METHODS: In this secondary data analysis, we used data from the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) cancer survivorship module for 1855 off-treatment cancer survivors...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Cancer Survivorship: Research and Practice
Maureen Jepkorir Cheserek, Yonghui Shi, Guowei Le
Background: The relationship between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and hyperuricemia is not fully understood. Objective: To examine the association of hyperuricemia with MetS and the component of MetS that is mostly influenced by hyperuricemia among university workers. Methods: Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, glucose, lipid profiles, renal function tests were measured in 1198 male and 1075 female (22-60 years old) workers on annual medical examination...
December 2018: African Health Sciences
Liang Qu, Shunnan Ge, Nan Li, Wei Wang, Kaijun Yang, Ping Wu, Xuelian Wang, Jie Shi
INTRODUCTION: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a new potential surgical treatment for opioid dependence. However, the implement of DBS treatment in addicted patients is currently controversial due to the significant associated risks. The aim of this study was mainly to investigate the therapeutic efficacy and safety of bilateral DBS of nucleus accumbens and the anterior limb of the internal capsule (NAc/ALIC-DBS) in patients with refractory opioid dependence (ROD). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: 60 patients with ROD will be enrolled in this multicentre, prospective, double-blinded study, and will be followed up for 25 weeks (6 months) after surgery...
February 13, 2019: BMJ Open
Wassim W Labaki, MeiLan K Han
Despite being a major cause of morbidity and mortality, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is frequently undiagnosed. Yet the burden of disease among the undiagnosed is significant, as these individuals experience symptoms, exacerbations, and excess mortality compared to those without COPD. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends against routine screening of asymptomatic individuals with spirometry. Hence, case-finding approaches are needed. A recently developed instrument, the five-item COPD Assessment in Primary Care to Identify Undiagnosed Respiratory Disease and Exacerbation Risk questionnaire plus peak expiratory flow, demonstrates good sensitivity and specificity for distinguishing cases from control subjects and is being studied prospectively in primary care settings to determine its impact on patient outcomes...
December 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
S A Begum, T Mahmud, T Rahman, J Zannat, F Khatun, K Nahar, M Towhida, M Joarder, A Harun, F Sharmin
In Bangladesh incidence rate of breast cancer was about 22.5 per 100000 females. Breast cancer has been reported as the highest prevalence rate (19.3 per 100,000) among Bangladeshi women between 15 and 44 years of age. For this prevailing situation a cross-sectional study was designed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of community-dwelling women in Bangladesh towards breast cancer at Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh from July 2013 to June 2014. All female participants attending at outpatient department of BSMMU having age more than 20 years and education at least JSC, purposively selected until the sample size achieved 500...
January 2019: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
Sheila Chanani, Anagha Waingankar, Neena Shah More, Shanti Pantvaidya, Armida Fernandez, Anuja Jayaraman
This study reviews the performance of a community-based nutrition programme in preventing and treating wasting without complications among children under age three in urban informal settlements of India. Implemented by a non-profit organization, with national (Integrated Child Development Services [ICDS]) and city-level (Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai [MCGM]) government partners, the programme screened 7,759 children between May 2014 and April 2015. During this period, the programme admitted 705 moderately wasted and 189 severely wasted children into the treatment group and 6,820 not wasted children into the prevention group...
January 2019: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Jennifer L Northridge
Sexual violence and intimate partner violence are common among adolescents, especially for those who are developmentally disabled. Pediatricians have a critical role in treating and preventing sexual violence in adolescents. As medical providers, they possess trusted access to identify sexual violence in adolescents and to intervene to help prevent further violence and mitigate associated health effects. Therefore, it is imperative that pediatricians are aware of the scope of sexual violence in adolescents...
February 1, 2019: Pediatric Annals
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