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Preventive Health

H L Zhang, X C Gong, X J Hao, J Deng, H Y Liu, D Wu, X X Huo, R Guo
Objective: To investigate the hearing loss and speech disorders in the elderly, to analyze the risk factors of the elderly deafness, as well as to provide reference for the clinical research of the elderly deafness. Methods: From March 2016 to March 2018, 913 elderly people, who were tested for hearing and speech disorders, were examined by a unified questionnaire to investigate the demographic data of the subjects and the related factors of deafness, and the hearing and speech recognition tests were carried out...
February 7, 2019: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
Mu-Rung Li, Hui-Ling Lai
No evidence exists in the literature concerning the prevalence of insomnia and its associated risk factors among prison inmates in Taiwan. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with insomnia among inmates in a large prison in Taiwan. A cross-sectional anonymous questionnaire survey was conducted at a prison. The participants were 1490 male inmates. Participants completed the self-reported Insomnia Severity Index-Chinese version questionnaire, and the sociodemographic and psychological distress questionnaires for the study...
February 18, 2019: Nursing & Health Sciences
Lisa A Prosser, Rafael Harpaz, Angela M Rose, Acham Gebremariam, Angela Guo, Ismael R Ortega-Sanchez, Fangjun Zhou, Kathleen Dooling
Background: The U.S. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recently developed recommendations for use of a new recombinant zoster vaccine (RZV). Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of vaccination with RZV compared with zoster vaccine live (ZVL) and no vaccination, the cost-effectiveness of vaccination with RZV for persons who have previously received ZVL, and the cost-effectiveness of preferential vaccination with RZV over ZVL. Design: Simulation (state-transition) model using U...
February 19, 2019: Annals of Internal Medicine
Cristina Cadenas-Sanchez, Timm Intemann, Idoia Labayen, Enrique G Artero, Celia Alvarez-Bueno, Joaquin Sanchís-Moysi, Pedro J Benito, María Reyes Beltran-Valls, Alejandro Pérez-Bey, Guillermo Sanchez-Delgado, Pere Palou, Germán Vicente-Rodríguez, Luis A Moreno, Francisco B Ortega
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity has become a major health problem in children under the age of 5 years. Providing reference standards would help paediatricians to detect and/or prevent health problems related to both low and high levels of body mass and to central adiposity later in life. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of different weight status categories and to provide sex- and age-specific anthropometry reference standards for Spanish preschool children...
February 18, 2019: Pediatric Research
Alen Marijam, Jan Olbrecht, Alev Ozakay, Volkan Eken, Kinga Meszaros
BACKGROUND: The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) is used for universal infant vaccination in Turkey. OBJECTIVES: To assess the cost effectiveness of replacing PCV13 with pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV). METHODS: A Markov cohort model with monthly cycles following 1 cohort of infants over a 10-year time horizon was used. Local input parameters were obtained from published sources and expert consultation whenever possible...
February 15, 2019: Value in Health Regional Issues
N Windarti, S W Hlaing, M Kakinaka
OBJECTIVES: The obesity epidemic has prevailed worldwide and is currently recognized as a global pandemic disease. Given the argument that various socio-economic features contribute to substantial differences in obesity rates across countries, economic development can also be considered a crucial factor of such variation. This study examines the relationship between economic development and each of three weight-related health statuses (rates of overweight, obesity, and morbid obesity)...
February 15, 2019: Public Health
Katherine C Konvinse, Jason A Trubiano, Rebecca Pavlos, Ian James, Christian M Shaffer, Cosmin A Bejan, Ryan J Schutte, David A Ostrov, Mark A Pilkinton, Misha Rosenbach, Jeffrey P Zwerner, Kristina B Williams, Jack Bourke, Patricia Martinez, Francois Rwandamuriye, Abha Chopra, Mark Watson, Alec J Redwood, Katie D White, Simon A Mallal, Elizabeth J Phillips
BACKGROUND: Vancomycin is a prevalent cause of the severe hypersensitivity syndrome drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) which leads to significant morbidity and mortality and commonly occurs in the setting of combination antibiotic therapy which impacts future treatment choices. Variations in human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I in particular have been associated with serious T-cell mediated adverse drug reactions which has led to preventive screening strategies for some drugs...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Nicole E Nicksic, Andrew J Barnes
E-cigarettes are the most commonly used tobacco product among youth. In addition to harm potential, e-cigarette use is associated with initiating cigarette smoking. Limited research exists whether susceptibility to e-cigarette use is a risk factor for future tobacco and other substance use initiation. This study examined associations between baseline e-cigarette susceptibility and initiation and past 30-day use of e-cigarettes and cigarettes as well as initiation of marijuana and alcohol one year later, after adjusting for other risk factors and sociodemographic confounders...
February 15, 2019: Preventive Medicine
James A Fauerbach, Amanda K Gehrke, Shawn T Mason, Neda F Gould, Stephen M Milner, Julie Caffrey
OBJECTIVE: (1) To evaluate the feasibility of conducting a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of the Safety, Meaning, Activation and Resilience Training (SMART) intervention versus Non-Directive Supportive Psychotherapy (NDSP) in an acutely hospitalized adult burn survivor sample; (2) To assess the preliminary impact of SMART on Acute Stress Disorder (ASD)/Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Major Depress Disorder (MDD) symptom reduction as secondary prevention. DESIGN: Proof-of-concept, parallel group, RCT design...
February 15, 2019: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Sophie Lauridsen, Uffe Christian Braae, Helena Aminel Ngowi, Maria Vang Johansen
BACKGROUND: Taenia solium is a zoonotic tapeworm widely distributed across sub-Saharan Africa. Specific health education is regarded as a central element in controlling T. solium. In 2014, an electronic health education tool called 'The Vicious Worm', which was concerned with prevention of T. Solium was introduced to health and agricultural professionals in Mbeya, Tanzania, an endemic setting. Introduction to ´The Vicious Worm' of 1.5-hours significantly improved the participants' knowledge...
February 15, 2019: Acta Tropica
Jan Bellows, Mary L Berg, Sonnya Dennis, Ralph Harvey, Heidi B Lobprise, Christopher J Snyder, Amy E S Stone, Andrea G Van de Wetering
The 2019 AAHA Dental Care Guidelines for Dogs and Cats outline a comprehensive approach to support companion animal practices in improving the oral health and often, the quality of life of their canine and feline patients. The guidelines are an update of the 2013 AAHA Dental Care Guidelines for Dogs and Cats. A photographically illustrated, 12-step protocol describes the essential steps in an oral health assessment, dental cleaning, and periodontal therapy. Recommendations are given for general anesthesia, pain management, facilities, and equipment necessary for safe and effective delivery of care...
March 2019: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Kieran J Marston, Belinda M Brown, Stephanie R Rainey-Smith, Jeremiah J Peiffer
The global population is aging at an unprecedented rate giving rise to a greater prevalence of age-related illnesses such as dementia and vascular disease. Dementia affects approximately 47 million individuals globally with projections of 130 million by the year 2050. Late-onset Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia, accounting for approximately 75% of all cases and is characterized by a progressive decline in cognitive function, memory, and cerebral volume. The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease is poorly understood; however, aging, genetics, and an individual's diet and lifestyle over several decades appear to be key determinants...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Shanlee M Davis, Mitchell E Geffner
Individuals with Turner syndrome (TS) have a higher morbidity and mortality compared to the general population. Diabetes and cardiovascular disease are the major contributors to this burden. Precursors to diabetes and cardiovascular disease make up what is known as metabolic syndrome, including abdominal obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and elevated fasting glucose. These features of poor cardiometabolic health are also prevalent among women with TS. Youth with TS also exhibit many of these features, indicating that the pathogenesis of these cardiometabolic conditions may begin early in life...
February 18, 2019: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part C, Seminars in Medical Genetics
Tanawat Amphansap, Puttapoom Sujarekul
Objectives: The aim of this study was to report the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) over the first year after osteoporotic hip fracture and to identify the factors associated with HRQoL in Police General Hospital in Thailand. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted. 139 subjects who had osteoporotic hip fracture were recruited, which they will be assessed during the preinjury recall and at 3, 6, and 12 months after the fracture. HRQoL was measured as Thailand health state utility values (THSUVs), which derived from EuroQol-5-Dimension-3-Level...
December 2018: Osteoporosis and Sarcopenia
Neelam Kaushal, Divya Vohora, Rajinder K Jalali, Sujeet Jha
Objectives: An understanding of bone mineral density (BMD) pattern in a population is crucial for prevention and diagnosis of osteoporosis and management of its complications in later life. This study aimed to screen the bone health status and factors associated with osteoporosis in an apparently healthy Indian population. Methods: A retrospective review of medical records was done in a tertiary-care hospital for the subjects who had undergone preventive health-check-ups that included BMD measurements at femur-neck, total-femur, and lumbar-spine...
June 2018: Osteoporosis and Sarcopenia
Lo-Yu Chang, Keh-Sung Tsai, Jen-Kuei Peng, Chung-Hwan Chen, Gau-Tyan Lin, Chin-Hsueh Lin, Shih-Te Tu, I-Chieh Mao, Yih-Lan Gau, Hsusan-Chih Liu, Chi-Chien Niu, Min-Hong Hsieh, Jui-Teng Chien, Wei-Chieh Hung, Rong-Sen Yang, Chih-Hsing Wu, Ding-Cheng Chan
Osteoporosis and its associated fragility fractures are becoming a severe burden in the healthcare system globally. In the Asian-Pacific (AP) region, the rapidly increasing in aging population is the main reason accounting for the burden. Moreover, the paucity of quality care for osteoporosis continues to be an ongoing challenge. The Fracture Liaison Service (FLS) is a program promoted by International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF) with a goal to improve quality of postfracture care and prevention of secondary fractures...
June 2018: Osteoporosis and Sarcopenia
Vu H Nguyen
Osteoporosis and fragility fractures have become major global public health concerns, and they can be prevented by maximizing peak bone mass during childhood and adolescence with weight-bearing physical activity, which can result in stronger and healthier bones that significantly decrease the risk of osteoporosis and fragility fractures in adulthood and the elderly years. From a public health perspective, implementing weight-bearing physical activity for children and adolescents is best achieved with school-based exercise interventions, and a review of school-based exercise interventions was conducted to determine their effectiveness in increasing bone mineral density (BMD) and/or bone mineral content (BMC)...
June 2018: Osteoporosis and Sarcopenia
Ching-Lung Cheung, Seng Bin Ang, Manoj Chadha, Eddie Siu-Lun Chow, Yoon-Sok Chung, Fen Lee Hew, Unnop Jaisamrarn, Hou Ng, Yasuhiro Takeuchi, Chih-Hsing Wu, Weibo Xia, Julie Yu, Saeko Fujiwara
Objectives: Hip fracture is a major public health problem. Earlier studies projected that the total number of hip fracture will increase dramatically by 2050, and most of the hip fracture will occur in Asia. To date, only a few studies provided the updated projection, and none of them focused on the hip fracture projection in Asia. Thus, it is essential to provide the most up to date prediction of hip fracture in Asia, and to evaluate the total direct medical cost of hip fracture in Asia...
March 2018: Osteoporosis and Sarcopenia
Gerard J Criner, Michael R Jacobs, Huaqing Zhao, Nathaniel Marchetti
Introduction: Hospitalization for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation portends the greatest risk of rehospitalization and mortality. Treatments that prevent hospitalizations could significantly lessen COPD morbidity and mortality. Methods: We performed a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of roflumilast 500 ug daily versus placebo in patients hospitalized for acute COPD exacerbation. Primary outcome was time to all-cause mortality or non-elective rehospitalization at 180 days post-randomization...
December 20, 2018: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases: Journal of the COPD Foundation
Radmila Choate, David M Mannino, Kristen E Holm, Robert A Sandhaus
Background : The aim of this study was to examine differences in demographic, health, and behavioral characteristics in individuals with ZZ and SZ genotypes of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) within AlphaNet's Disease Management and Prevention Program (ADMAPP). Methods : Self-reported data from 3535 patients with AATD, including 3031 (85.7%) patients with ZZ, ZNull, and NullNull genotypes (referred to here as ZZ), and 504 (14.3%) with the SZ genotype were analyzed using t-tests, ANOVAs, and Chi-squared tests...
November 30, 2018: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases: Journal of the COPD Foundation
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