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phytochemicals inflammation

Tajur Rahman, Ghias Uddin, Muhammad Iqbal Choudhary
Millettia ovalifolia is traditionally used in variety of diseases including inflammation. In our investigation in to the phytochemical constituents of Millettia ovalifolia an effort was made to find out bioactive constituent from medicinal Plant M. ovalifolia to scientifically validate its use in inflammatory disorders. The compound 7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-2H-chromen-2-one was isolated from the bark of M. ovalifolia and was found to exhibited significant lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitory activity with (IC50 value: 116...
January 2019: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Weerachai Pipatrattanaseree, Arunporn Itharat, Nichamon Mukkasombut, Ubonwan Saesiw
BACKGROUND: The root of Baliospermum montanum has been used as an ingredient of traditional Thai medicines for the treatments of several diseases including itching eczema, muscle and joint inflammation, and cancer. Few studies have been done on phytochemical components of this root. In this study, we isolated major compounds of the crude ethanolic extract of B. montanum root and developed and validated a high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the determination of its major components...
February 12, 2019: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Shuo Deng, Muthu K Shanmugam, Alan Prem Kumar, Celestial T Yap, Gautam Sethi, Anupam Bishayee
Autophagy, also known as macroautophagy, is a tightly regulated process involved in the stress responses, such as starvation. It is a vacuolar, lysosomal pathway for the degradation of damaged proteins and organelles in eukaryotic cells. Autophagy also plays a key role in various tissue processes and immune responses and in the regulation of inflammation. Over the past decade, three levels of autophagy regulation have been identified in mammalian cells: 1) signaling, 2) autophagosome formation, and 3) autophagosome maturation and lysosomal degradation...
February 12, 2019: Cancer
César G Fraga, Kevin D Croft, David O Kennedy, Francisco A Tomás-Barberán
Although deficiencies in polyphenol intake do not result in specific deficiency diseases, adequate intake of polyphenols could confer health benefits, especially with regard to chronic diseases. Tea, cocoa, fruits, and berries, as well as vegetables, are rich in polyphenols. Flavan-3-ols from cocoa have been found to be associated with a reduced risk of stroke, myocardial infarction, and diabetes, as well as improvements in lipids, endothelial-dependent blood flow and blood pressure, insulin resistance, and systemic inflammation...
February 12, 2019: Food & Function
Joubert Aires De Sousa, Lismare da Silva Prado, Bárbara Lopes Alderete, Fernanda Brião Menezes Boaretto, Mariangela C Allgayer, Fabiano Moraes Miguel, Jayne Torres De Sousa, Norma Possa Marroni, Maria Luísa Brodt Lemes, Dione Silva Corrêa, Alexandre de Barros Falcão Ferraz, Jaqueline Nascimento Picada
Campomanesia xanthocarpa leaves are used as tea to treat diarrhea, inflammation, and hypercholesterolemia. Some pharmacological studies noted its beneficial uses of C. xanthocarpa; however, few investigations examined the toxicological profile of this plant. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition, genotoxic, and mutagenic potential of an aqueous extract of C. xanthocarpa leaves (CxAE), and potential protective effects against oxidative damage. Phytochemical constituents were determined using HPLC, and antioxidant effect in vitro was measured using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical assay...
February 10, 2019: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Jaqueline Lopes Damasceno, Yadira Fernández Arnet, Giovanna Capaldi Fortunato, Luiza Girotto, Gabriel Davi Marena, Beatriz Patti Rocha, Flávia Aparecida Resende, Sergio Ricardo Ambrosio, Rodrigo Cássio Sola Veneziani, Jairo Kenupp Bastos, Carlos Henrique Gomes Martins
Trees of the Copaifera genus are native to the tropical regions of Latin America and Western Africa. Copaifera sp is widely used as a popular medicine and it has various ethnopharmacological indications, including gonorrhea, bronchitis, asthma, skin ulcers, ulcers, sore throat, uterine infections, general inflammations, cancer, and leishmanioses. Kaurenoic acid is a naturally occurring diterpene found in Copaifera and has been used as an anti-inflammatory, treatment of ulcer, leishmaniasis, and cancer. Bearing in mind the fact that the Ames test is an excellent tool to assess the safety of extracts, oils, and phytochemicals isolated from medicinal plants, from it, we evaluate the mutagenic potential of four species, between oleoresins ( C...
2019: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Jianwei Chen, Xuelian Bai, Yi Hua, Huawei Zhang, Hong Wang
Bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude extract of fermentation broth of one symbiotic strain Fusarium oxysporum ZZP-R1 derived from coastal plant Rumex madaio Makino, one traditional Chinese medicine used as a treatment of inflammation and toxication, yielded two novel compounds, fusariumins C (1) and D (2). Chemical structures of 1 and 2 were respectively determined as one meroterpene with cyclohexanone moiety and a sesquiterpene ester with a conjugated triene and an unusual oxetene ring by a combination of spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D NMR, mass spectrometry, and optical rotation analysis, as well as by comparison with literature data...
January 29, 2019: Fitoterapia
Xiao-Dan MEIm, Yan-Feng Cao, Yan-Yun Che, Jing Li, Zhan-Peng Shang, Wen-Jing Zhao, Yan-Jiang Qiao, Jia-Yu Zhang
Danshen, the dried root or rhizome of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge., is a traditional and folk medicine in Asian countries, especially in China and Japan. In this review, we summarized the recent researches of Danshen in traditional uses and preparations, chemical constituents, pharmacological activities and side effects. A total of 201 compounds from Danshen have been reported, including lipophilic diterpenoids, water-soluble phenolic acids, and other constituents, which have showed various pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, anti-tumor, anti-atherogenesis, and anti-diabetes...
January 2019: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
Eui-Seong Park, Gyl-Hoon Song, Seung-Hee Kim, Seung-Min Lee, Yong-Gyu Kim, Yaung-Lee Lim, Soon Ah Kang, Kun-Young Park
Rumex crispus (Rc) and Cordyceps militaris (Cm) mixture (Rc-Cm; AST2017-01) ameliorated production of proinflammatory cytokines, inflammation-related genes, and nitric oxide (NO) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mouse splenocytes. Rc-Cm (6:4) and Taemyeongcheong (commercial healthy drink containing Rc-Cm) were co-administered along with LPS. Rc-Cm inhibited production of tumor necrosis factor α, interferon γ, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 in LPS-induced splenocytes. However, levels of inflammatory cytokines were elevated in the absence of LPS treatment...
December 2018: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
Imen Smida, Carola Pentelescu, Ovidiu Pentelescu, Alaa Sweidan, Nolwenn Oliviero, Vincent Meuric, Benedicte Martin, Loredana Colceriu, Martine Bonnaure-Mallet, Zohreh Tamanai-Shacoori
AIM: The purpose of this study was to conduct phytochemical analysis of sea buckthorn pulp oil and to evaluate the antimicrobial, anti-biofilm and antioxidant activities of its mouthwash form. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fatty acid composition of the sea buckthorn pulp oil was determined by GC-MS analysis, which revealed that, mono-unsaturated fatty acid, palmitoleic acid and saturated fatty acid, palmitic acid, were the major constituents. The antimicrobial and the anti-biofilm capacities of sea buckthorn pulp oil mouthwash form were evaluated against Streptococcus gordonii, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Actinomyces viscosus and Candida albicans, according to the European Norms, and the Biofilm Ring Test® , respectively...
January 23, 2019: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Somaiya Mateen, Sumayya Shahzad, Shafeeque Ahmad, Syed Shariq Naeem, Saifullah Khalid, Kafil Akhtar, Waseem Rizvi, Shagufta Moin
BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory autoimmune disease which leads to bone and cartilage erosion. Oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines plays crucial role in the pathophysiology of RA. Cinnamaldehyde and eugenol have a long history of medical use in various inflammatory disorders. PURPOSE: The drugs available for the treatment of RA are associated with various side effects. The present study was conducted to evaluate the anti-arthritic effects of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol in rat model of arthritis...
September 5, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Loretta Pobłocka-Olech, Iwona Inkielewicz-Stepniak, Mirosława Krauze-Baranowska
BACKGROUND: Poplar leaf-buds (Populi gemmae) are used traditionally as anti-inflammatory agents to the treatment of skin injuries or cough. They differ in their diverse chemical composition and different types of activities, whose mechanisms are not fully recognized. PURPOSE: Evaluation and comparison of anti-inflammatory activity of leaf-buds extracts from Populus nigra, P. × berolinensis and P. lasiocarpa and flavanones - pinocembrin and pinostrobin towards human gingival fibroblasts (HGF-1) pro-inflammatory stimulated by silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)...
August 10, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Fabio Altieri, Francesco Cairone, Flavia Giamogante, Simone Carradori, Marcello Locatelli, Silvia Chichiarelli, Stefania Cesa
Pomegranate fruit is a functional food of high interest for human health due to its wide range of phytochemicals with antioxidant properties are implicated in the prevention of inflammation and cancer. Ellagitannins, such as punicalagin and ellagic acid, play a role as anti-atherogenic and neuroprotective molecules in the complex fighting against the degenerative diseases. The aim of this work was to evaluate the composition in punicalagins and ellagic acid of differently obtained extracts from whole fruit, peels and juices, prepared by squeezing or by centrifugation, of pomegranate belonging to different cultivars...
January 17, 2019: Nutrients
Saifullah Abubakar, Majed Ahmed Al-Mansoub, Vikneswaran Murugaiyah, Kit-Lam Chan
The Dillenia suffruticosa leaves (Dilleniaceae), a folk medicine recommended in Southeast Asia for treating inflammation, were phytochemically studied for the first time and assessed for suppression of λ-carrageenan-induced paw oedema in rats. The crude methanolic extract orally administered at 5,000 mg/kg, displayed no toxicity and at 250 to 1,000 mg/kg significantly suppressed the paw oedema. Two-isolated triterpenoids, betulinic acid (1) and koetjapic acid (2) orally administered at 50 mg/kg, significantly reduced the paw oedema, (p < 0...
January 17, 2019: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Roberta Targino Hoskin, Jia Xiong, Debora Araújo Esposito, Mary Ann Lila
Wild blueberry pomace extract complexed with wheat or chickpea flour or soy protein isolate produced spray dried and freeze-dried polyphenol-protein particles. To evaluate the impact of spray drying on the biological activity of these food ingredients in vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, regulation of glucose metabolism and ability to stimulate fibroblast migration were tested. Extracts from polyphenol-protein particles significantly decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and down-regulated the gene expression of inflammation markers (COX-2 and IL-1β)...
May 15, 2019: Food Chemistry
David C Nieman, Mary Ann Lila, Nicholas D Gillitt
Immunometabolism is an evolving field of scientific endeavor that merges immunology and metabolism and has provided valuable context when evaluating the influence of dietary interventions on exercise-induced immune dysfunction. Metabolomics, lipidomics, and proteomics provide a system-wide view of the metabolic response to exercise by simultaneously measuring and identifying a large number of small molecule metabolites, lipids, and proteins. Many of these are involved with immune function and regulation and are sensitive to dietary influences, especially acute carbohydrate ingestion from either sugar beverages or fruits such as bananas...
January 11, 2019: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
Sana Bahri, Raed Abdennabi, Mona Mlika, Gharsallah Neji, Saloua Jameleddine, Ridha Ben Ali
Lung fibrosis is a lethal interstitial disease characterized by massive proliferation of fibroblast inducing excessive collagen deposition. We aimed to investigate whether Date palm sap (DPS) can play a protective effect on bleomycin (BLM)-induced lung fibrosis in rats. MaleWistar rats were given single dose of BLM (4 mg/kg, intra-tracheal), while DPS (45 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) was administered three days later and continued for three weeks (BLM/DPS group). Characterization of phenolic compounds in DPS was evaluated by LC-HRESIMS analysis...
January 9, 2019: Nutrition and Cancer
Neetu Saini, Devinder Singh, Rajat Sandhir
Inflammation is considered as an early event in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) that precedes the formation of Aβ plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Therefore, strategies aimed at attenuating inflammation by phytochemicals may be a potential therapeutic intervention against AD. The present study was designed to evaluate if colchicine-induced inflammation and Aβ production could be prevented by Bacopa monnieri (BM) supplementation. Dementia was induced by a single intracerebroventicular injection of colchicine (15 μg/5 μl), whereas, BM extract was administered orally (50 mg/kg body weight, daily) for 15 days...
January 2, 2019: Metabolic Brain Disease
Isaac A Adedara, Opeyemi B Fasina, Modupe F Ayeni, Olamide M Ajayi, Ebenezer O Farombi
Clinical and experimental data have demonstrated that diabetes is associated with neurological complications. Protocatechuic acid (PCA) is a phenolic phytochemical widely reported to possess antidiabetic property. However, there is no scientific information on the influence of PCA on diabetes-induced neurotoxicity. The present study aimed at investigating the neuroprotective mechanism of PCA in streptozotozin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetic rats orally treated with PCA (50 mg/kg body weight) or glibenclamide (5 mg/kg body weight) for 45 consecutive days...
December 28, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Swati Pundir, Neeraj Mahindroo
ROYLEA CINEREA: (D.Don) Baillon family Lamiaceae is a shrub of the monotypic genus. Aerial parts of the plant are used traditionally in Indian sub-Himalayas and Nepal for the treatment of jaundice, skin diseases, malaria, diabetes, febrifuge and contusions. METHOD: This article reviews botanical description, phytochemistry, ethnomedicinal uses and pharmacological activities of R. cinerea to evaluate if the scientifically evaluated pharmacological profile of the plant can corroborate ethnomedicinal uses...
December 27, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
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