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Shireesh Srivastava, Richard L Veech
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is proposed to maintain thermal homeostasis through dissipation of chemical energy as heat by the uncoupling proteins (UCPs) present in their mitochondria. The recent demonstration of the presence of BAT in humans has invigorated research in this area. The research has provided many new insights into the biology and functioning of this tissue and the biological implications of its altered activities. Another finding of interest is browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) resulting in what is known as beige/brite cells, which have increased mitochondrial proteins and UCPs...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
Ko Fujimori, Kosuke Aritake, Yo Oishi, Nanae Nagata, Toko Maehara, Michael Lazarus, Yoshihiro Urade
Lipocalin-type prostaglandin (PG) D synthase (L-PGDS) is responsible for the production of PGD2 in adipocytes and is selectively induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) in adipose tissue. In this study, we investigated the effects of HFD on obesity and insulin resistance in two distinct types of adipose-specific L-PGDS gene knockout (KO) mice: fatty acid binding protein 4 (fabp4, aP2)-Cre/L-PGDS flox/flox and adiponectin (AdipoQ)-Cre/L-PGDS flox/flox mice. The L-PGDS gene was deleted in adipocytes in the premature stage of the former strain and after maturation of the latter strain...
February 13, 2019: Scientific Reports
Magdalena Blaszkiewicz, Jake W Willows, Cory P Johnson, Kristy L Townsend
Brown and white adipose tissues are essential for maintenance of proper energy balance and metabolic health. In order to function efficiently, these tissues require both endocrine and neural communication with the brain. Brown adipose tissue (BAT), as well as the inducible brown adipocytes that appear in white adipose tissue (WAT) after simulation, are thermogenic and energy expending. This uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-mediated process requires input from sympathetic nerves releasing norepinephrine. In addition to sympathetic noradrenergic signaling, adipose tissue contains sensory nerves that may be important for relaying fuel status to the brain...
February 12, 2019: Biology
T V S Tsosura, F Y Chiba, M S L C Mattera, R F Pereira, L T A Cintra, L C Conti, R M Dos Santos, J H P Mateus, C A S Garbin, D H Sumida
AIM: To investigate the plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) of rats with maternal apical periodontitis (AP) and to explore the effect of maternal inflammation on the initial steps of insulin signaling and the inflammatory pathway in the gastrocnemius muscle (GM) and periepididymal white adipose tissue (pWAT) of adult offspring. METHODOLOGY: Fifteen female Wistar rats were distributed into a control group (CN), a group with 1 AP (1AP) and group with 4 AP (4AP)...
February 12, 2019: International Endodontic Journal
Zhe Yang, Ming-Zhi Zhu, Yang-Bo Zhang, Bei-Bei Wen, Hui-Min An, Xing-Chang Ou, Yi-Fan Xiong, Hai-Yan Lin, Zhong-Hua Liu, Jian-An Huang
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and caffeine in tea exert anti-obesity effects and induces nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) amelioration. However, previous studies usually performed a high-dose EGCG administration, whereas the insecurity was arisen in recent researches. In this study, we treated obese rats with an elaborate dose-40 mg/kg EGCG, 20 mg/kg caffeine, and the coadministration of them as low dose, which were similar to the daily intake; 160 mg/kg EGCG as high dose, which was the maximum safe dose had touched the contentious edge...
February 11, 2019: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Vasin Vasikasin, Worapong Nasomsong, Chutika Srisuttiyakorn, Wat Mitthamsiri, Nittha Oer-Areemitr, Dhitiwat Changpradub
Disseminated phaeohyphomycosis is an extremely rare clinical syndrome, especially in a host without apparent immunological defect. Here, we report a case of disseminated phaeohyphomycosis in a 22-year-old previously healthy man who showed nonmassive hemoptysis from diffuse lung nodules and cavities, together with a hard palate ulcer and generalized subcutaneous nodules. Histopathology, cultures and subsequent molecular assay from two different sites confirmed Curvularia tuberculata infection. The patient was successfully treated with amphotericin B and itraconazole...
February 11, 2019: Mycopathologia
Seung-Hyun Ro, Yura Jang, Jiyoung Bae, Isaac M Kim, Cameron Schaecher, Zachery D Shomo
Autophagy, lipophagy, and mitophagy are considered to be the major recycling processes for protein aggregates, excess fat, and damaged mitochondria in adipose tissues in response to nutrient status-associated stress, oxidative stress, and genotoxic stress in the human body. Obesity with increased body weight is often associated with white adipose tissue (WAT) hypertrophy and hyperplasia and/or beige/brown adipose tissue atrophy and aplasia, which significantly contribute to the imbalance in lipid metabolism, adipocytokine secretion, free fatty acid release, and mitochondria function...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
Eva Xepapadaki, Giuseppe Maulucci, Caterina Constantinou, Eleni A Karavia, Evangelia Zvintzou, Bareket Daniel, Shlomo Sasson, Kyriakos E Kypreos
High density lipoprotein (HDL) has attracted the attention of biomedical community due to its well-documented role in atheroprotection. HDL has also been recently implicated in the regulation of islets of Langerhans secretory function and in the etiology of peripheral insulin sensitivity. Indeed, data from numerous studies strongly indicate that the functions of pancreatic β-cells, skeletal muscles and adipose tissue could benefit from improved HDL functionality. To better understand how changes in HDL structure may affect diet-induced obesity and type 2 diabetes we aimed at investigating the impact of Apoa1 or Lcat deficiency, two key proteins of peripheral HDL metabolic pathway, on these pathological conditions in mouse models...
February 8, 2019: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease
Xiaojin Zhang, Xuan Chen, Tao Qi, Qiuyue Kong, Hao Cheng, Xiaofei Cao, Yuehua Li, Chuanfu Li, Li Liu, Zhengnian Ding
Obesity is one of the most serious public health problems. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) plays the master role in adipocyte differentiation for obesity development. However, optimum anti-obesity drug has yet been developed, mandating more investigation to identify novel regulator in obesity pathogenesis. Heat shock protein 12A (HSPA12A) encodes a novel member of the HSP70 family. Here, we report that obese patients showed increased adipose HSPA12A expression, which was positively correlated with increase of body mass index...
February 11, 2019: Cell Death and Differentiation
Fábio da Silva Pimenta, Hadnan Tose, Élio Waichert Jr, Márcia Regina Holanda da Cunha, Fabiana Vasconcelos Campos, Elisardo Corral Vasquez, Hélder Mauad
BACKGROUND: Mobility of fat deposited in adipocytes among different fatty territories can play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of obesity-related diseases. Our goal was to investigate which of the remaining fat pads assume the role of accumulating lipids after surgical removal of parietal WAT (lipectomy; LIPEC) in rats of both sexes displaying MSG-induced obesity. METHODS: The animals entered the study straight after birth, being separated according to gender and randomly divided into CON (control, saline-treated) and MSG (monosodium glutamate-treated) groups...
February 9, 2019: Lipids in Health and Disease
Dirk Jan Stenvers, Aldo Jongejan, Sadaf Atiqi, Jeroen P Vreijling, Eelkje J Limonard, Erik Endert, Frank Baas, Perry D Moerland, Eric Fliers, Andries Kalsbeek, Peter H Bisschop
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Animal studies have indicated that disturbed diurnal rhythms of clock gene expression in adipose tissue can induce obesity and type 2 diabetes. The importance of the circadian timing system for energy metabolism is well established, but little is known about the diurnal regulation of (clock) gene expression in obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. In this study we aimed to identify key disturbances in the diurnal rhythms of the white adipose tissue transcriptome in obese individuals with type 2 diabetes...
February 9, 2019: Diabetologia
Siyu Wang, Min-Hsiung Pan, Wei-Lun Hung, Yen-Chen Tung, Chi-Tang Ho
The global incidence of obesity and its complications continue to rise along with a demand for novel therapeutic approaches. In addition to classic brown adipose tissue (BAT), the formation of brown-like adipocytes called beige adipocytes, within white adipose tissue (WAT), has attracted much attention as a therapeutic target due to its inducible features when stimulated, resulting in the dissipation of extra energy as heat. There are various dietary agents that are able to modulate the beige-development process by interacting with critical molecular signaling cascades, leading to the enhancement of thermogenesis...
February 8, 2019: Food & Function
Hao Yu, Zhigao Song, Hongbin Zhang, Kehong Zheng, Junfang Zhan, Qing Luo, Jingbo Sun, Li Liang, Xiaojiang Dai, Liangping Wu
BACKGROUND: Current studies indicate that inflammation of white adipose tissue (WAT) is a pathogenic characteristic of insulin resistance. However, the significance of visceral WAT inflammation after bariatric surgery remains unclear. METHODS: Duodenojejunal bypass plus sleeve gastrectomy (DJB-SG) was performed on Goto-Kakisaki rats. Weight, fasting blood glucose (FBG), and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in the DJB-SG group were compared to those in a sham surgery (SHAM) group every 2 weeks...
February 8, 2019: Obesity Surgery
Kalpana Panati, Venkata Ramireddy Narala, Vydyanath R Narasimha, Madhavi Derangula, Venkat R R Arva Tatireddigari, Suneetha Yeguvapalli
Fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5) is a transmembrane protein. Upon cleavage, it yields a peptide called irisin that is supposedly bind to an unknown receptor and facilitates browning of white adipose tissue (WAT). Increased levels of irisin are associated with increased levels of energy expenditure markers PGC-1α, UCP-1, besides abundance of beige adipocytes in WAT. Though varied sizes of irisin were reported in humans and rodents it is not yet clear about the actual size of the irisin produced physiologically...
December 2018: Journal, Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology
Huqun Li, Shiyong Peng, Shihong Li, Shouqing Liu, Yifan Lv, Ni Yang, Liangyu Yu, Ya-Hui Deng, Zhongjian Zhang, Maosheng Fang, Yunxiang Huo, Ying Chen, Taohua Sun, Weiyong Li
Olanzapine is a second-generation anti-psychotic drug used to prevent neuroinflammation in patients with schizophrenia. However, the long-term administration of olanzapine leads to insulin resistance (IR); the mechanisms of this effect remains poorly understood. Using cellular and rodent models of IR induced by olanzapine, we found that chronic olanzapine treatment induces differential inflammatory cytokine reactions in peripheral adipose and the central nervous system. Long-term treatment of olanzapine caused metabolic symptoms, including IR, by markedly elevating the plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8 and TNFα; these findings are consistent with observations from schizophrenia patients chronically treated with olanzapine...
February 7, 2019: Scientific Reports
Dhruv Jha, Papiya Mitra Mazumder
Metabolic syndrome is an agglomeration of disorders including obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases and characterized as chronic mild inflammation which elevates the circulatory inflammatory markers. This could be due to mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and hypoxia as a consequence of high fat diet (HFD) intake. The present study focuses on the effects of HFD on lactate and mitochondrial metabolism as well as tissue dependent changes in glucose transporter (GLUT) expression in liver, skeletal muscles and adipose tissue of mouse...
February 6, 2019: Molecular Biology Reports
Huanyu Lu, Ming Wei, Yue Zhai, Qingyang Li, Zichen Ye, Li Wang, Wenjing Luo, Jingyuan Chen, Zifan Lu
The postmenopausal state is associated with an increased risk of metabolic disorder including reduced energy expenditure and weight gain, leading to higher cardiovascular and cancer risks among other diseases. Mitochondrial-derived peptide (MOTS-c) is a 16-amino acid peptide encoded by mitochondrial DNA. Here, we showed that MOTS-c treatment in mice prevented ovariectomy-induced obesity and insulin resistance. After ovariectomy, low levels of estrogens increased fat mass overload and disturbed normal adipose function, forcing the development of insulin resistance...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
Takahiro Ohkura, Teizo Yoshimura, Masayoshi Fujisawa, Toshiaki Ohara, Rie Marutani, Kaya Usami, Akihiro Matsukawa
Chronic low-grade inflammation in visceral adipose tissues triggers the development of obesity-related insulin resistance, leading to the metabolic syndrome, a serious health condition with higher risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and stroke. In the present study, we investigated whether Sprouty-related EVH1-domain-containing protein 2 (Spred2), a negative regulator of the Ras/Raf/ERK/MAPK pathway, plays a role in the development of high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, adipose tissue inflammation, metabolic abnormalities, and insulin resistance...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
Yan Xiong, Zihuan Wu, Bin Zhang, Chao Wang, Fengyi Mao, Xiao Liu, Keping Hu, Xiaobo Sun, Wen Jin, Shihuan Kuang
Fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (Fndc5) is a transmembrane protein highly expressed in the skeletal muscle. It was reported that exercise promotes the shedding of the extracellular domain of Fndc5, generating a circulating peptide (irisin) that cross-talks to adipose tissues to convert lipid-storing white adipocytes to energy-catabolizing beige adipocytes. However, the requirement of Fndc5 in mediating the beneficial effect of exercise remains to be determined. Here, we created a mouse model of Fndc5 mutation through transcription activator-like effector nuclease-mediated DNA targeting...
February 5, 2019: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Pan Wang, Daotong Li, Weixin Ke, Dong Liang, Xiaosong Hu, Fang Chen
OBJECTIVE: Resveratrol (RSV) is a natural polyphenol with putative anti-obesity effects; however, its mechanisms of action remain unclear due to its low bioavailability. Microbial functions in the physiology result from the microbiota-host coevolution has profoundly affected host metabolism. Here, we sought to determine how beneficial microbiome caused by RSV interventions affects antiobesity. METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were fed either standard diet (SD) or RSV (300 mg/kg/day) diet for 16 weeks...
February 4, 2019: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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