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Leishmania OR leishmaniasis

Rafael Balaña-Fouce, M Yolanda Pérez Pertejo, Barbara Dominguez-Asejo, Camino Gutiérrez-Corbo, Rosa M Reguera
The current commitment of the pharma industry, nongovernmental organizations and academia to find better treatments against neglected tropical diseases should end decades of challenge caused by these global scourges. The initial result of these efforts has been the introduction of enhanced combinations of drugs, currently in clinical use, or formulations thereof. Phenotypic screening based on intracellular parasite infections has been revealed as the first key tool of antileishmanial drug discovery, because most first-in-class drugs entering Phase I trials were discovered this way...
March 12, 2019: Drug Discovery Today
Raquel Santos-de-Souza, Luzia Monteiro de Castro Côrtes, Karen Dos Santos Charret, Léa Cysne-Finkelstein, Carlos Roberto Alves, Franklin Souza-Silva
Serine proteinases in Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis promastigotes were assessed in this work. This study included the investigation of the enzymatic activity of subcellular fractions obtained from benzamidine affinity chromatography, reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions, and in silico assays of subcellular localization of subtilisin. Promastigote serine proteinases showed gelatinolytic activity with molecular masses of 43 kDa to 170 kDa in the cytosolic fraction and 67 kDa to 170 kDa in the membranous fraction...
March 15, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Laetitia Bocquet, Sevser Sahpaz, Natacha Bonneau, Claire Beaufay, Séverine Mahieux, Jennifer Samaillie, Vincent Roumy, Justine Jacquin, Simon Bordage, Thierry Hennebelle, Feng Chai, Joëlle Quetin-Leclercq, Christel Neut, Céline Rivière
New anti-infective agents are urgently needed to fight microbial resistance. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains are particularly responsible for complicated pathologies that are difficult to treat due to their virulence and the formation of persistent biofilms forming a complex protecting shell. Parasitic infections caused by Trypanosoma brucei and Leishmania mexicana are also of global concern, because of the mortality due to the low number of safe and effective treatments. Female inflorescences of hop produce specialized metabolites known for their antimicrobial effects but underexploited to fight against drug-resistant microorganisms...
March 14, 2019: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Ahmad Abolghazi, Forough Ebrahimizadeh, Fatemh Sharafi, Naser Hatami, Zahra Vafai
INTRODUCTION:  Cutaneous Leishmaniasis is a unicellular of the Leishmania type, and 0.7 to 1.2 million people are annually infected by Cutaneous Leishmaniasis. Larestan is one of the southern cities of Fars Province. Every year, some issues of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis are reported from Larestan. This study aims to analyze the prevalence of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Larestan from 2007 to 2017. METHODOLOGY: The present study is a cross-sectional descriptive-analytical study which is carried out in Larestan...
March 5, 2019: Annals of Global Health
Sumit Joshi, Narendra Kumar Yadav, Keerti Rawat, Vikash Kumar, Rafat Ali, Amogh Anant Sahasrabuddhe, Mohammad Imran Siddiqi, Wahajul Haq, Shyam Sundar, Anuradha Dube
Development of a suitable vaccine against visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a fatal parasitic disease, is considered to be vital for maintaining the success of kala-azar control programs. The fact that Leishmania -infected individuals generate life-long immunity offers a viable proposition in this direction. Our prior studies demonstrated that T-helper1 (Th1) type of cellular response was generated by six potential recombinant proteins viz . elongation factor-2 (elF-2), enolase, aldolase, triose phosphate isomerase (TPI), protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) and p45, derived from a soluble antigenic fraction (89...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
Rafael Tibúrcio, Sara Nunes, Ivanéia Nunes, Mariana Rosa Ampuero, Icaro Bonyek Silva, Reinan Lima, Natalia Machado Tavares, Cláudia Brodskyn
Dendritic cells (DC) are a diverse group of leukocytes responsible for bridging innate and adaptive immunity. Despite their functional versatility, DCs exist primarily in two basic functional states: immature and mature. A large body of evidence suggests that upon interactions with pathogens, DCs undergo intricate cellular processes that culminate in their activation, which is paramount to the orchestration of effective immune responses against Leishmani a parasites. Herein we offer a concise review of the emerging hallmarks of DCs activation in leishmaniasis as well as a comprehensive discussion of the following underlying molecular events: DC- Leishmania interaction, antigen uptake, costimulatory molecule expression, parasite ability to affect DC migration, antigen presentation, metabolic reprogramming, and epigenetic alterations...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
Mikel A González, Melissa J Bell, Scott A Bernhardt, Reginaldo P Brazil, Erin Dilger, Orin Courtenay, James G C Hamilton
BACKGROUND: In Brazil, members of the sand fly species complex Lutzomyia longipalpis transmit Leishmania infantum, a protist parasite that causes visceral leishmaniasis. Male Lu. longipalpis produce a sex pheromone that is attractive to both females and males. During a cluster randomised trial, to determine the combined effect of synthetic sex-aggregation pheromone and insecticide on Le. infantum transmission Lu. longipalpis had been continuously exposed to insecticide for 30 months...
March 14, 2019: Parasites & Vectors
Ohm Prakash, Jana Führing, John Post, Sharon M Shepherd, Thomas C Eadsforth, David Gray, Roman Fedorov, Françoise H Routier
Leishmaniasis is a neglected disease that is caused by different species of the protozoan parasite Leishmania , and it currently affects 12 million people worldwide. The antileishmanial therapeutic arsenal remains very limited in number and efficacy, and there is no vaccine for this parasitic disease. One pathway that has been genetically validated as an antileishmanial drug target is the biosynthesis of uridine diphosphate-glucose (UDP-Glc), and its direct derivative UDP-galactose (UDP-Gal). De novo biosynthesis of these two nucleotide sugars is controlled by the specific UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGP)...
March 12, 2019: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Valéria Bernadete Leite Quixabeira, Ledice Inacia de Araújo Pereira, Poliana Ribeiro Valadares Veras, Ana Carolina Vieira da Costa, Larissa Gomides Fonseca, Hélio Galdino, Ildefonso Alves da Silva, Camila Imai Morato, Sebastião Alves Pinto, Ana Joaquina Cohen Serique Pereira, Miriam Leandro Dorta, Milton Adriano Pelli de Oliveira, Rodrigo Saar Gomes, Fátima Ribeiro-Dias
Phenotypic and functional aspects of monocytes from Localized Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (LCL) patients were evaluated. The frequencies of monocyte subsets and TLR2/TLR4 expression were evaluated in fresh peripheral blood whereas cytokine production was evaluated in whole blood cell cultures stimulated with TLR agonists or L. braziliensis antigen (Ag). CD16+ monocytes frequency was increased in patients compared to controls. A TLR4 agonist (LPS) induced expression of TNF and IL-10 in monocyte subsets of patients and controls...
March 14, 2019: Parasite Immunology
Rohit Shrivastava, Matan Drory-Retwitzer, Michal Shapira
Leishmania parasites lack pathways for de novo purine biosynthesis. The depletion of purines induces differentiation into virulent metacyclic forms. In vitro, the parasites can survive prolonged periods of purine withdrawal changing their morphology to long and slender cells with an extended flagellum, and decreasing their translation rates. Reduced translation leads to the appearance of discrete granules that contain LeishIF4E-3, one of the six eIF4E paralogs encoded by the Leishmania genome. We hypothesize that each is responsible for a different function during the life cycle...
March 14, 2019: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
María José Ferrer, Diana Patricia Wehrendt, Mariana Bonilla, Marcelo Alberto Comini, María Teresa Tellez-Iñón, Mariana Potenza
Trypanosomatids are unicellular organisms that colonize a wide diversity of environments and hosts. For instance, Trypanosoma cruzi is a human pathogen responsible for Chagas diseases, while Leishmania tarentolae infects amphibians and became a biotechnological tool suitable for recombinant protein expression. T. cruzi antigens are needed for the development of improved epitope-based methods for diagnosis and treatment of Chagas disease. Molecular cloning for the production of recombinant proteins offers the possibility to obtain T...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Mathias Hofmann, Adnan Hodžić, Niki Pouliou, Anja Joachim
Canine pathogens transmitted by blood-sucking arthropods are of significant importance for veterinary and, in some cases, human health. However, they are still underestimated and rarely investigated in many parts of the Mediterranean region, mostly due to financial reasons. Therefore, in the present paper, we investigated the occurrence of blood-associated pathogens affecting dogs in Crete, Greece. For this purpose, blood samples from 103 shelter dogs were screened for the pathogens by PCR and serological tests...
March 13, 2019: Parasitology Research
Beatriz Mendes Santos, Adriana Bezerra-Souza, Sonia Aragaki, Eliana Rodrigues, Eric Umehara, João Henrique Ghilardi Lago, Márcia Dalastra Laurenti, Susan Pereira Ribeiro, Luiz Felipe Domingues Passero
Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by a protozoan belonging to Leishmania genus. Different clinical outcomes can be observed depending on the parasite species and patient's health condition. The outcomes can range from single cutaneous lesions to lethal visceral form. The treatment of all forms of leishmaniasis is based on pentavalent antimonials, and, in some cases, the second-line drug, amphotericin B, is used. Beside the toxicity of both classes of drugs, in some areas of the world, parasites are resistant to antimonial...
2019: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Mile Bosilkovski, Marija Dimzova, Marija Cvetkova, Kostadin Poposki, Katerina Spasovska, Ivan Vidinic
INTRODUCTION: The study aimed to compare the etiologic spectrum of diseases causing fever of unknown origin (FUO) and methods for definitive diagnosis in a tertiary care hospital in Republic of North Macedonia during two different time periods. PATIENTS AND METHODS: retrospectively were analysed the causes for FUO and final diagnostic approaches in 185 patients with classic FUO that were treated at the University Hospital for Infectious diseases in Skopje during two time periods...
March 11, 2019: Romanian Journal of Internal Medicine
Mônica Soares Costa, Yasmim Garcia Gonçalves, Samuel Cota Teixeira, Débora Cristina de Oliveira Nunes, Daiana Silva Lopes, Claudio Vieira da Silva, Marcelo Santos da Silva, Bruna Cristina Borges, Marcelo José Barbosa Silva, Renata Santos Rodrigues, Veridiana de Melo Rodrigues, Gustavo Von Poelhsitz, Kelly Aparecida Geraldo Yoneyama
Some metallodrugs that exhibit interesting biological activity contain transition metals such as ruthenium, and have been extensively exploited because of their antiparasitic potential. In previous study, we reported the remarkable anti-Leishmania activity of precursor cis-[RuII Cl2 (dppm)2 ], where dppm = bis(diphenylphosphino)methane, and new ruthenium(II) complexes, cis-[RuII (η2 -O2 CC10 H13 )(dppm)2 ]PF6 (bbato), cis-[RuII (η2 -O2 CC7 H7 S)(dppm)2 ]PF6 (mtbato) and cis-[RuII (η2 -O2 CC7 H7 O2 )(dppm)2 ]PF6 (hmxbato) against some Leishmania species...
March 6, 2019: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Anna Kuna, Michał Gajewski, Martyna Bykowska, Halina Pietkiewicz, Romuald Olszański, Przemysław Myjak
Introduction: Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne infection endemic in 98 countries. Its cutaneous form (CL) causes skin lesions on exposed parts of the body and may lead to scarring. The numbers of imported cases of CL are increasing in Europe but the incidence of CL importation in Poland is unknown. Material and methods: A list of all patients diagnosed with CL at the Department in the years 2005-2017 was obtained. The study presents their data including age, sex, areas visited, purpose of travel, time from the onset of symptoms to correct diagnosis, appearance of lesions, results of impression smears and PCR, and superinfection, if detected, as well as treatment methods and their outcomes...
February 2019: Postȩpy Dermatologii i Alergologii
Ritika Sengupta, Surya Jyati Chowdhury, Srija Moulik, Manab Kumar Ghosh, Bibhuti Saha, Nilay Kanti Das, Mitali Chatterjee
BACKGROUND: Post Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) develops in patients apparently cured of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL), and is the strongest contender for being the disease reservoir. Therefore, existence of a few cases is sufficient to trigger an epidemic of VL in a given community, emphasizing the need for its active detection and in turn ensuring success of the current elimination program. This study explored the impact of active surveillance on the demographic profile of PKDL patients in West Bengal...
March 11, 2019: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Dinorah Gambino, Lucía Otero Á
Metal compounds seem to be a promising approach in the search of new therapeutic solutions for neglected tropical diseases. In this chapter, efforts in the design of prospective metal-based drugs for the treatment of Chagas disease, human African trypanosomiasis, and leishmaniasis are discussed. Careful selection of the metal center (including organometallic cores) and the types and number of coordinated ligands is essential for controlling the reactivity of the complexes and hence, tuning their biological properties...
January 14, 2019: Metal Ions in Life Sciences
Emilie Giraud, Oihane Martin, Laith Yakob, Matthew Rogers
Predicting how Leishmania will respond to control efforts requires an understanding of their transmission strategy. Using real-time quantitative PCR to quantify infectious metacyclic and non-metacyclic forms in mouse skin from single sandfly bites we show that most transmissions were highly enriched for infectious parasites. However, a quarter of sandflies were capable of transmitting high doses containing more non-infectious promastigotes from the vector's midgut. Mouse infections replicating "high" to "low" quality, low-dose transmissions confirmed clear differences in the pathology of the infection and their onward transmissibility back to sandflies...
2019: Communications Biology
Maria Cristina de Oliveira Duque, José Jayme Quintão Silva, Priscilla Andrade Oliveira Soares, Rodrigo Sousa Magalhães, Adriene Paiva Araújo Horta, Lucia Regina Brahim Paes, Marcelo Rosandiski Lyra, Maria Inês Fernandes Pimentel, Liliane de Fátima Antonio, Érica de Camargo Ferreira E Vasconcellos, Maurício Naoto Saheki, Mauro Celio de Almeida Marzochi, Cláudia Maria Valete-Rosalino, Armando de Oliveira Schubach
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is not a life-threatening condition. However, its treatment can cause serious adverse effects and may sometimes lead to death. Recently, safer local treatments have been included among therapies acceptable to New World CL cases, but the use of intralesional meglumine antimoniate (IL-MA) is recommended to be performed in reference centers, for patients with single cutaneous lesions <3 cm in diameter at any location except the head and periarticular regions; the volume of injected MA should not exceed 5 mL...
March 6, 2019: Acta Tropica
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