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Circadian depression

Anastasiya Slyepchenko, Olivia R Allega, Xiamin Leng, Luciano Minuzzi, Maha M Eltayebani, Matthew Skelly, Roberto B Sassi, Claudio N Soares, Sidney H Kennedy, Benicio N Frey
OBJECTIVE: Disruptions in biological rhythms and sleep are a core aspect of mood disorders, with sleep and rhythm changes frequently occurring prior to and during mood episodes. Wrist-worn actigraphs are increasingly utilized to measure ambulatory activity rhythm and sleep patterns. METHODS: A comprehensive study using subjective and objective measures of sleep and biological rhythms was conducted in 111 participants (40 healthy volunteers [HC], 38 with major depressive disorder [MDD] and 33 with bipolar disorder [BD])...
February 13, 2019: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
Trevor R Norman, James S Olver
Agomelatine is an antidepressant with unique pharmacological actions; it is both a melatonin agonist and selective serotonin antagonist. Both actions combined are necessary for antidepressant efficacy. Effects on melatonin receptors enable resynchronisation of disrupted circadian rhythms with beneficial effects on sleep patterns. Areas covered: The issue of use of an antidepressant for depression co-morbid with somatic disorders is covered by the authors. A review of the literature from 2000 to August 2018 was undertaken using Scopus and Web of Science with the key words: agomelatine, depression, medical illness...
February 13, 2019: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Lei Gao, Peng Li, Chelsea Hu, Tommy To, Melissa Patxot, Brigid Falvey, Patricia M Wong, Frank A J L Scheer, Chen Lin, Men-Tzung Lo, Kun Hu
Study Objectives: Sleep-wake regularity (SWR) is often disrupted in college students and mood disorders are rife at this age. Disrupted SWR can cause repetitive and long-term misalignment between environmental and behavioral cycles and the circadian system which may then have psychological and physical health consequences. We tested whether SWR was independently associated with mood and autonomic function in a healthy adult cohort. Methods: We studied 42 college students over a 3-week period using daily sleep-wake diaries and continuous electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings...
February 5, 2019: Sleep
Antoinette Oliveira Blackman, José Sobral Neto, Melchior Luiz Lima, Tânia Maria Andrade Rodrigues, Otoni Moreira Gomes
Imbalance in ventricular repolarization parameters are related to increased risk of severe arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. There is limited research regarding markers to detect patients at risk in this early stage. We aimed to assess the influence of grade I left ventricular diastolic dysfunction on repolarization parameters in asymptomatic patients. Ambulatory patients with grade I left ventricular diastolic dysfunction were studied and compared with a control group. We assessed: the QT dispersion circadian variation, heart rate variability in the time and frequency domains and dynamics of QT using a 12-lead Holter...
January 24, 2019: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Irene Cano-López, Vanesa Hidalgo, Kevin G Hampel, Mercedes Garcés, Alicia Salvador, Esperanza González-Bono, Vicente Villanueva
People with drug-resistant epilepsy are exposed to unpredictable and uncontrollable seizures, which can be considered as a chronic stress condition. Additionally, these patients present memory deficits and a high prevalence of depression and anxiety. Cortisol, the main stress hormone, has a modulatory role on memory in healthy individuals and patients with emotional disorders, but its role in memory and emotional processes remains unclear in people with epilepsy. This study analyzes the differences in cortisol levels in people with epilepsy with high and low memory performance, and the relationships among cortisol levels, epilepsy-related factors, memory, anxiety, and depression...
January 15, 2019: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Karim Fifel, Aleksandar Videnovic
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second-most common progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Although the clinical diagnosis of PD is still based on its cardinal motor dysfunctions, several non-motor symptoms (NMS) have been established as integral part of the disease. Unlike motor disorders, development of therapies against NMS are still challenging and remain a critical unmet clinical need. During the last decade, several studies have characterised the molecular, physiological and behavioural alterations of the circadian system in PD patients...
January 15, 2019: Progress in Neurobiology
Daniel F Levey, Renato Polimanti, Zhongshan Cheng, Hang Zhou, Yaira Z Nuñez, Sonia Jain, Feng He, Xiaoying Sun, Robert J Ursano, Ronald C Kessler, Jordan W Smoller, Murray B Stein, Henry R Kranzler, Joel Gelernter
In 2015, ~800,000 people died by suicide worldwide. For every death by suicide there are as many as 25 suicide attempts, which can result in serious injury even when not fatal. Despite this large impact on morbidity and mortality, the genetic influences on suicide attempt are poorly understood. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of severity of suicide attempts to investigate genetic influences. A discovery GWAS was performed in Yale-Penn sample cohorts of European Americans (EAs, n = 2,439) and African Americans (AAs, n = 3,881)...
January 17, 2019: Translational Psychiatry
M H Bublitz, G Bourjeily, C Bilodeau, L R Stroud
Breastfeeding is associated with positive maternal and infant outcomes. It is recommended that women exclusively breastfeed for the first 6 months postpartum; however, these recommendations are not met in the majority of women. Psychological distress in pregnancy is associated with lower rates of breastfeeding initiation and duration in the postpartum period. The mechanisms linking maternal distress to breastfeeding are not understood. In this study we examined maternal circadian cortisol as a mechanism linking distress in pregnancy to breastfeeding...
January 10, 2019: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Katarina Danielsson, Aysegül Sakarya, Markus Jansson-Fröjmark
During puberty, there is a delay in sleep patterns and the circadian clock, and the prevalence of sleep difficulties is high among young adults. Thus, it is important to be able to measure chronotype (CT) in this group, both in the clinic and for broader epidemiological studies, to better understand the sleep difficulties observed. The reduced version of one of the most widely used questionnaire to measure CT, the Horne & Östberg Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ), has been developed and validated in many languages...
January 7, 2019: Chronobiology International
Jeremy D Baker, Ilayda Ozsan, Santiago Rodriguez Ospina, Danielle Gulick, Laura J Blair
The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis directly controls the stress response. Dysregulation of this neuroendocrine system is a common feature among psychiatric disorders. Steroid hormone receptors, like glucocorticoid receptor (GR), function as transcription factors of a diverse set of genes upon activation. This activity is regulated by molecular chaperone heterocomplexes. Much is known about the structure and function of these GR/heterocomplexes. There is strong evidence suggesting altered regulation of steroid receptor hormones by chaperones, particularly the 51 kDa FK506-binding protein (FKBP51), may work with environmental factors to increase susceptibility to various psychiatric illnesses including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and anxiety...
December 25, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Carmel Bilu, Paul Zimmet, Vicktoria Vishnevskia-Dai, Haim Einat, Galila Agam, Ehud Grossman, Noga Kronfeld-Schor
Although type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and depression are associated with disturbances in circadian rhythms, most studies of these diseases use nocturnal mice and rats while modeling diurnal humans. We suggest that the development of T2DM and depression are related to changes that accompany the switch from the mammalian ancestral nocturnal activity to the current diurnal one. We show that diurnal sand rats ( Psammomys obesus) held outdoors in laboratory cages (where they are exposed to natural environmental conditions) and fed a standard rodent diet do not develop T2DM in contrast to animals held indoors (where the only cycling environmental condition is light) fed the same diet...
December 25, 2018: Journal of Biological Rhythms
Hui-Ying Ma, Zhi-Fen Liu, Yi-Fan Xu, Xiao-Dong Hu, Ning Sun, Xin-Rong Li, Ke-Rang Zhang
AIM: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common psychiatric disorder with a complicated pathogenesis and genetic predisposition. The objective of this article is to explore the relationship between the four SNPs of circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (CLOCK) gene (rs11932595, rs12504300, rs3805148, rs534654) and the efficacy of antidepressants. Materials & methods: This study enrolled a total of 600 patients, who met the DSM-V diagnostic criteria for MDD. All subjects were treated with single selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors...
December 20, 2018: Personalized Medicine
Yuanyuan Li, Yanli Hao, Fang Fan, Bin Zhang
Good sleep and mood are important for health and for keeping active. Numerous studies have suggested that the incidence of insomnia and depressive disorder are linked to biological rhythms, immune function, and nutrient metabolism, but the exact mechanism is not yet clear. There is considerable evidence showing that the gut microbiome not only affects the digestive, metabolic, and immune functions of the host but also regulates host sleep and mental states through the microbiome-gut-brain axis. Preliminary evidence indicates that microorganisms and circadian genes can interact with each other...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Ka-Fai Chung, Yvonne Patricia Yuan-Ping Poon, Ting-Kin Ng, Chui-Kwan Kan
Circadian rhythm disruption, manifested as circadian misalignment, difficulty initiating sleep, and sleep-wake irregularity, is often left unrecognized in patients with schizophrenia. Studies have shown multiple adverse consequences of sleep irregularity, but limited data is available on schizophrenia. This is a secondary analysis of a case-control study of 66 schizophrenia patients with delayed sleep-wake phase (with or without meeting criteria for the disorder) and normal sleep-wake phase (mean age = 44...
December 2018: Psychiatry Research
Micaela Mitolo, Caterina Tonon, Chiara La Morgia, Claudia Testa, Valerio Carelli, Raffaele Lodi
BACKGROUND: Bright light treatment is a therapeutic intervention mainly used to treat sleep and circadian disturbances in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Recently, a handful of studies also focused on the effect on cognition and behavior. Conflicting findings are reported in the literature, and no definite conclusions have been drawn about its specific therapeutic effect. SUMMARY: The aim of this review is to provide a critical evaluation of available evidence in this field, highlighting the specific characteristics of effective bright light treatment...
2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Michael J McCarthy
Circadian rhythm abnormalities have been recognized as a central feature of bipolar disorder (BD) but a coherent biological explanation for them remains lacking. Using genetic mutation of 'clock genes', robust animal models of mania and depression have been developed that elucidate key aspects of circadian rhythms and the circadian clock-mood connection. However, translation of this knowledge into humans remains incomplete. In recent years, very large genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been conducted and the genetic underpinnings of BD are beginning to emerge...
December 3, 2018: Psychiatric Genetics
C Melo, R C L Vizin, N U Silva, D T Ishikawa, M B Echeverry, D C Carrettiero, M C Almeida
Stressful lifelong events may influence psychiatric diseases, like depression and anxiety. Interestingly, depressed patients have dysfunction of thermoregulatory cooling mechanisms. Thus, understanding the mechanisms related to the thermoregulatory changes in stress-related pathologies is important to better understand the symptoms and treatments for those diseases. However, the influence of early-life stress on the thermoregulatory profile of adults is unknown. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the thermoregulatory profile of adult male Wistar rats submitted to early-life stress by maternal separation (MS)...
December 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
Michael J McCarthy, Heather Wei, Caroline M Nievergelt, Andrea Stautland, Adam X Maihofer, David K Welsh, Paul Shilling, Martin Alda, Ney Alliey-Rodriguez, Amit Anand, Ole A Andreasson, Yokesh Balaraman, Wade H Berrettini, Holli Bertram, Kristen J Brennand, Joseph R Calabrese, Cynthia V Calkin, Ana Claasen, Clara Conroy, William H Coryell, David W Craig, Nicole D'Arcangelo, Anna Demodena, Srdjan Djurovic, Scott Feeder, Carrie Fisher, Nicole Frazier, Mark A Frye, Fred H Gage, Keming Gao, Julie Garnham, Elliot S Gershon, Kara Glazer, Fernando Goes, Toyomi Goto, Gloria Harrington, Petter Jakobsen, Masoud Kamali, Elizabeth Karberg, Marisa Kelly, Susan G Leckband, Falk Lohoff, Melvin G McInnis, Francis Mondimore, Gunnar Morken, John I Nurnberger, Sarah Obral, Ketil J Oedegaard, Abigail Ortiz, Megan Ritchey, Kelly Ryan, Martha Schinagle, Helle Schoeyen, Candice Schwebel, Martha Shaw, Tatyana Shekhtman, Claire Slaney, Emma Stapp, Szabolcs Szelinger, Bruce Tarwater, Peter P Zandi, John R Kelsoe
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a serious mood disorder associated with circadian rhythm abnormalities. Risk for BD is genetically encoded and overlaps with systems that maintain circadian rhythms. Lithium is an effective mood stabilizer treatment for BD, but only a minority of patients fully respond to monotherapy. Presently, we hypothesized that lithium-responsive BD patients (Li-R) would show characteristic differences in chronotype and cellular circadian rhythms compared to lithium non-responders (Li-NR). Selecting patients from a prospective, multi-center, clinical trial of lithium monotherapy, we examined morning vs...
November 16, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Anca D Petrescu, Jessica Kain, Victoria Liere, Trace Heavener, Sharon DeMorrow
The Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis has an important role in maintaining the physiological homeostasis in relation to external and internal stimuli. The HPA axis dysfunctions were extensively studied in neuroendocrine disorders such as depression and chronic fatigue syndrome but less so in hepatic cholestasis, cirrhosis or other liver diseases. The HPA axis controls many functions of the liver through neuroendocrine forward signaling pathways as well as negative feedback mechanisms, in health and disease...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Erika Cecon, Anna Ivanova, Marine Luka, Florence Gbahou, Anne Friederich, Jean-Luc Guillaume, Patrick Keller, Klaus Knoch, Raise Ahmad, Philippe Delagrange, Michele Solimena, Ralf Jockers
Melatonin receptors play important roles in the regulation of circadian and seasonal rhythms, sleep, retinal functions, the immune system, depression and type 2 diabetes development. Melatonin receptors are approved drug targets for insomnia, non-24h sleep-wake disorders and major depressive disorders. In mammals, two melatonin receptors (MTRs) exist, MT1 and MT2 , belonging to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) super-family. Similar to most other GPCRs, reliable antibodies recognizing melatonin receptors prooved to be difficult to obtain...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
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