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Stem cell treatments

Ping Zhang, Guoyang Zhang, Xiaoyan Liu, Hongyun Liu, Pengfeng Yang, Liping Ma
Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a common autoimmune bleeding disorder. The breakdown of immune tolerance (regulatory T [Treg] cells and suppressor cytokines) plays an important role in ITP pathophysiology, especially in refractory ITP. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) show immunomodulatory properties and have been extensively utilized for autoimmune diseases. However, it has not been fully elucidated how BM-MSCs affect ITP. In this study, we explore the therapeutic mechanism of BM-MSCs on ITP in mice...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Boohwi Hong, Sunyeul Lee, Nara Shin, Youngkwon Ko, DongWoon Kim, Jun Lee, Wonhyung Lee
Objectives: Current treatments for osteoporosis were prevention of progression, yet it has been questionable in the stimulation of bone growth. The mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) treatment for osteoporosis aims to induce differentiation of bone progenitor cells into bone-forming osteoblasts. We investigate whether human umbilical cord blood (hUCB)-MSCs transplantation may induce bone regeneration for osteoporotic rat model induced by ovariectomy. Methods: The ovariectomized (OVX) group (n = 10) and OVX-MSCs group (n = 10) underwent bilateral ovariectomy to induce osteoporosis, while the Sham group (n = 10) underwent sham operation at aged 12 weeks...
September 2018: Osteoporosis and Sarcopenia
Srinath Rajaraman, Denis Canjuga, Michael Ghosh, Marius Cosmin Codrea, Raika Sieger, Florian Wedekink, Marcos Tatagiba, Marilin Koch, Ulrich M Lauer, Sven Nahnsen, Hans-Georg Rammensee, Michael D Mühlebach, Stefan Stevanovic, Ghazaleh Tabatabai
Glioblastoma is an aggressive primary brain tumor with bad prognosis. On the other hand, oncolytic measles virus (MeV) therapy is an experimental glioma treatment strategy with clinical safety and first evidence of anti-tumoral efficacy. Therefore, we investigated the combination of MeV with conventional therapies by cytotoxic survival assays in long-term glioma cell lines LN229, LNZ308, and glioma stem-like GS8 cells, as well as the basal viral infectivity in primary glioblastoma cultures T81/16, T1094/17, and T708/16...
March 29, 2019: Molecular Therapy Oncolytics
Hsin-Yun Cheng, Yung-Song Wang, Po-Yuan Hsu, Chien-Yuan Chen, Yi-Chu Liao, Suh-Hang H Juo
Tissue plasminogen activator is the only U.S. FDA-approved therapy for ischemic stroke, while there is no specific medication for hemorrhagic stroke. Therefore, the treatment of acute stroke continues to be a major unmet clinical need. We explored the effects of miR-195 on neurovascular protection and its potential in treating acute stroke. Using both cellular and animal studies, we showed that miR-195's beneficial effects are mediated by four mechanisms: (1) anti-apoptosis for injured neural cells by directly suppressing Sema3A/Cdc42/JNK signaling, (2) neural regeneration by promoting neural stem cell proliferation and migration, (3) anti-inflammation by directly blocking the NF-kB pathway, and (4) improvement of endothelial functions...
June 14, 2019: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
Varun Victor, Rashmi Maria Margareat
Scleromyxedema is a rare progressive cutaneous mucinosis of unknown etiology with equal prevalence in both men and women. It is usually associated with monoclonal gammopathy in most of the cases. Various treatment modalities have been tried for scleromyxedema including steroids, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and melphalan, but none has proved to be fully effective. This paper reports a case of scelromyxedema in a patient who was found to have multiple myeloma on further evaluation...
January 2019: Indian Dermatology Online Journal
Haley Dicken, Patrick J Hensley, Natasha Kyprianou
The long-standing challenge in the treatment of prostate cancer is to overcome therapeutic resistance during progression to lethal disease. Aberrant transforming-growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling accelerates prostate tumor progression in a transgenic mouse model via effects on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and neuroendocrine differentiation driving tumor progression to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC) is highly aggressive exhibiting reactivation of developmental programs associated with EMT induction and stem cell-like characteristics...
January 2019: Asian Journal of Urology
Mit Balvantray Bhavsar, Gloria Cato, Alexander Hauschild, Liudmila Leppik, Karla Mychellyne Costa Oliveira, Maria José Eischen-Loges, John Howard Barker
Background: Electrochemical signals play an important role in cell communication and behavior. Electrically charged ions transported across cell membranes maintain an electrochemical imbalance that gives rise to bioelectric signaling, called membrane potential or Vmem . Vmem plays a key role in numerous inter- and intracellular functions that regulate cell behaviors like proliferation, differentiation and migration, all playing a critical role in embryonic development, healing, and regeneration...
2019: PeerJ
Diane M Pereira, Sofia E Gomes, Pedro M Borralho, Cecília M P Rodrigues
Colon cancer has been proposed to be sustained by a small subpopulation of stem-like cells with unique properties allowing them to survive conventional therapies and drive tumor recurrence. Identification of targetable signaling pathways contributing to malignant stem-like cell maintenance may therefore translate into new therapeutic strategies to overcome drug resistance. Here we demonstrated that MEK5/ERK5 signaling activation is associated with stem-like malignant phenotypes. Conversely, using a panel of cell line-derived three-dimensional models, we showed that ERK5 inhibition markedly suppresses the molecular and functional features of colon cancer stem-like cells...
2019: Cell Death Discovery
Yumei Luo, Juan Huang, Yi Tang, Xitu Luo, Lingxia Ge, Xiujie Sheng, Xiaofang Sun, Yaoyong Chen, Detu Zhu
Background: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) induces a pathological complete response (pCR) in ~ 30% of patients with breast cancer. However, aberrant DNA methylation alterations are frequent events during breast cancer progression and acquisition of chemoresistance. We aimed to characterize the inter- and intra-tumor methylation heterogeneity (MH) in breast cancer following NAC. Methods: DNA methylation profiles of spatially separated regions of breast tumors before and after NAC treatment were investigated using high-density methylation microarray...
2019: Cell & Bioscience
Negin Shokrgozar, Gholamhossein Tamaddon
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a useful treatment. In contrast to solid organ transplantations, the use of ABO blood group mismatch is acceptable in HSCT. Immediate or late hemolytic reactions, pure red cell aplasia, delayed red blood cell recovery, and graft-versus -host disease are the results of this situation. This review shows the consequences of ABO-mismatched HSCT and its impacts on HSCT parameters, as well as providing clinical guides in this situation.
October 1, 2018: International Journal of Hematology-oncology and Stem Cell Research
Dong Ye, Zhisen Shen, Shuihong Zhou
miRNAs are single-stranded small RNAs that do not encode proteins. They can combine complementarily with the 3'-UTRs of target gene mRNA molecules to promote targeted mRNA degradation or inhibit mRNA translation, thereby regulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. MiRNAs participate in regulation of cell cycling, growth, apoptosis, differentiation, and stress responses. MiRNA-145 (miR-145) is a tumor suppressor that targets various tumor-specific genes and proteins, thereby influencing related signaling pathways...
2019: Cancer Management and Research
Yingwei Zhu, Hong Tang, Lili Zhang, Lei Gong, Gaojue Wu, Jingbin Ni, Xuejun Tang
Background: TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) functions as a selective apoptosis-inducing ligand in cancer cells with normal cells remaining unaffected; however, resistance limits its anticancer properties. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are involved in the treatment of resistant cancer cases including liver cancer (LC). The aim of this study was to look into the approaches for increasing the sensitivity of liver cancer stem cells (LCSCs) toward TRAIL. Methodology: PLC, HepG2 and Huh7 LC cell lines were used in this study...
2019: Cancer Management and Research
Liudmila Leppik, Mit B Bhavsar, Karla M C Oliveira, Maria Eischen-Loges, Sahba Mobini, John H Barker
Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have been used extensively to promote bone healing in tissue engineering approaches. Electrical stimulation (EStim) has been demonstrated to increase MSC osteogenic differentiation in vitro and promote bone healing in clinical settings. Here we describe the construction of an EStim cell culture chamber and its use in treating rat bone-marrow-derived MSC to enhance osteogenic differentiation. We found that treating MSCs with EStim for 7 days results in a significant increase in the osteogenic differentiation, and importantly, this pro-osteogenic effect persists long after (7 days) EStim is discontinued...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Marie-Claude Pelland-Marcotte, Jeremiah Hwee, Jason D Pole, Paul C Nathan, Lillian Sung
Infections are a common complication of treatment for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Less is known about infections occurring after treatment. We performed a systematic review of the literature to assess the incidence of infections after therapy completion in children and young adults with ALL or AML. Twenty-eight studies, with 4138 patients, were included. Four studies reported infections in patients who did not undergo hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT)...
February 18, 2019: Leukemia & Lymphoma
Sofia Bougioukli, Biagio Saitta, Osamu Sugiyama, Amy Tang, Joseph Elphingstone, Denis Evseenko, Jay R Lieberman
Umbilical cord blood (UCB) has been increasingly explored as an alternative source of stem cells for use in regenerative medicine due to several advantages over other stem cell sources, including the need for less stringent HLA matching. Combined with an osteoinductive signal, UCB-MSCs could revolutionize the treatment of challenging bone defects. In this study we aimed to develop an ex vivo regional gene therapy strategy using BMP-2-transduced allogeneic UCB-MSCs to promote bone repair. To this end, human UCB-MSCs were transduced with a lentiviral vector carrying the cDNA for BMP-2 (LV-BMP-2)...
February 16, 2019: Human Gene Therapy
Masoumeh Fardi, Mohammadreza Alivand, Behzad Baradaran, Majid Farshdousti Hagh, Saeed Solali
Zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 2 (ZEB2) is a DNA-binding transcription factor, which is mainly involved in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). EMT is a conserved process during which mature and adherent epithelial-like state is converted into a mobile mesenchymal state. Emerging data indicate that ZEB2 plays a pivotal role in EMT-induced processes such as development, differentiation, and malignant mechanisms, for example, drug resistance, cancer stem cell-like traits, apoptosis, survival, cell cycle arrest, tumor recurrence, and metastasis...
February 17, 2019: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Arghavan Etebarian, Hamid Mirshamsi, Hanieh Sadat Sadeghi, Fatemeh Hemmati
Acute myeloid leukemia is a bone marrow malignancy in which blasts count increases by more than 20% in the bone marrow. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHCT) is a treatment option for these patients with high risk of graft versus host disease (GVHD) development. Chronic GVHD (cGVHD) often mimics a variety of autoimmune conditions such as systemic lupus erythematous or systemic sclerosis. Sclerotic cGVHD has a wide spectrum of oral manifestations, including mucosal atrophy, microstomia, and hyposalivation...
2019: Quintessence International
Jun Feng, Congli Zhang, Kaini Shen, Jian Sun, Quan Fang, Lu Zhang, Xinxin Cao, Daobin Zhou, Jian Li, Zhuang Tian
BACKGROUND: Cardiac involvement occurs in more than half of the patients with light-chain amyloidosis (AL), but the characteristics, treatment and prognosis of cardiac AL (CAL) are not fully described. Methods and Results: A total of 227 patients with CAL diagnosis between January 2009 and March 2017 at Peking Union Medical College Hospital were included. Patients with Mayo stages I, II and III AL accounted for 0.9%, 49.8% and 49.3%, respectively. Autologous stem cell transplantation, bortezomib combinations, non-bortezomib regimens and palliative treatment were given as first line therapy in 3...
February 16, 2019: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
Lisha Li, Yan Sun, Na Zhang, Xuemin Qiu, Ling Wang, Qingyan Luo
Sufentanil is a type of opioid analgesic and is usually used to facilitate painless labor in combination with the local anesthetic ropivacaine. One aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of sufentanil and ropivacaine on umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs). A second aim of this study was to determine whether sufentanil attenuated the cytotoxicity of ropivacaine in vitro. UCMSCs were divided into 3 groups: one was treated with ropivacaine at a concentration of 50, 100, 200, or 400 μg/mL, another was treated with sufentanil at a concentration of 0...
February 17, 2019: Bioscience Trends
Mirza Muhammad Fahd Qadir, Silvia Álvarez-Cubela, Kinsley Belle, Tamar Sapir, Fanuel Messaggio, Kevin B Johnson, Oliver Umland, Darrell Hardin, Dagmar Klein, Ingrid Pérez-Álvarez, Fatima Sadiq, Oscar Alcázar, Luca A Inverardi, Camillo Ricordi, Peter Buchwald, Christopher A Fraker, Ricardo L Pastori, Juan Domínguez-Bendala
The transplantation of human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived insulin-producing β cells for the treatment of diabetes is finally approaching the clinical stage. However, even with state-of-the-art differentiation protocols, a significant percentage of undefined non-endocrine cell types are still generated. Most importantly, there is the potential for carry-over of non-differentiated cell types that may produce teratomas. We sought to modify hESCs so that their differentiated progeny could be selectively devoid of tumorigenic cells and enriched for cells of the desired phenotype (in this case, β cells)...
January 31, 2019: Stem Cell Reports
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