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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30781888/a-review-of-epigenetics-of-ptsd-in-comorbid-psychiatric-conditions
#1
REVIEW
Caren J Blacker, Mark A Frye, Eva Morava, Tamas Kozicz, Marin Veldic
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an acquired psychiatric disorder with functionally impairing physiological and psychological symptoms following a traumatic exposure. Genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors act together to determine both an individual's susceptibility to PTSD and its clinical phenotype. In this literature review, we briefly review the candidate genes that have been implicated in the development and severity of the PTSD phenotype. We discuss the importance of the epigenetic regulation of these candidate genes...
February 13, 2019: Genes
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30781764/identifying-barriers-and-supports-to-breastfeeding-in-the-workplace-experienced-by-mothers-in-the-new-hampshire-special-supplemental-nutrition-program-for-women-infants-and-children-utilizing-the-total-worker-health-framework
#2
Eric A Lauer, Karla Armenti, Margaret Henning, Lissa Sirois
Variations in the barriers and contributors to breastfeeding across industries have not been well characterized for vulnerable populations such as mothers participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Our study used the Total Worker Health Framework to characterize workplace factors acting as barriers and/or contributors to breastfeeding among women participating in the New Hampshire WIC. Surveys were collected from WIC mothers ( n = 682), which asked about employment, industry, and workplace accommodation and supports related to breastfeeding in the workplace...
February 13, 2019: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30779784/children-s-exposure-to-physical-abuse-from-a-child-perspective-a-population-based-study-in-rural-bangladesh
#3
M Atiqul Haque, Staffan Janson, Syed Moniruzzaman, A K M Fazlur Rahman, Syed Shariful Islam, Saidur Rahman Mashreky, Ulla-Britt Eriksson
BACKGROUND: Although child physical abuse (CPA) is considered as a major global public health problem, it has not yet been recognized as such in Bangladesh. Very few studies have assessed the prevalence and victims' characteristics of multiple forms of CPA. OBJECTIVE: This population-based study assessed the prevalence of CPA committed by adults in a rural area of Bangladesh and examined its association with demographic and socio-contextual factors. METHODS: Data were obtained using ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool for Children (ICAST-C) in a random sample of 1416 children (49% girls, 51% boys) aged 11 to 17 years by face-to-face interviews during March-April 2017...
2019: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30779765/prevalence-and-determinants-of-antenatal-depression-in-ethiopia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Getinet Ayano, Getachew Tesfaw, Shegaye Shumet
BACKGROUND: Maternal depression is the most prevalent psychiatric disorder during pregnancy, can alter fetal development and have a lasting impact on the offspring's neurological and behavioral development. However, no review has been conducted to report the consolidated magnitude of antenatal depression (AND) in Ethiopia. Therefore, this review aimed to systematically summarize the existing evidence on the epidemiology of AND in Ethiopia. METHODS: Using PRISMA guideline, we systematically reviewed and meta-analyzed studies that examined the prevalence and associated factors of AND from three electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, and SCOPUS)...
2019: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30779512/predictors-of-health-care-service-quality-among-women-insured-under-ghana-s-national-health-insurance-scheme
#5
Martin Amogre Ayanore, Richard Ofori-Asenso, Amos Laar
BACKGROUND: Insured women in Ghana are more likely to use maternity care services than their uninsured counterparts. To improve service quality among insured women in Ghana, better understanding of the factors that predict quality standards of primary health care services is essential. OBJECTIVE: To examine predictors of health care service quality among insured women under the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in Ghana. METHODS: Data from the 2014 Ghana Demographic Health Survey was analysed...
November 5, 2018: Annals of Global Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30779239/prediction-of-small-for-gestational-age-neonates-at-35-37-weeks-gestation-contribution-of-maternal-factors-and-growth-velocity-between-20-and-36-weeks
#6
Anca Ciobanu, Clara Formuso, Argyro Syngelaki, Ranjit Akolekar, Kypros H Nicolaides
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of ultrasonographic estimated fetal weight (EFW) at 35+0 - 36+6 weeks' gestation in the prediction of small for gestational age (SGA) neonates and assess the additive value of first, maternal risk factors and second, fetal growth velocity between 20 and 36 weeks' gestation in improving such prediction. METHODS: This was a prospective study of 44,043 singleton pregnancies that had undergone routine ultrasound examination at 19+0 - 23+6 and at 35+0 - 36+6 weeks' gestation...
February 19, 2019: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30779234/association-between-parental-autoimmune-disease-and-atopic-dermatitis-in-their-offspring-a-matched-case-control-study
#7
C R Hamann, A Egeberg, J I Silverberg, G Gislason, L Skov, J P Thyssen
BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is associated with many autoimmune diseases, in part due to overlapping genetic risk loci. While parental atopic disease is an important risk for AD in the offspring, little is known on the putative associations between parental autoimmune disease and AD in their children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All children born between 1996 and 2011 who received a diagnosis of AD in the hospital system before their fifth birthday were matched 1 : 10 with children from the general population...
February 18, 2019: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30779118/neighborhood-deprivation-and-adverse-perinatal-outcomes-in-sweden-a-population-based-register-study
#8
Susanne Hesselman, Anna-Karin Wikström, Alkistis Skalkidou, Inger Sundström-Poromaa, Anna Wikman
INTRODUCTION: Neighborhood deprivation has been associated with adverse perinatal outcomes, but it is unclear to what extent maternal and social risk factors explain the association and how a stressful environment per se contributes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A population based register study including 218 030 deliveries in Sweden between January 2013 and July 2017 was conducted. Exposure was living in a deprived or severely deprived area defined by the National Operations Department of the Swedish Police Authority...
February 18, 2019: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30778664/genetic-variation-in-thyroid-folliculogenesis-influences-susceptibility-to-hypothyroidism-induced-hearing-impairment
#9
Amanda H Mortensen, Qing Fang, Michelle T Fleming, Thomas J Jones, Alexandre Z Daly, Kenneth R Johnson, Sally A Camper
Maternal and fetal sources of thyroid hormone are important for the development of many organ systems. Thyroid hormone deficiency causes variable intellectual disability and hearing impairment in mouse and man, but the basis for this variation is not clear. To explore this variation, we studied two thyroid hormone-deficient mouse mutants with mutations in pituitary-specific transcription factors, POU1F1 and PROP1, that render them unable to produce thyroid stimulating hormone. DW/J-Pou1f1dw/dw mice have profound deafness and both neurosensory and conductive hearing impairment, while DF/B-Prop1df/df mice have modest elevations in hearing thresholds consistent with developmental delay, eventually achieving normal hearing ability...
February 18, 2019: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30778529/the-effect-of-off-hour-delivery-on-severe-maternal-morbidity-a-population-based-cohort-study
#10
Jin Young Nam, Sang Gyu Lee, Chung Mo Nam, Sohee Park, Sung In Jang, Eun-Cheol Park
BACKGROUND: Severe maternal morbidity is an indicator for quality of maternal care. Recently, there has been growing interest in identifying which provision factors affect the quality of maternity care. The extent to off-hour delivery on SMM rates contributes to individual or provision factor in Korea has not been studied. This study aimed to determine the relationship between off-hour delivery and SMM during childbirth hospitalization. METHODS: This is a population-based retrospective cohort study...
February 18, 2019: European Journal of Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30778166/cell-cell-contact-with-proinflammatory-macrophages-enhances-the-immunotherapeutic-effect-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-two-abortion-models
#11
Yanhong Li, Di Zhang, Ling Xu, Lin Dong, Ji Zheng, Yikong Lin, Jiefang Huang, Yanyun Zhang, Yu Tao, Xingxing Zang, Dajin Li, Meirong Du
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which are pluripotent cells with immunomodulatory properties, have been considered good candidates for the therapy of several immune disorders, such as inflammatory bowel diseases, concanavalin A-induced liver injury, and graft-versus-host disease. The embryo is a natural allograft to the maternal immune system. A successful pregnancy depends on the timely extinction of the inflammatory response induced by embryo implantation, followed by the switch to a tolerant immune microenvironment in both the uterus and the system...
February 18, 2019: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30777784/total-organic-and-inorganic-mercury-in-human-breast-milk-levels-and-maternal-factors-of-exposure-systematic-literature-review-1976-2017
#12
Abha Cherkani-Hassani, Imane Ghanname, Nezha Mouane
This systematic review summarizes the finding of 58 studies from 33 countries, which assessed mercury concentrations in breast milk and the factors related to the level of contamination. We performed a literature search in Pubmed, Science Direct, and Google Scholar databases for studies published between 1976 and 2017 that are monitoring and measuring mercury in human breast milk and investigating the associated factors. Then, we extracted more information about the aim of the study, the country, samples size, time of lactation, mercury concentration, and other data...
February 19, 2019: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30777617/cerebral-palsy-among-children-of-immigrants-in-denmark-and-the-role-of-socioeconomic-status
#13
Tanja Gram Petersen, Ingeborg Forthun, Theis Lange, Sarah Fredsted Villadsen, Anne-Marie Nybo Andersen, Peter Uldall, Katrine Strandberg-Larsen
BACKGROUND: Children of immigrants in Denmark have excess risk for some of the most well-established risk factors for cerebral palsy (CP). OBJECTIVES: To study differences in risk of CP between children of immigrants and children of Danish-born mothers, and explore whether socioeconomic status drives any potential association. METHODS: A register-based cohort study including 1,274,616 children born in Denmark between 1981 and 2007. Of these, 2807 had a validated CP diagnosis in the Danish CP Register...
February 4, 2019: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30777179/visualizing-egg-and-embryonic-polarity
#14
Lauren T Smith, Athula H Wikramanayake
During development metazoan embryos have to establish the molecular coordinates for elaboration of the embryonic body plan. Typically, bilaterian (bilaterally symmetric animals) embryos establish anterior-posterior (AP) and dorsal-ventral (DV) axes, and in most cases the AP axis is established first. For over a century it has been known that formation of the AP axis is strongly influenced by the primary axis of the egg, the animal-vegetal (AV) axis. The molecular basis for how the AV axis influences AP polarity remains poorly understood, but sea urchins have proven to be important for elucidating the molecular basis for this process...
2019: Methods in Cell Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30776946/paternal-postnatal-depression-among-fathers-of-newborn-in-saudi-arabia
#15
Naila A Shaheen, Yousra AlAtiq, Abin Thomas, Hussam Ali Alanazi, Ziad E AlZahrani, Samah Abdul Ra'ouf Younis, Mohamed A Hussein
Paternal postnatal depression (PPND) is not a commonly recognized phenomenon. The aim of the study was to identify the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) cutoff for Saudi fathers, to estimate PPND prevalence and to determine the risk factors of PPND among fathers of newborn in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study of fathers with babies born up to 6 months prior to the survey was conducted. Fathers were screened using EPDS and demographic questionnaire. The fathers were selected using systematic random sampling from visitors to the birth registration office...
January 2019: American Journal of Men's Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30776574/maternal-high-fat-diet-impairs-leptin-signaling-and-up-regulates-type-1-cannabinoid-receptor-with-sex-specific-epigenetic-changes-in-the-hypothalamus-of-newborn-rats
#16
Mariana M Almeida, Camilla P Dias-Rocha, Clara F Reis-Gomes, Haimei Wang, Georgia C Atella, Aline Cordeiro, Carmen C Pazos-Moura, Lisa Joss-Moore, Isis H Trevenzoli
Maternal nutritional imbalances trigger developmental adaptations involving early epigenetic mechanisms associated with adult chronic disease. Maternal high-fat (HF) diet promotes obesity and hypothalamic leptin resistance in male rat offspring at weaning and adulthood. Leptin resistance is associated with over activation of the endocannabinoid system (ECS). The ECS mainly consists of endocannabinoids derived from n-6 fatty acids and cannabinoid receptors (CB1 coded by Cnr1 and CB2 coded by Cnr2). The CB1 activation in hypothalamus stimulates feeding and appetite for fat while CB2 activation seems to play an immunomodulatory role...
February 8, 2019: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30775005/path-analyses-of-risk-factors-for-linear-growth-faltering-in-four-prospective-cohorts-of-young-children-in-ghana-malawi-and-burkina-faso
#17
Elizabeth L Prado, Elizabeth Yakes Jimenez, Stephen Vosti, Robert Stewart, Christine P Stewart, Jérôme Somé, Anna Pulakka, Jean Bosco Ouédraogo, Harriet Okronipa, Eugenia Ocansey, Brietta Oaks, Kenneth Maleta, Anna Lartey, Emma Kortekangas, Sonja Y Hess, Kenneth Brown, Jaden Bendabenda, Ulla Ashorn, Per Ashorn, Mary Arimond, Seth Adu-Afarwuah, Souheila Abbeddou, Kathryn Dewey
Stunting prevalence is an indicator of a country's progress towards United Nations' Sustainable Development Goal 2, which is to end hunger and achieve improved nutrition. Accelerating progress towards reducing stunting requires a deeper understanding of the factors that contribute to linear growth faltering. We conducted path analyses of factors associated with 18-month length-for-age z-score (LAZ) in four prospective cohorts of children who participated in trials conducted as part of the International Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements Project in Ghana (n=1039), Malawi (n=684 and 1504) and Burkina Faso (n=2619)...
2019: BMJ Global Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30773972/maternal-pre-pregnancy-obesity-offspring-cord-blood-dna-methylation-and-offspring-cardiometabolic-health-in-early-childhood-an-epigenome-wide-association-study
#18
Chantel L Martin, Dereje Jima, Gemma C Sharp, Lauren E McCullough, Sarah S Park, Kymberly M Gowdy, David Skaar, Michael Cowley, Rachel L Maguire, Bernard Fuemmeler, David Collier, Caroline L Relton, Susan K Murphy, Cathrine Hoyo
Pre-pregnancy obesity is an established risk factor for adverse sex-specific cardiometabolic health in offspring. Epigenetic alterations, such as in DNA methylation (DNAm), are a hypothesized link; however, sex-specific epigenomic targets remain unclear. Leveraging data from the Newborn Epigenetics Study (NEST) cohort, linear regression models were used to identify CpG sites in cord blood leukocytes associated with pre-pregnancy obesity in 187 mother-female and 173 mother-male offsprings. DNAm in cord blood was measured using the Illumina HumanMethylation450k BeadChip...
February 18, 2019: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30773966/an-investigation-of-vitamin-d-deficiency-in-pregnant-women-and-their-infants-in-giresun-province-located-in-the-black-sea-region-of-turkey
#19
Sema Baki Yildirim, Özlem Koşar Can
The aim of this study is to investigate vitamin D deficiency and the associated risk factors in pregnant women and their infants in the Black Sea region of Turkey. One hundred and twenty healthy pregnant women in the last trimester and their healthy newborn pairs were observed between June and August 2017 in Giresun province. The serum 25(OH)D3 and calcium levels were measured through the samples collected from maternal and neonatal cord blood. The effects of maternal lifestyle on the maternal vitamin D levels were assessed by multiple regression analysis...
February 16, 2019: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30773960/the-effect-of-maternal-depression-and-anxiety-on-labour-and-the-well-being-of-the-newborn
#20
Martina Smorti, Lucia Ponti, Franca Tani
Maternal symptomatology during pregnancy represents a significant risk factor for women and children. The main focus of this paper is to jointly investigate the role of maternal depression and anxiety during pregnancy on the well-being of the newborn, through their influences on the clinical aspects of labour. A longitudinal study was conducted on 167 pregnant women (Mage =32.07, SD = 4.50) recruited in the third trimester of gestation. The data was collected at two different times: the socio-demographical data and prenatal anxiety and depression were assessed at T1 (31-32 week of gestation); the clinical data on childbirth (duration of labour, administration of oxytocin and epidural analgesia) and the Apgar index of the newborn were registered at T2 (the day of childbirth)...
February 16, 2019: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
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