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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30745635/a-study-of-the-histopathological-features-of-alopecias-on-transverse-sections-of-scalp-biopsies
#1
Mankul Goyal, Sujay Khandpur, M Ramam, Vinod Kumar Sharma, Manoj Kumar Singh
Background: Transverse sections of scalp biopsies are performed for the assessment of alopecias and are considered advantageous over vertical sections. Aim: The aim was to study the histopathological features of alopecias on transverse sections of scalp biopsies. Methods: It was a descriptive study. Clinically confirmed cases of noncicatricial and cicatricial alopecias were subjected to 4 mm scalp biopsies, which were sectioned transversely and analyzed...
January 2019: Indian Journal of Dermatology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30704176/-the-progress-of-topical-drug-delivery-to-the-inner-ear-for-the-inhibition-of-inflammation-and-fibrosis-following-cochlear-implantation
#2
H R Yu, H Jia, J Yang
Nowadays, more than 300 000 deaf people around the world benefit from cochlea implantation. With the extension of cochlear implantation indications, it has become a research focus for how to apply the anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic drugs safely and effectively to better retain residual hearing, as well as to protect hair cells and the spiral ganglion cells from apoptosis. Due to the blood-labyrinth barrier, perioperative systemic steroids are often unable to achieve satisfactory drug concentration in the inner ear...
January 7, 2019: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30661024/secondhand-smoke-alters-arachidonic-acid-metabolism-and-inflammation-in-infants-and-children-with-cystic-fibrosis
#3
Benjamin T Kopp, Rohan Thompson, Jeeho Kim, Robert Konstan, Alejandro Diaz, Bennett Smith, Chandra Shrestha, Lynette K Rogers, Don Hayes, Dmitry Tumin, Frederick W Woodley, Octavio Ramilo, Don B Sanders, Judith A Groner, Asuncion Mejias
BACKGROUND: Mechanisms that facilitate early infection and inflammation in cystic fibrosis (CF) are unclear. We previously demonstrated that children with CF and parental-reported secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) have increased susceptibility to bacterial infections. SHSe hinders arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites that mediate immune function in patients without CF, and may influence CF immune dysfunction. We aimed to define SHSe's impact on inflammation mediators and infection in children with CF...
January 19, 2019: Thorax
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30632705/tgf-%C3%AE-1-and-wnt-signaling-pathways-collaboration-associated-with-cochlear-implantation-trauma-induced-fibrosis
#4
Esperanza Bas, Mir R Anwar, Thomas R Van De Water
The crosstalk between TGF-β1 and WNT pathways has been proven to regulate aspects of the development and tissue homeostasis processes. Recently it has been demonstrated this collaboration also takes place during fibrotic diseases, where TGF-β1 activates the WNT/β-catenin pathway that results in dedifferentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts, increased production of extracellular matrix components and fibrosis. Independent studies show the functions of these molecules during the development of the inner ears in several different species...
January 11, 2019: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30612961/robotic-stereotactic-boost-in-early-breast-cancer-a-phase-ii-trial
#5
Pierre-Yves Bondiau, Jocelyn Gal, Claire Chapellier, Juliette Haudebourg, Adel Courdi, Johan Levy, Anais Gerard, Shakeel Sumodhee, Maeva Maurin, Yann Château, Emmanuel Barranger, Jean-Marc Ferrero, Juliette Thariat
PURPOSE: to evaluate the feasibility and toxicity of a single 8Gy-fraction stereotactic boost after whole breast irradiation (WBI) in early breast cancer. The primary aim of this phase II study was to evaluate cutaneous breast toxicity utilizing CTC-AEv4 three months after the boost. Secondary objectives were local control, survival and patient-reported quality of life using the EORTC QLQ-C30 and breast specific EORTC QLQ-BR 23 questionnaires. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Patients with invasive ductal or lobular, pT1-2 breast cancer treated with lumpectomy with clear margins and pN0 were included...
October 26, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30464171/hedgehog-stimulates-hair-follicle-neogenesis-by-creating-inductive-dermis-during-murine-skin-wound-healing
#6
Chae Ho Lim, Qi Sun, Karan Ratti, Soung-Hoon Lee, Ying Zheng, Makoto Takeo, Wendy Lee, Piul Rabbani, Maksim V Plikus, Jason E Cain, David H Wang, D Neil Watkins, Sarah Millar, M Mark Taketo, Peggy Myung, George Cotsarelis, Mayumi Ito
Mammalian wounds typically heal by fibrotic repair without hair follicle (HF) regeneration. Fibrosis and regeneration are currently considered the opposite end of wound healing. This study sought to determine if scar could be remodeled to promote healing with HF regeneration. Here, we identify that activation of the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway reinstalls a regenerative dermal niche, called dermal papilla, which is required and sufficient for HF neogenesis (HFN). Epidermal Shh overexpression or constitutive Smoothened dermal activation results in extensive HFN in wounds that otherwise end in scarring...
November 21, 2018: Nature Communications
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30457678/how-chemotherapy-and-radiotherapy-damage-the-tissue-comparative-biology-lessons-from-feather-and-hair-models
#7
QingXiang Gao, GuiXuan Zhou, Sung-Jan Lin, Ralf Paus, ZhiCao Yue
Chemotherapy and radiotherapy are common modalities for cancer treatment. While targeting rapidly growing cancer cells, they also damage normal tissues and cause adverse effects. From the initial insult such as DNA double strand break, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and a general stress response, there are complex regulatory mechanisms that control the actual tissue damage process. Besides apoptosis, a range of outcomes for the damaged cells are possible including cell cycle arrest, senescence, mitotic catastrophe, and inflammatory responses and fibrosis at the tissue level...
November 20, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30409510/high-frequency-transient-evoked-otoacoustic-emission-measurements-using-chirp-and-click-stimuli
#8
Douglas H Keefe, M Patrick Feeney, Lisa L Hunter, Denis F Fitzpatrick, Chelsea M Blankenship, Angela C Garinis, Daniel B Putterman, Marcin Wróblewski
Transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) at high frequencies are a non-invasive physiological test of basilar membrane mechanics at the basal end, and have clinical potential to detect risk of hearing loss related to outer-hair-cell dysfunction. Using stimuli with constant incident pressure across frequency, TEOAEs were measured in experiment 1 at low frequencies (0.7-8 kHz) and high frequencies (7.1-14.7 kHz) in adults with normal hearing up to 8 kHz and varying hearing levels from 9 to 16 kHz...
October 18, 2018: Hearing Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30233022/temporary-noncicatricial-focal-alopecia-following-gamma-knife-radiosurgery-case-series-and-review-of-literature
#9
Manjul Tripathi, Manish Buddhiraja, Narendra Kumar, Aman Batish, Chirag K Ahuja, Parwinder Kamboj, Rupinder Kaur, Amanjot Kaur
Objective: The aim of this study is to report the pattern, timing, responsible radiation parameters, and dosimetric results on the outcome of alopecia following gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for various intracranial pathologies. A literature review of radiation-induced alopecia and observation of this complication with GKRS are also included. Materials and Methods: The authors report 6 cases of GKRS-induced focal temporary alopecia without dermal fibrosis or clinical scarring and with no long-term squeal...
September 2018: Neurology India
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30213424/stem-cells-in-dermatology-and-anti-aging-care-of-the-skin
#10
REVIEW
Amy Forman Taub, Kim Pham
Multipotent stem cells have paved the way for new applications and deeper understanding in regenerative medicine and the pathophysiology of aging. During skin aging, cumulative photodamage, exhaustion of endogenous stem cell populations, mechanical stress, and increased fibrosis lead to skin with decreased epidermal thickness and compromised dermal integrity. Specific stem cells in the hair follicle create new keratinocytes after activation by defensin peptides, released by neutrophils during wounding. Studies pertaining to defensin peptides' efficacy on skin aging have been published, highlighting their potential as a new therapy for skin rejuvenation...
November 2018: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30085961/a-new-histologic-pattern-in-6-biopsies-from-early-frontal-fibrosing-alopecia
#11
Mariya Miteva, Samar Sabiq
Frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) is an irreversible scarring alopecia with unknown etiology and no cure. The goal is to establish the diagnosis in the early stage, before developing a hairless band of atrophy involving the frontal, temporal scalp and sideburns. Pathology is rarely needed once the disease is clinically apparent. The classic histologic features include follicular dropout with the absence or atrophy of the sebaceous glands and lichenoid lymphohistiocytic infiltrate with concentric layered fibrosis at the upper follicular level...
August 6, 2018: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30067250/clinical-implications-of-telomere-dysfunction-in-lung-fibrosis
#12
Maria Molina-Molina, Raphael Borie
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Telomere attrition has been proposed as one of the aging hallmarks in pulmonary fibrosis. Telomere shortening and telomerase gene mutations have been widely evaluated in recent years. Reduced telomere length may be identified in a quarter of patients with sporadic idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and half of those cases with family aggregation. However, telomere studies have not transferred from the research field to the clinic. This review is focused on our current understanding of the pathogenic implication of telomere dysfunction in lung fibrosis and its relevance in the clinical setting...
September 2018: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30006113/hearing-preservation-at-low-frequencies-by-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-in-a-guinea-pig-model-of-cochlear-implantation
#13
Kohei Yamahara, Koji Nishimura, Hideaki Ogita, Juichi Ito, Takayuki Nakagawa, Ichiro Furuta, Tomoko Kita, Koichi Omori, Norio Yamamoto
The hybrid or electric-acoustic stimulation cochlear implant is indicated in patients with a residual hearing at low frequencies. It provides electric and acoustic stimulation for compensating for high- and low-frequency sounds, respectively. However, the implantation procedure damages the cochlea, resulting in loss of the residual-hearing and diminished effects of the acoustic-hearing in several patients. To prevent hearing loss after implantation, corticosteroids have been used clinically although their effects are limited...
October 2018: Hearing Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29803210/shall-we-diagnose-metabolic-syndrome-in-adolescents
#14
Małgorzata Wójcik, Anna Ruszała, Ewa Szczudlik, Dominika Janus, Krystyna Sztefko
BACKGROUND: The clinical value of the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome (MS) in children and adolescents remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to assess the occurrence of metabolic complications, other than included in 2007 IDF MS definition, in obese children and adolescents METHODS: The study included 75 (33 boys) obese adolescents (mean age 13.9 years, mean BMI SDS 4.49). Classical (fasting glucose, TGL, HDL, blood pressure) and non classical (insulin resistance [HOMA-IR], creatinine, AST, ALT, uric acid, fibrinogen, liver US and 24h BP profile) risk factors were compared between groups with and without MS...
May 6, 2018: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29801475/dyskeratosis-congenita-with-a-novel-genetic-variant-in-the-dkc1-gene-a-case-report
#15
Vithiya Ratnasamy, Suganthan Navaneethakrishnan, Nirmala Dushyanthi Sirisena, Nana-Maria Grüning, Oliver Brandau, Kumanan Thirunavukarasu, Casey L Dagnall, Lisa J McReynolds, Sharon A Savage, Vajira H W Dissanayake
BACKGROUND: Dyskeratosis congenita (DC) is a rare genetic disorder of bone marrow failure inherited in an X-linked, autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive pattern. It has a wide array of clinical features and patients may be cared for by many medical sub specialties. The typical clinical features consist of lacy reticular skin pigmentation, nail dystrophy and oral leukoplakia. As the disease advances, patients may develop progressive bone marrow failure, pulmonary fibrosis, oesophageal stenosis, urethral stenosis, liver cirrhosis as well as haematological and solid malignancies...
May 25, 2018: BMC Medical Genetics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29771334/%C3%AE-catenin-activation-in-hair-follicle-dermal-stem-cells-induces-ectopic-hair-outgrowth-and-skin-fibrosis
#16
Yixin Tao, Qingchun Yang, Lei Wang, Jie Zhang, Xuming Zhu, Qianqian Sun, Yunbin Han, Qian Luo, Yushu Wang, Xizhi Guo, Ji Wu, Baojie Li, Xiao Yang, Lin He, Gang Ma
Hair follicle dermal sheath (DS) harbors hair follicle dermal stem cells (hfDSCs), which can be recruited to replenish DS and dermal papilla (DP). Cultured DS cells can differentiate into various cell lineages in vitro. However, it is unclear how its plasticity is modulated in vivo. Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays an important role in maintaining stem cells of various lineages and is required for HF development and regeneration. Here we report that activation of β-catenin in DS generates ectopic HF outgrowth (EF) by reprogramming HF epidermal cells and DS cells themselves, and endows DS cells with hair inducing ability...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29769782/graft-versus-host-disease-presenting-as-fibrosing-alopecia-in-a-pattern-distribution-a-model-for-pathophysiological-understanding-of-cicatricial-pattern-hair-loss
#17
Hudson Dutra Rezende, Maria Fernanda Reis Gavazzoni Dias, Ralph Michel Trüeb
A case of cutaneous graft versus host disease (GvHD) presenting as fibrosing alopecia in a pattern distribution (FAPD) is discussed, possibly providing a mechanistic model for a better understanding of the pathogenic events underlying cicatricial pattern hair loss. The implication of a follicular inflammation and fibrosis associated with patterned hair loss has emerged from several independent studies. Eventually, Zinkernagel and Trüeb reported a peculiar type of cicatricial pattern hair loss with histopathological features consistent with lichen planopilaris (LPP) associated with androgenetic alopecia (AGA)...
March 2018: International Journal of Trichology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29709849/sources-behaviour-and-environmental-and-human-health-risks-of-high-technology-rare-earth-elements-as-emerging-contaminants
#18
REVIEW
Willis Gwenzi, Lynda Mangori, Concilia Danha, Nhamo Chaukura, Nothando Dunjana, Edmond Sanganyado
Recent studies show that high-technology rare earth elements (REEs) of anthropogenic origin occur in the environment including in aquatic systems, suggesting REEs are contaminants of emerging concern. However, compared to organic contaminants, there is a lack of comprehensive reviews on the anthropogenic sources, environmental behaviour, and public and ecological health risks of REEs. The current review aims to: (1) identify anthropogenic sources, transfer mechanisms, and environmental behaviour of REEs; (2) highlight the human and ecological health risks of REEs and propose mitigation measures; and (3) identify knowledge gaps and future research directions...
September 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29603400/a-guide-to-studying-human-dermal-adipocytes-in-situ
#19
REVIEW
Carina Nicu, Jennifer Pople, Laura Bonsell, Ranjit Bhogal, David M Ansell, Ralf Paus
Dermal white adipose tissue (DWAT) is a main component of human skin, composed of individual lipid-laden mesenchymal cells known as dermal adipocytes (DAs). Besides their well-known role in lipid storage and release, DAs also promote skin immunity, wound healing and hair follicle cycling and are important players in cutaneous neuroendocrinology. The ever-growing insights into DWAT functions, albeit mostly in mice, have invited speculation that it may be involved in multiple skin diseases ranging from fibrosis to alopecia and psoriasis, thus designating human DWAT a clinically relevant, but as yet insufficiently investigated skin compartment...
June 2018: Experimental Dermatology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29601595/effects-of-dexamethasone-on-intracochlear-inflammation-and-residual-hearing-after-cochleostomy-a-comparison-of-administration-routes
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Ah-Ra Lyu, Dong Hyun Kim, Seung Hun Lee, Dong-Sik Shin, Sun-Ae Shin, Yong-Ho Park
Preservation of residual hearing after cochlear implant is an important issue with regards to hearing performance. Various methods of steroid administration have been widely used in clinical practice to reduce inflammation and preserve residual hearing. Here we compare the effect of different routes of dexamethasone administration on intracochlear inflammation and residual hearing in guinea pig ears. Dexamethasone was delivered into the guinea pigs either through intracochlear, intratympanic or systemic route...
2018: PloS One
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