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John Kleinman, Kenji Inaba, Emily Pott, Kazuhide Matsushima, Demetrios Demetriades, Aaron Strumwasser
Focused assessment with Sonography for trauma (FAST) examination is essential to trauma triage. We sought to determine whether FASTs completed early in sequencing portend worse outcomes. A two-year review (2014-2015) of all trauma activations at our Level I trauma center was performed. Patients were matched at baseline and FAST times were compared. Outcomes included resuscitation time (RESUS-h), ventilation days (d), hospital length of stay (HLOS-d), ICU length of stay (LOS-d), survival (%), nosocomial infection rate (%), and venous thromboembolism complication rate (%)...
October 1, 2018: American Surgeon
Jesper Weile, Christian B Laursen, Christian A Frederiksen, Ole Graumann, Erik Sloth, Hans Kirkegaard
BACKGROUND: Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) can improve patient management in the emergency department (ED). However, previous studies have focused only on selected groups of patients, such as trauma, shock, dyspnea, or critically ill patients, or patients with an already known diagnosis. Most patients seen in the ED do not match these criteria. We aim to present total prevalence of positive findings when basic POCUS is applied to the broad population of patients seen in an emergency department...
December 27, 2018: BMC Emergency Medicine
Daniël H van Raalte, Eva van der Palen, Pauline Idema, Liza Wong, Sander W M Keet, Mariska Vlot, Raymond Tukkie, Bob van Vlies, Erik H Serné, Reinier W Ten Kate
BACKGROUND: Insulin has to be transported across the capillary endothelium to stimulate muscle glucose uptake. We investigated insulin uptake from the peripheral circulation in non-diabetic (ND) individuals and in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients. METHODS: Single-center cross-sectional study involving 40 ND (age 65±11 years) and 30 T2D patients (age 67±8 years). Thirty-six participants were studied in the fasted state (22 ND subjects and 14 T2D patients termed NDF and T2DF) and 34 participants 1-h following a glucose challenge (18 ND subjects and 16 T2D patients indicated as NDG and T2DG)...
December 17, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
Igor Nasser, Jeffrey Willardson, Renata de Mello Perez, Michel Silva Reis, Anderson de Azevedo Brito, Ingrid Ferreira Dias, Humberto Lameira Miranda
The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), and blood pressure (BP) responses during and after circuit resistance training with 1 min. (CIR1) vs. 2 min. (CIR2) rest intervals between exercises in liver cirrhosis patients. 10 patients (7 women, 3 men) participated in 2 experimental sessions (CIR1 and CIR2) in random order. Each experimental session consisted of 6 exercises performed for 3 sets of 10 repetitions with 70% of the 10-RM load. The only difference between experimental sessions was taking either 1 min...
December 17, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Yi-Cheng Chang, Chia-Hsuin Chang, Yi-Ting Huang, Yi-Chun Yeh, Meng-Lun Hsieh, Wei-Shun Yang, Yu-Kang Tu
BACKGROUND: Extensive studies have demonstrated that sleep is an important modulator of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. However, its impact on renal function remains uncertain. METHODS: A total of 26,249 adults aged ≥20 years were recruited through voluntary health examinations in Taiwan. Sleep duration was self-reported by questionnaire. Proteinuria was graded semi-quantitatively by dipstick urine test. The associations of sleep duration with proteinuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were analyzed...
2019: American Journal of Nephrology
Tolulope Eniola Omolekulo, Olugbenga Samuel Michael, Lawrence Aderemi Olatunji
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibition has been shown to exert beneficial effects against insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes. Combined oral contraceptive (COC) treatment is associated with impaired glucose and lipid metabolism but the mechanisms are elusive. We therefore, hypothesized that DPP-4 inhibition ameliorates COC-induced glucose dysregulation and hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation through adenosine deaminase (ADA) /xanthine oxidase (XO) /uric acid-dependent pathway. Female Wistar rats received (po) vehicle and COC (1...
December 14, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Sarah Rajkumar, Bonnie N Young, Maggie L Clark, Megan L Benka-Coker, Annette M Bachand, Robert D Brook, Tracy L Nelson, John Volckens, Stephen J Reynolds, Christian L'Orange, Nicholas Good, Kirsten Koehler, Sebastian Africano, Anibal B Osorto Pinel, Jennifer L Peel
BACKGROUND: Household air pollution from cooking with solid fuels affects nearly 3 billion people worldwide and is responsible for an estimated 2.5 million premature deaths and 77 million disability-adjusted life years annually. Investigating the effect of household air pollution on indicators of cardiometabolic disease, such as metabolic syndrome, can help clarify the pathways between this widespread exposure and cardiovascular diseases, which are increasing in low- and middle-income countries...
December 10, 2018: Environmental Research
Eman M Alissa, Layla S Alzughaibi, Zuhair M Marzouki
AIMS: The convergence of obesity and inflammation in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) has been recognized over the past decade. Resistin has emerged as a novel secreted protein with links to both insulin resistance and inflammation. We aimed to investigate the relationship between changes in serum resistin levels with metabolic parameters, including obesity and inflammatory markers in women free of CVD. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 200 apparently healthy women were consecutively recruited from the Out-patients Clinics at King Abdulaziz university Hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia...
December 14, 2018: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Vidhu Thaker, Ben Carter, Melissa Putman
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an inherited condition causing disease most noticeably in the lungs, digestive tract and pancreas. People with CF often have malnutrition and growth delay. Adequate nutritional supplementation does not improve growth optimally and hence an anabolic agent, recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH), has been proposed as a potential intervention. This is an update of a previously published review. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of rhGH therapy in improving lung function, quality of life and clinical status of children and young adults with CF...
December 17, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Liangjie Niu, Hang Zhang, Zhaokun Wu, Yibo Wang, Hui Liu, Xiaolin Wu, Wei Wang
Protein extracts obtained from cells or tissues often require removal of interfering substances for the preparation of high-quality protein samples in proteomic analysis. A number of protein extraction methods have been applied to various biological samples. TCA/acetone precipitation and phenol extraction, a common method of protein extraction, is thought to minimize protein degradation and activity of proteases as well as reduce contaminants like salts and polyphenols. However, the TCA/acetone precipitation method relies on the complete pulverization and repeated rinsing of tissue powder to remove the interfering substances, which is laborious and time-consuming...
2018: PloS One
Wojciech Potrzebowski, Jill Trewhella, Ingemar Andre
Many proteins consist of folded domains connected by regions with higher flexibility. The details of the resulting conformational ensemble play a central role in controlling interactions between domains and with binding partners. Small-Angle Scattering (SAS) is well-suited to study the conformational states adopted by proteins in solution. However, analysis is complicated by the limited information content in SAS data and care must be taken to avoid constructing overly complex ensemble models and fitting to noise in the experimental data...
December 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Braulio Henrique Magnani Branco, Isabelle Zanquetta Carvalho, Humberto Garcia de Oliveira, Ana Paula Fanhani, Michelle Cardoso Machado Dos Santos, Leonardo Pestillo de Oliveira, Sara Macente Boni, Nelson Nardo
Magnani Branco, BH, Carvalho, IZ, Garcia de Oliveira, H, Fanhani, AP, Machado dos Santos, MC, Pestillo de Oliveira, L, Macente, SB, and Nelson, NJ. Effects of 2 types of resistance training models on obese adolescents' body composition, cardiometabolic risk, and physical fitness. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 2 types of resistance training (RT) models in conjunction with interdisciplinary interventions by other health professionals to reduce the body fat and cardiometabolic risk of obese adolescents while improving their general health-related physical fitness...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Verena Wiegering, Lisa Peter, Marieke Frietsch, Paul G Schlegel, Matthias Eyrich
BACKGROUND: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a life-saving procedure for children with a variety of (non) malignant conditions. GvHD is a severe complication with high morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis remains unclear. We studied dendritic cell (DC) reconstitution to detect potential differences, which may improve our knowledge in the development of chronic GvHD (cGvHD). PROCEDURE: We examined immune reconstitution (T, B, and NK cells and dendritic cells) at defined time points in a pediatric cohort who underwent 61 allogeneic HSCTs...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Diego F Cuadros, Jingjing Li, Zindoga Mukandavire, Godfrey N Musuka, Adam J Branscum, Benn Sartorius, Owen Mugurungi, Frank Tanser
INTRODUCTION: Zimbabwe has made substantial progress toward the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) targets of 90-90-90 by 2020, with 73% of people living with HIV diagnosed, 87% of those diagnosed on antiretroviral therapy (ART), and 86% of those on ART virally suppressed. Despite this exceptional response, more effort is needed to completely achieve the UNAIDS targets. Here, we conducted a detailed spatial analysis of the geographical structure of the HIV epidemic in Zimbabwe to include geographical prioritization as a key component of their overall HIV intervention strategy...
December 13, 2018: AIDS
Roberto Cannella, Balasubramanya Rangaswamy, Marta I Minervini, Amir A Borhani, Allan Tsung, Alessandro Furlan
OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to assess the diagnostic performance of texture analysis (TA) on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR images for differentiation of hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) from focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 40 patients (39 women and one man) with 51 HCAs and 28 patients (27 women and one man) with 32 FNH lesions. All lesions were histologically proven with preoperative MRI performed with gadoxetic acid...
December 17, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Esmé Jansen van Vuren, Leoné Malan, Roland von Känel, Martin Magnusson, Leandi Lammertyn, Nicolaas T Malan
OBJECTIVE: Glucose dysregulation is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disease development through synaptic dysfunction resulting in cognitive decline. The aim of this study was to study the interplay between impaired glycaemic metabolism (hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance), cardiac stress (cardiac troponin T and N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide) and executive cognitive function prospectively, in a bi-ethnic sex cohort. METHODS: Black and White teachers (N = 338, aged 20-63 years) from the Sympathetic activity and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Africans study were monitored over a 3-year period...
December 17, 2018: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
D A de Luis, D Pacheco, O Izaola, D Primo, R Aller
OBJECTIVE: A common G-to-A transition (rs670) of the Apoprotein subtype 1 APOA1 gene has been evaluated. The presence of the A allele has been related with increased activity. We investigated the role of this genetic variant (rs670) on lipoprotein levels and anthropometric parameters after biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) surgery in morbid obese patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixty-three patients with morbid obesity without diabetes mellitus type 2 were enrolled...
December 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Xiang Ni, Xiaoyan Zhang, Xingchen Duan, Han-Liang Zheng, Xiao-Song Xue, Dan Ding
Afterglow imaging through the collection of persistent luminescence after the stopping of light excitation holds enormous promise for advanced biomedical uses. However, efficient near-infrared (NIR)-emitting afterglow luminescent materials and probes (particularly the organic and polymeric ones) are still very limited, and their in-depth biomedical applications such as precise image-guided cancer surgery are rarely reported. Here, we design and synthesize a NIR afterglow luminescent nanoparticle with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) characteristics (named AGL AIE dots)...
December 17, 2018: Nano Letters
Azar Hakimifar, Ali Morsali
Water pollution by various toxic heavy-metal ions, particularly mercury and lead, has been considered as a global problem with serious threat to public health. Nowadays, a variety of adsorbents have been used extensively for the removal of heavy-metal ions from water. In this work, two Zn-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), named TMU-31 and TMU-32, were successfully synthesized by a solid-state method named mechanosynthesis, which can be considered as a rapid, green, convenient, solventless, and low-cost process...
December 17, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Xiang Li, Xueqin Feng, Likui Lu, Axin He, Bailin Liu, Yingying Zhang, Ruixiu Shi, Yanping Liu, Xueyi Chen, Miao Sun, Zhice Xu
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to examine whether and how postnatal high-fat diet had additional impact on promoting vascular dysfunction in the offspring exposed to prenatal hypoxia. METHODS AND RESULTS: Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to hypoxia (10.5% oxygen) or normoxia (21% O2 ) groups from gestation days 5-21. A subset of male offspring was placed on a high-fat diet (HF, 45% fat) from 4-16 weeks of age. Prenatal hypoxia induced a decrease in birth weight...
December 16, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
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