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Liat S Kriegel
BACKGROUND: Prisoners with mental illnesses (MI) are released from prison into environments where they are under-treated and under-supported by our criminal justice, social service, and health systems. Public space and interactions within those spaces have been shown to have positive effects in similar populations, including individuals with MI. This qualitative study explored the role different interactions play during the course of reentry. The study aimed to understand the more everyday relational dynamics that former prisoners with MI experience in public and private spaces...
February 14, 2019: Health & Place
Qi Zhang, Terry Peters, Aaron Fenster
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Modern microscopes can acquire multi-channel large histological data from tissues of human beings or animals, which contain rich biomedical information for disease diagnosis and biological feature analysis. However, due to the large size, fuzzy tissue structure, and complicated multiple elements integrated in the image color space, it is still a challenge for current software systems to effectively calculate histological data, show the inner tissue structures and unveil hidden biomedical information...
February 2, 2019: Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics: the Official Journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society
Xiaojun Yu, Zeming Fan, Hao Wan, Yuye He, Junye Du, Nan Li, Zhaohui Yuan, Gaoxi Xiao
With rapid advancements in artificial intelligence and mobile robots, some of the tedious yet simple jobs in modern libraries, like book accessing and returning (BAR) operations that had been fulfilled manually before, could be undertaken by robots. Due to the limited accuracies of the existing positioning and navigation (P&N) technologies and the operational errors accumulated within the robot P&N process, however, most of the current robots are not able to fulfill such high-precision operations...
February 14, 2019: Sensors
Giovanni Scala, Angela Serra, Veer Singh Marwah, Laura Aliisa Saarimäki, Dario Greco
BACKGROUND: Functional annotation of genes is an essential step in omics data analysis. Multiple databases and methods are currently available to summarize the functions of sets of genes into higher level representations, such as ontologies and molecular pathways. Annotating results from omics experiments into functional categories is essential not only to understand the underlying regulatory dynamics but also to compare multiple experimental conditions at a higher level of abstraction...
February 15, 2019: BMC Bioinformatics
Lili Wang, Jian Wu, Xuefeng Yang, Voicu Popescu
Virtual Reality (VR) applications allow a user to explore a scene intuitively through a tracked head-mounted display (HMD). However, in complex scenes, occlusions make scene exploration inefficient, as the user has to navigate around occluders to gain line of sight to potential regions of interest. When a scene region proves to be of no interest, the user has to retrace their path, and such a sequential scene exploration implies significant amounts of wasted navigation. Furthermore, as the virtual world is typically much larger than the tracked physical space hosting the VR application, the intuitive one-to-one mapping between the virtual and real space has to be temporarily suspended for the user to teleport or redirect in order to conform to the physical space constraints...
February 14, 2019: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
H-W Huang, F E Uslu, P Katsamba, E Lauga, M S Sakar, B J Nelson
Bacteria can exploit mechanics to display remarkable plasticity in response to locally changing physical and chemical conditions. Compliant structures play a notable role in their taxis behavior, specifically for navigation inside complex and structured environments. Bioinspired mechanisms with rationally designed architectures capable of large, nonlinear deformation present opportunities for introducing autonomy into engineered small-scale devices. This work analyzes the effect of hydrodynamic forces and rheology of local surroundings on swimming at low Reynolds number, identifies the challenges and benefits of using elastohydrodynamic coupling in locomotion, and further develops a suite of machinery for building untethered microrobots with self-regulated mobility...
January 2019: Science Advances
Namit Kumar, Yu-Hwai Tsai, Lei Chen, Anbo Zhou, Kushal K Banerjee, Madhurima Saxena, Sha Huang, Natalie H Toke, Jinchuan Xing, Ramesh A Shivdasani, Jason R Spence, Michael P Verzi
Lineage-restricted transcription factors, such as the intestine-specifying factor CDX2, often have dual requirements across developmental time. Embryonic-loss of CDX2 triggers homeotic transformation of intestinal fate, while adult-onset loss compromises critical physiologic functions but preserves intestinal identity. It is unclear how such diverse requirements are executed across the developmental continuum. Using primary and engineered human tissues, mouse genetics, and a multi-omics approach, we demonstrate that divergent CDX2 loss-of-function phenotypes in embryonic versus adult intestines correspond to divergent CDX2 chromatin-binding profiles in embryonic versus adult stages...
February 11, 2019: Development
Jiayu Zhang, Jie Li, Xiaorui Che, Xi Zhang, Chenjun Hu, Kaiqiang Feng, Tingjin Xu
In previous studies, the semi-strapdown inertial navigation system (SSINS), based on microelectromechanical system (MEMS) sensors, had realized cross-range measurement of attitude information of high-spinning projectiles through construction of a "spin reduction" platform of the roll axis. However, further improvement of its measurement accuracy has been difficult, due to the inertial sensor error. In order to enhance the navigational accuracy, a periodically rotating method is utilized to compensate for sensor error, which is called rotation modulation...
February 10, 2019: Micromachines
Maxime Ferrera, Julien Moras, Pauline Trouvé-Peloux, Vincent Creuze
In the context of underwater robotics, the visual degradation induced by the medium properties make difficult the exclusive use of cameras for localization purpose. Hence, many underwater localization methods are based on expensive navigation sensors associated with acoustic positioning. On the other hand, pure visual localization methods have shown great potential in underwater localization but the challenging conditions, such as the presence of turbidity and dynamism, remain complex to tackle. In this paper, we propose a new visual odometry method designed to be robust to these visual perturbations...
February 8, 2019: Sensors
Armando Retana, Robert W Emery, Victoria Keir
Removal of impacted supernumerary teeth can present a unique set of challenges to the dentoalveolar surgeon. Complications associated with these challenges have been well documented in the literature. The use of dynamically guided surgical navigation technology for the removal of impacted supernumerary teeth has the potential to mitigate these challenges and improve clinical outcomes. Although not a currently Food and Drug Administration-approved indication, the use of dynamic surgical navigation systems for the removal of impacted supernumerary teeth will be elucidated in this case report...
January 14, 2019: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Sarah J Hoffman, Jaci Stich, Sidhra Musani, Cheryl L Robertson
Sociopolitical discourses surrounding refugee migration and resettlement are characterized by divisiveness, assumptions, and fear. When these discussions are grounded in the narratives of women refugees a deeper understanding of issues impacting health, family, and resilience emerges. We examine how 26 Karen women living in camps along the Thai-Burma border construct meaning around health, in relation to livelihoods. Through directed content analysis, themes emerged: precursors to achieving health, health and livelihoods, and position and agency...
February 6, 2019: Health Care for Women International
Gergely Farkas Turi, Wen-Ke Li, Spyridon Chavlis, Ioanna Pandi, Justin O'Hare, James Benjamin Priestley, Andres Daniel Grosmark, Zhenrui Liao, Max Ladow, Jeff Fang Zhang, Boris Valery Zemelman, Panayiota Poirazi, Attila Losonczy
Diverse computations in the neocortex are aided by specialized GABAergic interneurons (INs), which selectively target other INs. However, much less is known about how these canonical disinhibitory circuit motifs contribute to network operations supporting spatial navigation and learning in the hippocampus. Using chronic two-photon calcium imaging in mice performing random foraging or goal-oriented learning tasks, we found that vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-expressing (VIP+ ), disinhibitory INs in hippocampal area CA1 form functional subpopulations defined by their modulation by behavioral states and task demands...
January 18, 2019: Neuron
Frank Hansen, Gro K Rosvold Berntsen, Anita Salamonsen
PURPOSE: Person-centred care (PCC) is a well-acknowledged goal throughout the western world both within the health care services sector and for the patients themselves. To be able to create a future health care system that includes improved PCC, we need more in-depth knowledge of what matters to patients, how "what matters" might change over time, and tentative descriptions of commonalities across patients' perspectives. The aim of this study is to contribute to this knowledge base...
December 2018: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being
Johannes Zirkelbach, Martin Stemmler, Andreas V M Herz
Insects and vertebrates harbor specific neurons that encode the animal's head direction (HD) and provide an internal compass for spatial navigation. Each HD cell fires most strongly in one preferred direction. As the animal turns its head, however, HD cells in rat anterodorsal thalamic nucleus (ADN) and other brain areas fire already before their preferred direction is reached, as if the neurons anticipated the future head direction. This phenomenon has been explained at a mechanistic level but a functional interpretation is still missing...
January 28, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Antoine Wystrach, Sebastian Schwarz, Paul Graham, Ken Cheng
Ants are expert navigators, keeping track of the vector to home as they travel, through path integration, and using terrestrial panoramas in view-based navigation. Although insect learning has been much studied, the learning processes in navigation have not received much attention. Here, we investigate in desert ants (Melophorus bagoti) the effects of repeating a well-travelled and familiar route segment without success. We find that re-running a homeward route without entering the nest impacted subsequent trips...
January 25, 2019: Animal Cognition
Joseph D Monaco, Rose M De Guzman, Hugh T Blair, Kechen Zhang
During spatial navigation, the frequency and timing of spikes from spatial neurons including place cells in hippocampus and grid cells in medial entorhinal cortex are temporally organized by continuous theta oscillations (6-11 Hz). The theta rhythm is regulated by subcortical structures including the medial septum, but it is unclear how spatial information from place cells may reciprocally organize subcortical theta-rhythmic activity. Here we recorded single-unit spiking from a constellation of subcortical and hippocampal sites to study spatial modulation of rhythmic spike timing in rats freely exploring an open environment...
January 25, 2019: PLoS Computational Biology
Hyeree Park, Joonhyuk Lee, Sung Hong Park, Seung Hong Choi
OBJECTIVE: Alternate ascending/descending directional navigation (ALADDIN) is a novel arterial spin labeling technique that does not require a separate spin preparation pulse. We sought to compare the normalized cerebral blood flow (nCBF) values obtained by ALADDIN and dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with primary brain tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen patients with primary brain tumors underwent MRI scans including contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging, DSC perfusion MRI, and ALADDIN...
February 2019: Korean Journal of Radiology: Official Journal of the Korean Radiological Society
Henry Chan, Mathew J Cherukara, Badri Narayanan, Troy D Loeffler, Chris Benmore, Stephen K Gray, Subramanian K R S Sankaranarayanan
An accurate and computationally efficient molecular level description of mesoscopic behavior of ice-water systems remains a major challenge. Here, we introduce a set of machine-learned coarse-grained (CG) models (ML-BOP, ML-BOPdih , and ML-mW) that accurately describe the structure and thermodynamic anomalies of both water and ice at mesoscopic scales, all at two orders of magnitude cheaper computational cost than existing atomistic models. In a significant departure from conventional force-field fitting, we use a multilevel evolutionary strategy that trains CG models against not just energetics from first-principles and experiments but also temperature-dependent properties inferred from on-the-fly molecular dynamics (~ 10's of milliseconds of overall trajectories)...
January 22, 2019: Nature Communications
Xiongfei Geng, Yongcai Wang, Ping Wang, Baochen Zhang
Maritime Autonomous Surface Ships (MASS) with advanced guidance, navigation, and control capabilities have attracted great attention in recent years. Sailing safely and efficiently are critical requirements for autonomous control of MASS. The MASS utilizes the information collected by the radar, camera, and Autonomous Identification System (AIS) with which it is equipped. This paper investigates the problem of optimal motion planning for MASS, so it can accomplish its sailing task early and safely when it sails together with other conventional ships...
January 21, 2019: Sensors
Zhouzheng Gao, You Li, Yuan Zhuang, Honglei Yang, Yuanjin Pan, Hongping Zhang
Reliable and continuous navigation solutions are essential for high-accuracy location-based services. Currently, the real-time kinematic (RTK) based Global Positioning System (GPS) is widely utilized to satisfy such requirements. However, RTK's accuracy and continuity are limited by the insufficient number of the visible satellites and the increasing length of base-lines between reference-stations and rovers. Recently, benefiting from the development of precise point positioning (PPP) and BeiDou satellite navigation systems (BDS), the issues existing in GPS RTK can be mitigated by using GPS and BDS together...
January 21, 2019: Sensors
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