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OTC antibiotic

Phuong Tk Nguyen, Hoang T Tran, Huong Tt Truong, Vu T Nguyen, Steve M Graham, Ben J Marais
AIM: To characterise paediatricians' antibiotic-prescribing behaviour when managing community acquired pneumonia. METHODS: We conducted a knowledge and attitudes survey of paediatric doctors practicing at a regional provincial hospital in central Vietnam over a 2-week period (from 12 December 2017 to 29 December 2017). RESULTS: Of 79 eligible paediatric doctors, 69 (87.3%) completed the questionnaire, of whom 65 (94.2%) thought that antibiotics were overused in Vietnam...
February 17, 2019: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Shumneva Shrestha, Randhir Sagar Yadav, Satish Kumar Deo
Rational use of drugs has immense impact on quality health care. Developing nations have 80% essential drug list prescription. Even though WHO estimates 15-25% antibiotics prescription in these regions, majority of Nepalese patients are prescribed more than one antibiotic in addition to inappropriate prescription in 10%-42% patients.Moreover, Nepal stands as a leading antibiotics prescribing Asian nation. Escalating irrational prescription and excessive over the counter use of antibiotics at peripheral regions of Nepal is possibly leading the emergence of multidrug resistant bacteria...
January 28, 2019: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
Hani Saleh Faidah, Abdul Haseeb, Majd Yousuf Lamfon, Malak Mohammad Almatrafi, Imtinan Abdullah Almasoudi, Ejaz Cheema, Waleed Hassan Almalki, Mahmoud E Elrggal, Mahmoud M A Mohamed, Fahad Saleem, Manal Mansour Al-Gethamy, Beenish Pervaiz, Tahir Mehmood Khan, Mohamed Azmi Hassali
BACKGROUND: Excessive and inappropriate antimicrobial use in the community is one risk factor that can result in the spread of antimicrobial resistance. Upper respiratory tract infections are most frequently reported among children and mainly of viral origin and do not require antibiotics. We have conducted Knowledge, Attitude and Perception (KAP) survey of parents to explore the parent's knowledge, attitude & perception of Saudi parents. METHODS: A knowledge attitude perception questioner was adopted from a previous study conducted in Greece by Panagakou et al...
February 4, 2019: BMC Pediatrics
Yuwei Pan, Ying Zhang, Minghua Zhou, Jingju Cai, Yusi Tian
Antibiotics have been frequently detected in the aquatic environment and are of emerging concern due to their adverse effect and potential of inducing antibiotic resistance. In this study, we developed an UV/pre-magnetized Fe0 /H2 O2 process (UV/pre-Fe0 /H2 O2 ) valid for neutral pH conditions, which could remove sulfamethazine (SMT) completely within only 30 min and enhance 1.8 times of SMT removal. Meanwhile, this process demonstrated outstanding mineralization capability with the TOC removal of 92.1%, while for UV/H2 O2 and UV/Fe0 /H2 O2 system it was 53...
January 12, 2019: Water Research
Ana Rita Almeida, Marta Tacão, Ana Luísa Machado, Oksana Golovko, Vladimir Zlabek, Inês Domingues, Isabel Henriques
Oxytetracycline (OTC) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic widely used in livestock production. Like many other pharmaceuticals, OTC is not completely metabolized by the organism and thus, increasing amounts of the compound are being detected in the aquatic environment. The assessment of the environmental risk of pharmaceuticals is hindered by their very low concentrations and specific modes of action and thus relevant exposure scenarios and sensitive endpoints are needed. Thus, this work aimed to study the long-term effect of OTC exposure in zebrafish (at behavior and biochemical levels) and associated bacterial communities (fish gut and water bacterial communities)...
January 28, 2019: Chemosphere
Zhe Tian, Yongzhi Chi, Bo Yu, Min Yang, Yu Zhang
The feasibility of thermophilic anaerobic digestion (AD) for the attenuation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in biomass wastes under high antibiotic concentrations remains unclear. In this study, a thermophilic completely stirred digester (55 °C) was fed with municipal excess sludge spiked with increasing concentrations of oxytetracycline (OTC) (0-1000 mg/L) over a period of 280 days. Results showed that thermophilic AD could maintain stable methane production (338.40 ± 26.26 mL/d/gVS) even at an OTC dose of 1000 mg/L with the sludge phase OTC concentration reaching around 24,000 mg/kg...
January 25, 2019: Chemosphere
Sandeep Ramalingam, Catriona Graham, Jenny Dove, Lynn Morrice, Aziz Sheikh
There are no antivirals to treat viral upper respiratory tract infection (URTI). Since numerous viruses cause URTI, antiviral therapy is impractical. As we have evidence of chloride-ion dependent innate antiviral response in epithelial cells, we conducted a pilot, non-blinded, randomised controlled trial of hypertonic saline nasal irrigation and gargling (HSNIG) vs standard care on healthy adults within 48 hours of URTI onset to assess recruitment (primary outcome). Acceptability, symptom duration and viral shedding were secondary outcomes...
January 31, 2019: Scientific Reports
Jing Cheng, Jing Chai, Yehuan Sun, Debin Wang
Children with upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) are among the highest receivers of antibiotics. Using a retrospective cross-sectional study, we described clinical management in rural China of recent URTIs in children. We explored antibiotics using behaviors and associations of caregivers' variables and children's symptoms. Children with URTIs had a high consultation rate and a high prescription rate of antibiotics. For the children, some caregivers adopted, without rationale, 'self-medication' with antibiotics...
January 23, 2019: Journal of Public Health Policy
Jessie Hawkins, Colby Baker, Lindsey Cherry, Elizabeth Dunne
Upper respiratory symptoms are often treated with over the counter drugs, antibiotics, and antiviral medications. Due to concerns about safety and efficacy, there is a demand for an alternative solution. Black elderberry (Sambucus nigra) has been used to treat cold and flu symptoms, but there are no large-scale studies or meta-analyses. This meta-analysis quantifies the effects of elderberry supplementation and evaluates moderators including vaccination status and the underlying pathology. This analysis included a total of 180 participants and evaluates moderators such as vaccination status and cause of the upper respiratory symptoms...
February 2019: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
Sicheng Shao, Yongyou Hu, Jianhua Cheng, Yuancai Chen
In this study, the characteristics of biodegradation of oxytetracycline (OTC) by strain Ochrobactrum sp. KSS10 were studied under various environmental conditions, including initial OTC concentrations, variable temperature, initial pH, and diverse carbon sources. The capability of this bacterial strain for performing simultaneous OTC degradation and nitrate reduction was also explored under aerobic conditions. An OTC degradation ratio of 63.33% and a nitrate removal ratio of 98.64% were obtained within 96 h...
January 17, 2019: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Bart J F Keijser, Valeria Agamennone, Tim J van den Broek, Martien Caspers, Adri van de Braak, Richard Bomers, Mieke Havekes, Eric Schoen, Martin van Baak, Daniël Mioch, Lonneke Bomers, Roy C Montijn
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic therapy is commonly used in animal agriculture. Antibiotics excreted by the animals can contaminate farming environments, resulting in long term exposure of animals to sub-inhibitory levels of antibiotics. Little is known on the effect of this exposure on antibiotic resistance. In this study, we aimed to investigate the long term effects of sub-inhibitory levels of antibiotics on the gut microbiota composition and resistome of veal calves in vivo. Forty-two veal calves were randomly assigned to three groups...
January 19, 2019: BMC Genomics
Junfeng Chen, Yuewei Yang, Yanyan Liu, Meizhen Tang, Renjun Wang, Yuping Tian, Chuanxing Jia
This study explored the biodegradation mechanisms of oxytetracycline (OTC/O) and electrochemical characteristics from the perspective of bacterial community shift and OTC resistance genes in dual graphene modified bioelectrode microbial fuel cell (O-D-GM-BE MFC). In phylum level, Proteobacteria was accounted to 95.04% in O-GM-BA, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were accounted to 59.13% and 20.52% in O-GM-BC, which were beneficial for extracellular electron transport (EET) process and OTC biodegradation. In genus level, the most dominant bacteria in O-GM-BA were Salmonella and Trabulsiella, accounting up to 83...
January 3, 2019: Bioresource Technology
Jian Sun, Wenjing Xu, Ping Yang, Nan Li, Yong Yuan, Hongguo Zhang, Yujie Wang, Xunan Ning, Yaping Zhang, Kenlin Chang, Yenping Peng, Kufan Chen
Photo-bioelectrochemical fuel cell (PBFC) represents a promising technology for enhancing removal of antibiotic pollutants while simultaneously sustainable transformation of organic wastes and solar energy into electricity. In this study, simultaneous antibiotic removal and bioelectricity generation were investigated in a PBFC with daily light/dark cycle using oxytetracycline (OTC) as a model compound of antibiotic. The specific OTC removal rate increased by 61% at an external resistance of 50 Ω compared to that in the open-circuit control, which was attributed to bioelectrochemically enhanced co-metabolic degradation in the presence of the bioanode...
December 27, 2018: Chemosphere
Nadali Alavi, Khatereh Sarmadi, Gholamreza Goudarzi, Ali Akbar Babaei, Reza Bakhshoodeh, Pooya Paydary
The main objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using a locally abundant bulking material (bagasse) in the composting process to remove tetracycline from chicken manure in Khuzestan Province, Iran. Degradation extent and kinetic of three types of tetracycline (tetracycline hydrochloride (TCH), chlortetracycline (CTC), and oxytetracycline (OTC)) during co-composting of chicken manure and bagasse were investigated. After 56 days of incubation in the dark and room temperature, TCH, CTC, and OTC were removed up to 99...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Environmental Management
Nan Zhou, Yashen Ma, Bin Hu, Linghao He, Shijun Wang, Zhihong Zhang, Siyu Lu
Porous organic framework (COF) nanomaterials have drawn increasing attention and showed promising potential in the applications of various fields. Nevertheless, its applications in biosensing or biomedical fields are still in the early stage. In this work, we designed and synthesized a series of nanohybrids of COF and Ce-based metal organic framework (Ce-MOF) for the first time as label-free bioplatforms for a sensitive electrochemical aptasensor to detect oxytetracycline (OTC). A novel kinds of Ce-MOF@COF hybrids were prepared by adding different dosages of COF, into the preparation system of Ce-MOF, for which COF was synthesized using melamine and cyanutic acidmonomers through polycondensation (represented by MCA)...
December 18, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Na Li, Long Zhou, Xiaoying Jin, Gary Owens, Zuliang Chen
In this paper, a Zeolite Imidazole Framework-8 (ZIF-8), was investigated for the removal of a mixture of two common antibiotics, tetracycline (TC) and oxytetracycline hydrochloride (OTC). Batch experiments showed that 90.7% of TC and 82.5% of OTC were simultaneously removed using ZIF-8. The maximum adsorption capacities for TC and OTC were 303.0 and 312.5 mg g-1 , respectively. For both antibiotics' adsorption followed pseudo-second-order kinetics and best fit the Langmuir adsorption model with R2 of 0...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Samuel Afari-Asiedu, John Kinsman, Ellen Boamah-Kaali, Martha Ali Abdulai, Margaret Gyapong, Osman Sankoh, Marlies Hulscher, Kwaku Poku Asante, Heiman Wertheim
Background: In Ghana, there is extensive over-the-counter dispensing of antibiotics, resulting in high levels of inappropriate use, and an increase in antibiotic resistance. Regulations prevent Licenced Chemical Sellers (LCS, Over-the-Counter Medicine Sellers) from selling antibiotics other than Cotrimoxazole. In practice, however, these sellers sell a variety of antibiotics. This paper aims to provide insight into the differences between regulatory and community demands on the sale of antibiotics, and to explore how these differences in demand could be resolved to facilitate safe and appropriate use of antibiotics in rural Ghana...
2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
Honghong Guo, Shuhong Xue, Mubasher Nasir, Jialong Lv, Jei Gu
The effects of bentonite (BT), a commonly used heavy metal deactivator, on the ARGs and microbial communities in soils and lettuce systems contaminated by heavy metals and antibiotics are unclear. A study was conducted to investigate the effect of BT on the mobility of antibiotic resistance genes in oxytetracycline and cadmium contaminated soil. Results showed that the addition of BT reduced the accumulation of OTC and ARGs in the soil and lettuce roots, but increased the abundance of ARGs in lettuce leaves, and increase the risk of human pathogenic bacteria (HPB) transferring to lettuce leaves...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Lin-Ling Yu, Zi-Fen Luo, Ying-Ying Zhang, Shi-Chuan Wu, Cao Yang, Jian-Hua Cheng
The presence of tetracycline antibiotics (TCS) in the water and wastewater has raised growing concern due to its potential environmental impacts; thus, their removal is of high importance. In this study, a novel aluminum-based MOF/graphite oxide (Al-MOF/GO) granule was prepared as an adsorbent for the removal of TCS including oxytetracycline (OTC) and chlortetracycline (CTC). The adsorbent was characterized via XRD, FTIR, BET, SEM, and XPS methods. The granules exhibited similar crystal structure and some new mesopores appearing compared to the parent Al-MOF/GO powder...
December 8, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Faten Alhomoud, Reem Almahasnah, Farah Kais Alhomoud
BACKGROUND: The sale of antibiotics without a prescription poses a global public health concern. Antibiotics dispensed without a prescription are largely recognised as a cause of antibiotic misuse and overuse which may result in antibiotic resistance, recurrent infection, increased cost and adverse effects of treatment. There have been no qualitative studies to explore the reasons for over-the-counter (OTC) sale of antibiotics, despite the fact that non-prescription sale of antibiotics are increasing in Saudi Arabia...
December 3, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
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