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pharmacist antibiotic

Maresca Attard Pizzuto, Liberato Camilleri, Lilian M Azzopardi, Anthony Serracino-Inglott
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the perception of Maltese pharmacists to prescribe a selected number of antibiotics. METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire entitled 'Antibiotic Prescribing by Pharmacists' was developed to study pharmacist perception to prescribing a selected number of antibacterial agents. The questionnaire was validated by a two-round Delphi technique and disseminated to all practising pharmacists (N = 930) during a 3-month period. KEY FINDINGS: Two hundred and nine pharmacists answered the questionnaire...
February 13, 2019: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
Tanya du Plessis, Genevieve Walls, Anthony Jordan, David J Holland
Background: Inaccurate allergy labelling results in inappropriate antimicrobial management of the patient, which may affect clinical outcome, increase the risk of adverse events and increase costs. Inappropriate use of alternative antibiotics has implications for antimicrobial stewardship programmes and microbial resistance. Methods: All adult inpatients labelled as penicillin allergic were identified and screened for eligibility by the study pharmacist. An accurate allergy and medication history was taken...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Sarah Perreault, Dayna McManus, Noffar Bar, Francine Foss, Lohith Gowda, Iris Isufi, Stuart Seropian, Maricar Malinis, Jeffrey E Topal
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend adding vancomycin to empiric treatment of FN in patients who meet specific criteria. After 48 hours, the guidelines recommend discontinuing vancomycin if resistant Gram-positive organisms are not identified. Based on these recommendations, a vancomycin stewardship team defined criteria for discontinuation of vancomycin at 48 hours and increased surveillance of vancomycin usage through a multimodal approach. The purpose of this retrospective analysis is to assess the impact of this multimodal approach on the discontinuation of empiric vancomycin at 48 hours in FN...
February 8, 2019: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Hani Saleh Faidah, Abdul Haseeb, Majd Yousuf Lamfon, Malak Mohammad Almatrafi, Imtinan Abdullah Almasoudi, Ejaz Cheema, Waleed Hassan Almalki, Mahmoud E Elrggal, Mahmoud M A Mohamed, Fahad Saleem, Manal Mansour Al-Gethamy, Beenish Pervaiz, Tahir Mehmood Khan, Mohamed Azmi Hassali
BACKGROUND: Excessive and inappropriate antimicrobial use in the community is one risk factor that can result in the spread of antimicrobial resistance. Upper respiratory tract infections are most frequently reported among children and mainly of viral origin and do not require antibiotics. We have conducted Knowledge, Attitude and Perception (KAP) survey of parents to explore the parent's knowledge, attitude & perception of Saudi parents. METHODS: A knowledge attitude perception questioner was adopted from a previous study conducted in Greece by Panagakou et al...
February 4, 2019: BMC Pediatrics
Brian T Tsuji, Jason M Pogue, Alexandre P Zavascki, Mical Paul, George L Daikos, Alan Forrest, Daniele R Giacobbe, Claudio Viscoli, Helen Giamarellou, Ilias Karaiskos, Donald Kaye, Johan W Mouton, Vincent H Tam, Visanu Thamlikitkul, Richard G Wunderink, Jian Li, Roger L Nation, Keith S Kaye
The polymyxin antibiotics colistin (polymyxin E) and polymyxin B became available in the 1950s and thus did not undergo contemporary drug development procedures. Their clinical use has recently resurged, assuming an important role as salvage therapy for otherwise untreatable gram-negative infections. Since their reintroduction into the clinic, significant confusion remains due to the existence of several different conventions used to describe doses of the polymyxins, differences in their formulations, outdated product information, and uncertainties about susceptibility testing that has led to lack of clarity on how to optimally utilize and dose colistin and polymyxin B...
January 2019: Pharmacotherapy
Fabian Erdsiek, Tugba Aksakal, Hilal Özcebe, Sarp Üner, Ozge Karadag Caman, Katarzyna Czabanowska, Olga Gershuni, Ragnar Westerling, Patrick Brzoska
OBJECTIVES: Due to strong transnational ties, the use of and demand for antibiotics among Turkish migrants in Germany may be influenced by cultural aspects of antibiotic use in Turkey. Research on the use of antibiotics among Turkish migrants in Germany, however, is scarce. The aim of this study was to find out how Turkish migrants in Germany use antibiotics, whether and how knowledge, underlying motives and attitudes influence demand and how Turkish migrants interact with medical professionals...
January 31, 2019: Das Gesundheitswesen
Sajal K Saha, Lesley Hawes, Danielle Mazza
Background: The use of community antibiotic stewardship programmes (ASPs) is rising; however, their effectiveness when pharmacists are involved is uncertain. Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of ASPs involving pharmacists at improving antibiotic prescribing by general practitioners (GPs). Methods: Medline, Embase, Emcare, PubMed, PsycINFO, Cochrane CENTRAL, CINAHL Plus and Web of Science databases were searched to February 2018. Randomized and non-randomized studies of ASPs involving pharmacists as interventionists to GPs were included...
January 28, 2019: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Christopher M Bland, P Brandon Bookstaver, Nicole C Griffith, Emily L Heil, Bruce M Jones, Julie Ann Justo, Mary L Staicu, Nicholas P Torney, Geoffrey C Wall
Purpose: The purpose of this article is to offer practical guidance for pharmacists to successfully implement penicillin allergy skin testing (PAST). Summary: Less than 10% of patients labeled as having a penicillin allergy are confirmed as present upon skin testing. This labeling results in use of alternative antibiotics and thus unwanted adverse consequences including potentiated antimicrobial resistance, increased costs, and worse clinical outcomes. Stewardship guidelines recommend PAST to enhance use of first-line agents; however, this was a weak recommendation with low-quality evidence...
January 25, 2019: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
Lauren N Fay, Lauren M Wolf, Kasey L Brandt, G Robert DeYoung, Adam M Anderson, Nnaemeka E Egwuatu, Lisa E Dumkow
Purpose: While many programs have demonstrated pharmacist-led antimicrobial stewardship successes in inpatient and emergency department (ED) settings, there is a paucity of literature exploring these initiatives in urgent care (UC) sites. This study aimed to determine the impact of implementing a pharmacist-led antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) in the UC setting. Methods: A retrospective quasi-experimental study was conducted evaluating UC patients with positive urine or wound cultures following discharge...
January 25, 2019: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
Kengo Ohashi, Tomoko Matsuoka, Yasutaka Shinoda, Takayuki Mori, Shinya Yoshida, Tomoaki Yoshimura, Tadashi Sugiyama
Prospective audit with intervention and feedback (PAF) and preauthorisation of antimicrobials are core strategies for antimicrobial stewardship (AS). PAF participants were expanded from patients using specific antibiotics to those using whole injectable antibiotics to evaluate clinical outcome. From January 2016 to December 2016, PAF was performed in patients using specific antibiotics (period 1) and from January 2017 to December 2017, PAF was performed in patients using whole injectable antibiotics (period 2)...
January 24, 2019: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Chimwemwe Tusekile Mula, Nicola Human, Lyn Middleton
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic stewardship, the proper management of antibiotics to ensure optimal patient outcomes, is based on quality improvement. Evidence-based guidelines and protocols have been developed to improve this process of care. Safe and timely patient care also requires optimal coordination of staff, resources, equipment, schedules and tasks. However, healthcare workers encounter barriers when implementing these standards and engage in workarounds to overcome these barriers. Workarounds bypass or temporarily 'fix' perceived workflow hindrances to achieve a goal more readily...
January 23, 2019: BMC Health Services Research
H S Kim, M M Tang
Cutaneous adverse drug reactions (cADR) are common. However, only very few audits reported the clinical characteristics of cADR captured at district hospitals. We performed a 4-year audit on cADR reported to the Department of Pharmacy in Hospital Pakar Sultanah Fatimah between May 2012 and March 2016. It showed that the main adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporters were pharmacists (84.9%) where the majority of the reactions were clinical descriptions without dermatological diagnosis. Antibiotics (46.4%) were the commonest culprit drug followed by NSAIDs (22%)...
December 2018: Medical Journal of Malaysia
Kotoji Iwamoto, Hanne Bak Pedersen, Juan E Tello, Danilo Lo Fo Wong, Jane Robertson
This meeting was held from the 30 October to the 1 November 2018 in Almaty, Kazakhstan. The meeting brought together participants from 16 countries of central Asia, Caucasus, eastern Europe and expert speakers from western Europe and India. Participants discussed the analysis and use of data on antimicrobial medicines consumption, country experiences in enforcing legislation for prescription-only access to antibiotics, the role of primary health care (PHC) in tackling antimicrobial resistance (AMR), strategies to improving competencies of practitioners using evidence-based clinical protocols and public engagement in the responsible use of medicines...
January 10, 2019: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Leah Ffion Jones, Rebecca Owens, Anna Sallis, Diane Ashiru-Oredope, Tracey Thornley, Nick A Francis, Chris Butler, Cliodna A M McNulty
OBJECTIVES: Community pharmacists and their staff have the potential to contribute to antimicrobial stewardship (AMS). However, their barriers and opportunities are not well understood. The aim was to investigate the experiences and perceptions of community pharmacists and their teams around AMS to inform intervention development. DESIGN: Interviews and focus groups were used to explore the views of pharmacists, pharmacy staff, general practitioners (GPs), members of pharmacy organisations and commissioners...
December 28, 2018: BMJ Open
Richard Croker, Alex J Walker, Ben Goldacre
Objectives: To describe trends and geographical variation in prescribing of trimethoprim and nitrofurantoin to treat urinary tract infections, to describe variation in implementing guideline change and to compare actions taken to reduce trimethoprim use in high- and low-using Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCGs). Methods: A retrospective cohort study and interrupted time series analysis of English NHS primary care prescribing data, complemented by information obtained through Freedom of Information Act requests to CCGs...
December 22, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Justin Grill, Caleb Bryant, Kyle Markel, Samuel J Wisniewski
PURPOSE: To describe quantitatively the impact on physician efficiency when an Emergency Medicine Clinical Pharmacist (EMCP) is available to Emergency Department (ED) physicians while working under a collaborative care agreement in a Michigan-based Health System. METHODS: Four EMCPs each logged and categorized their time during 14 ten hour shifts, for a total of 56 shifts or 560 total hours worked. There were nine categories observed including: culture call back, urine, blood, or other culture follow up, antibiotic changes, patient call-backs, pharmacy call backs, critically ill, and general questions...
December 18, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Gebremedhin Beedemariam Gebretekle, Damen Haile Mariam, Workeabeba Abebe, Wondwossen Amogne, Admasu Tenna, Teferi Gedif Fenta, Michael Libman, Cedric P Yansouni, Makeda Semret
BACKGROUND: Global action plans to tackle antimicrobial resistance (AMR) include implementation of antimicrobial stewardship (AMS), but few studies have directly addressed the challenges faced by low and middle-income countries (LMICs). Our aim was to explore healthcare providers' knowledge and perceptions on AMR, and barriers/facilitators to successful implementation of a pharmacist-led AMS intervention in a referral hospital in Ethiopia. METHODS: Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital (TASH) is an 800-bed tertiary center in Addis Ababa, and the site of an ongoing 4-year study on AMR...
2018: PloS One
Magdalena Edington, Julie Connolly, David Lockington
We wish to report an ocular chemical injury caused by inadvertent dispensing and administration of an erectile dysfunction cream (Vitaros) instead of an ocular lubricant (VitA-POS) to highlight this potential source of error. Prescribing errors are common, and medications with similar names/packaging increase risk. However, it is unusual in this case that no individual (including the patient, general practitioner or dispensing pharmacist) questioned erectile dysfunction cream being prescribed to a female patient, with ocular application instructions...
December 3, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Sri Harsha Chalasani, Madhan Ramesh, Parthasarathi Gurumurthy
Medication errors (MEs) often prelude guilt and fear in health care professionals (HCPs), thereby resulting in under-reporting and further compromising patient safety. To improve patient safety, we conducted a study on the implementation of a voluntary medication error-reporting and monitoring programme. The ME reporting system was established using the principles based on prospective, voluntary, open, anonymous, and stand-alone surveillance in a tertiary care teaching hospital located in South India. A prospective observational study was carried out for three years and a voluntary Medication Error-reporting Form was developed to report medication errors MEs that had occurred in patients of either sex were included in the study, and the reporters were given the choice to remain anonymous...
December 14, 2018: Pharmacy (Basel, Switzerland)
David E Zimmerman, Jordan R Covvey, Branden D Nemecek, Anthony J Guarascio, Laura Wilson, Henry R Freedy, Mohamed H Yassin
OBJECTIVE: To compare pharmacist-led prescribing changes and associated 30-day revisit rates across different regimens for patients discharged from an emergency department (ED) with a diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). METHODS: An observational, retrospective cohort analysis was conducted of patients who were discharged from an ED over a 4-year period with a diagnosis of CAP. Patient demographics, clinical characteristics, antibiotic selection and comorbidity and condition severity scores were collected for two cohorts: 2012-13 (before protocol change) and 2014-15 (post-protocol change)...
December 11, 2018: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
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