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Chronic dehydration

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30764828/is-cellular-senescence-involved-in-cystic-fibrosis
#1
REVIEW
Valentino Bezzerri, Francesco Piacenza, Nicole Caporelli, Marco Malavolta, Mauro Provinciali, Marco Cipolli
Pulmonary disease is the main cause of the morbidity and mortality of patients affected by cystic fibrosis (CF). The lung pathology is dominated by excessive recruitment of neutrophils followed by an exaggerated inflammatory process that has also been reported to occur in the absence of apparent pathogenic infections. Airway surface dehydration and mucus accumulation are the driving forces of this process. The continuous release of reactive oxygen species and proteases by neutrophils contributes to tissue damage, which eventually leads to respiratory insufficiency...
February 14, 2019: Respiratory Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30753268/nutritional-management-for-chronic-kidney-disease-patients-who-undergo-bariatric-surgery-a-narrative-review
#2
Tair Ben-Porat, Anat Weiss-Sadan, Amihai Rottenstreich, Shiri Sherf-Dagan, Chaya Schweiger, Irit Mor Yosef-Levi, Dana Weiner, Odile Azulay, Nasser Sakran, Rivki Harari, Ram Elazary
Bariatric surgery (BS) may be effective for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients by reducing microalbuminuria and proteinuria, and by facilitating their meeting inclusion criteria for kidney transplantation. However, nutritional management for this population is complex and specific guidelines are scarce. A literature search was performed to create dietetic practice for these patients based on the most recent evidence. For the purposes of nutritional recommendations, we divided the patients into 2 subgroups: 1) patients with CKD and dialysis, and 2) patients after kidney transplantation...
January 1, 2019: Advances in Nutrition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30718303/-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-can-inhibit-growth-of-streptococcal-species-via-siderophore-production
#3
Jessie E Scott, Kewei Li, Laura M Filkins, Bin Zhu, Sherry L Kuchma, Joseph D Schwartzman, George A O'Toole
Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease that causes patients to accumulate thick, dehydrated mucus in the lung and develop chronic, polymicrobial infections due to reduced mucociliary clearance. These chronic polymicrobial infections and subsequent decline in lung function are significant factors in the morbidity and mortality of CF. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus spp. are among the most prevalent organisms in the CF lung; the presence of P. aeruginosa correlates with lung function decline and the Streptococcus milleri group (SMG), a subgroup of the viridans streptococci, is associated with exacerbations in patients with CF...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Bacteriology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30714263/dysphagia-screening-in-acute-ischemic-stroke
#4
Mohamed Al-Khaled
Dysphagia is a common neurological, often underdiagnosed symptom of an acute stroke, particularly, in patients suffering from a stroke in the posterior circulation, particularly brainstem infarction or a malign anterior circulation stroke, with altered consciousness. Up to 80% of acute stroke patients showed a dysfunction in swallowing, whereas the determined rate of dysphasia is depending on the stroke's severity, the type and timing of the dysphasia screening techniques. A quarter of the dysphasia patients developed a chronic swallowing dysfunction which severely affects the quality of life in addition to the malnutrition and dehydration risk ...
February 3, 2019: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30712983/-an-unusual-case-of-olmesartan-induced-enteropathy
#5
Paulina Henry, Hélène Dano, Hubert Piessevaux, Anne Jouret-Mourin
Olmesartan induced enteropathy was first described in 2012. It is a rare adverse effect of this antihypertensive drug. The clinical presentation commonly includes severe chronic diarrhea leading to weight loss and a variable degree of dehydration. Histological findings are most commonly observed in the duodenum and consist of partial or total villous atrophy, increased intraepithelial lymphocytes and inflammation in the lamina propria. Involvement of gastric and colic mucosa has also been described. We report on the case of a 63-year-old man, treated by olmesartan, who presented with severe chronic diarrhea...
January 31, 2019: Annales de Pathologie
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30712053/a-rare-case-of-spontaneous-tumor-lysis-syndrome-in-idiopathic-primary-myelofibrosis
#6
Yong Sub Na, Sang-Gon Park
BACKGROUND Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is an oncologic emergency resulting from the massive destruction of tumor cells after cytotoxic chemotherapy for chemosensitive malignancies with a high tumor burden. Its clinical manifestations include severe electrolyte disturbances, metabolic acidosis, acute renal failure secondary to urate deposition in the kidney, heart, and skeletal muscle, and nervous system dysfunction. We report an extremely rare case of spontaneous TLS (STLS) in idiopathic primary myelofibrosis (PMF)...
February 3, 2019: American Journal of Case Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30676655/effect-of-age-sex-and-season-on-the-variation-in-blood-analytes-of-a-clinically-normal-ex-situ-population-of-killer-whales-orcinus-orca
#7
Hendrik H Nollens, Todd R Robeck, Todd L Schmitt, Lara L Croft, Steve Osborn, James F McBain
BACKGROUND: The effects of sex, age, and season on blood analyte concentrations have not been investigated for the killer whale (Orcinus orca). Defining these changes provides background data for improving the care of managed populations and defines normal changes that could occur in wild counterparts. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to define hematologic and serum biochemical variation by age, sex, and season for an ex situ killer whale population. METHODS: Blood samples collected from killer whales during normal wellness exams were retrospectively identified...
January 24, 2019: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30671208/new-therapeutic-options-for-the-treatment-of-sickle-cell-disease
#8
REVIEW
Alessandro Matte, Francesco Zorzi, Filippo Mazzi, Enrica Federti, Oliviero Olivieri, Lucia De Franceschi
Sickle cell disease (SCD; ORPHA232; OMIM # 603903) is a chronic and invalidating disorder distributed worldwide, with high morbidity and mortality. Given the disease complexity and the multiplicity of pathophysiological targets, development of new therapeutic options is critical, despite the positive effects of hydroxyurea (HU), for many years the only approved drug for SCD. New therapeutic strategies might be divided into (1) pathophysiology-related novel therapies and (2) innovations in curative therapeutic options such as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and gene therapy...
2019: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30661690/consumption-of-yacon-flour-improves-body-composition-and-intestinal-function-in-overweight-adults-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#9
Adriane M Machado, Nayara B M da Silva, José Benício P Chaves, Rita de Cássia G Alfenas
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Yacon root is a natural source of fructooligosaccharides (FOS), and it has been studied for its potential effect as a functional food. However, FOS in the in natura root are rapidly hydrolyzed. Thus, the use of dehydrated products such as flour ensures stability of FOS. The effect of chronic consumption of yacon flour on body composition, food intake and of biochemical variables concentration has not yet been evaluated in humans. Thus, we evaluated the effects of yacon flour consumption on these variables associated with excess body weight...
February 2019: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30651604/body-hydration-assessment-using-bioelectrical-impedance-vector-analysis-in-neurologically-impaired-children
#10
Valeria Calcaterra, Hellas Cena, Matteo Manuelli, Lucia Sacchi, Vincenza Girgenti, Cristiana Larizza, Gloria Pelizzo
Dehydration is common and frequently under-diagnosed in chronic malnourished children, leading to life-threatening conditions. In this pilot study we applied bioimpedance vector analysis (BIVA) to determine hydration status in 52 neurologically impaired (NI) paediatric patients (14.08 ± 5.32). Clinical and biochemical data were used to define malnutrition and dehydration. Body composition analysis and hydration were also assessed by BIVA and we considered 143 normal-weight healthy subjects (15.0 ± 1...
January 16, 2019: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30616300/potentiators-specific-therapies-for-class-iii-and-iv-mutations-for-cystic-fibrosis
#11
REVIEW
Mica Skilton, Ashma Krishan, Sanjay Patel, Ian P Sinha, Kevin W Southern
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the commonest inherited life-shortening illness in white populations, caused by a mutation in the gene that codes for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator protein (CFTR), which functions as a salt transporter. This mutation mainly affects the airways where excess salt absorption dehydrates the airway lining leading to impaired mucociliary clearance. Consequently, thick, sticky mucus accumulates making the airway prone to chronic infection and progressive inflammation; respiratory failure often ensues...
January 7, 2019: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30574736/ibuprofen-in-the-treatment-of-children-s-inflammatory-pain-a-clinical-and-pharmacological-overview
#12
Massimo Barbagallo, Paola Sacerdote
Unlike fever, which is often over-treated especially in children, pain is underestimated and under-treated in pediatric age. The pharmacological agents approved for treating pain in these patients are few, also considering the recent limitation for codeine in children younger than 12 years. Paracetamol and the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) ibuprofen are the most used at this purpose. The aim of this overview was to analyze the therapeutic appropriateness of ibuprofen in children based on its pharmacological properties...
February 2019: Minerva Pediatrica
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30564347/two-cases-of-microvillous-inclusion-disease-caused-by-novel-mutations-in-myo5b-gene
#13
Marika Comegna, Felice Amato, Renato Liguori, Roberto Berni Canani, Maria Immacolata Spagnuolo, Manrico Morroni, Alfredo Guarino, Giuseppe Castaldo
Microvillous inclusion disease (MVID) typically appears with severe chronic diarrhea in the few days after birth and rapidly causes dehydration and metabolic acidosis. In this context, presenting two novel cases, we underline the crucial importance of mutation analysis for the diagnosis of this disease that may be easily misdiagnosed.
December 2018: Clinical Case Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30561398/renal-lithiasis-and-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-an-update-on-pediatric-population
#14
Laura Bianchi, Federica Gaiani, Barbara Bizzarri, Roberta Minelli, Paolo Cortegoso Valdivia, Gioacchino Leandro, Francesco Di Mario, Gian Luigi De' Angelis, Claudio Ruberto
BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE WORK: Historical studies have demonstrated that the prevalence of symptomatic nephrolithiasis is higher in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), compared to general population. The aim of the review was to analyze literature data in order to identify the main risk conditions described in literature and the proposed treatment. METHODS: A research on the databases PubMed, Medline, Embase and Google Scholar was performed by using the keywords "renal calculi/lithiasis/stones" and "inflammatory bowel diseases"...
December 17, 2018: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30555145/treatment-of-refractory-paediatric-giardiasis-using-secnidazole-plus-albendazole-a-case-series
#15
Angel A Escobedo, Pedro Almirall, Elaine Chirino, Frank Pacheco, Ana Duque, Ivonne Avila
Giardia lamblia, the aetiological agent of human giardiasis, is a frequently identified protozoan infection of the upper small intestine. It mainly affects children and has a wide range of clinical manifestations, from asymptomatic carriage to acute or chronic diarrhoea with dehydration, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, excessive flatulence and weight loss. Standard treatment for giardiasis is commonly with 5-nitroimidazole (5-NI) compounds, or nitazoxanide; however, some individuals experience treatment failure...
December 1, 2018: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30496539/gene-expression-analysis-in-eucalyptus-globulus-exposed-to-drought-stress-in-a-controlled-and-a-field-environment-indicates-different-strategies-for-short-and-longer-term-acclimation
#16
Barbara Correia, Robert D Hancock, Luis Valledor, Glória Pinto
Previous knowledge suggested the involvement of specific pathways/proteins that could be identified as potential molecular indicators linked to enhanced drought tolerance in Eucalyptus globulus. Here, we looked for specific variations in key transcripts of two Eucalyptus globulus clones (AL-18 and AL-13) exposed to water deficit and rehydration with two main goals: (i) to check if and how transcripts potentially associated with stress response and protection are modulated in a controlled experiment; and (ii) to verify if the transcript response is robust in a field case study...
November 1, 2018: Tree Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30459023/heat-exhaustion
#17
Glen P Kenny, Thad E Wilson, Andreas D Flouris, Naoto Fujii
Heat exhaustion is part of a spectrum of heat-related illnesses that can affect all individuals, although children, older adults, and those with chronic disease are particularly vulnerable due to their impaired ability to dissipate heat. If left uninterrupted, there can be progression of symptoms to heatstroke, a life-threatening emergency. Signs and symptoms of heat exhaustion may develop suddenly or over time. Exposure to a hot environment for a prolonged period and performing exercise or work in the heat can overwhelm the body's ability to cool itself, causing heat exhaustion...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30416443/-in-vitro-methods-for-the-development-and-analysis-of-human-primary-airway-epithelia
#18
Ambra Gianotti, Livia Delpiano, Emanuela Caci
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a chronic disease caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator ( CFTR ) gene, which encodes for a channel expressed at the apical surface of epithelial tissues. Defective chloride and bicarbonate secretion, arising from CFTR mutations, cause a multi-organ disease. In the airways, impaired ion transport results in a thick mucus, dehydration of the periciliar region and bacterial infections. Over the last years, basic research has sustained a great effort to identify therapies that are able to correct defective CFTR...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30391956/kidney-injury-from-recurrent-heat-stress-and-rhabdomyolysis-protective-role-of-allopurinol-and-sodium-bicarbonate
#19
Laura-Gabriela Sánchez-Lozada, Fernando E García-Arroyo, Guillermo Gonzaga, Octaviano Silverio, Mónica G Blas-Marron, Itzel Muñoz-Jimenez, Edilia Tapia, Horacio Osorio-Alonso, Magdalena Madero, Carlos A Roncal-Jiménez, Ilana Weiss, Jason Glaser, Richard J Johnson
BACKGROUND: Heat stress and rhabdomyolysis are major risk factors for the occurrence of repeated acute kidney injury in workers exposed to heat and strenuous work. These episodes, in turn, may progress to chronic kidney disease. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to test the effect of allopurinol (AP) and sodium bicarbonate on the kidney injury induced by recurrent heat stress dehydration with concomitant repeated episodes of rhabdomyolysis. METHODS: The model consisted of heat stress exposure (1 h, 37°C) plus rhabdomyolysis (R) induced by repetitive IM injections of glycerol (7...
2018: American Journal of Nephrology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30366661/hydrocarbon-water-pollution-related-to-chronic-kidney-disease-in-tierra-blanca-a-perfect-storm
#20
S Valdivia-Rivera, A K Martínez-Cano, G Aguirre-García, M A Lizardi-Jiménez
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects the kidneys, and in severe cases is considered as end-stage renal disease which can only be treated by dialysis and transplantation. Tierra Blanca city has a higher CKD rate compared to other Mexican cities, but its principal cause has not been found yet. Main factors related to CKD are carbonated beverage consumption, diabetes, obesity, hypertension, heat stress, dehydration, and intoxication by pesticides, heavy metals, and/or hydrocarbons. The aim of this work was to evaluate hydrocarbon pollution in Tierra Blanca domestic fresh-water related to CKD and to integrate this information with other main factors in order to suggest precautionary actions taking account of key actors...
December 2018: Environment International
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