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low carbohydrate high fat diet

S L Neoh, J A Grisoni, D S Feig, H R Murphy
AIM: To describe the dietary intakes of women with Type 1 diabetes before and during pregnancy. METHODS: This was a pre-specified subgroup analysis of CONCEPTT involving 63 women planning pregnancy and 93 pregnant women from 14 sites in England, Scotland and Ireland. Two hundred and forty-six 3-day food diaries (104 planning pregnancy, 142 pregnant) were matched to data source and food reference codes, and analysed using dietary software. Participants were informed that food diaries would be de-identified and used only for research purposes...
February 20, 2019: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Yi Wan, Fenglei Wang, Jihong Yuan, Jie Li, Dandan Jiang, Jingjing Zhang, Hao Li, Ruoyi Wang, Jun Tang, Tao Huang, Jusheng Zheng, Andrew J Sinclair, Jim Mann, Duo Li
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether diets differing in fat content alter the gut microbiota and faecal metabolomic profiles, and to determine their relationship with cardiometabolic risk factors in healthy adults whose diet is in a transition from a traditional low-fat diet to a diet high in fat and reduced in carbohydrate. METHODS: In a 6-month randomised controlled-feeding trial, 217 healthy young adults (aged 18-35 years; body mass index <28 kg/m2 ; 52% women) who completed the whole trial were included...
February 19, 2019: Gut
Jang Ho Kim, Woo Chang Kim, Jihye Kim
OBJECTIVE: We analysed optimal nutrient levels using linear programming (LP) to reveal nutritional shortcomings of Korean dine-out meals and to stress the importance of fruits and dairy products for maintaining a healthy diet. DESIGN: LP models that minimize deviation from recommended nutrient values were formulated to analyse deficiency or excess of nutrients under the best situation. SETTING: Korean dine-out menus and nutritional information were taken from the nutrient composition tables for dine-out menus developed by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety and the nutrient database from Computerized Analysis Program...
February 15, 2019: Public Health Nutrition
Isabella D'Andrea Meira, Tayla Taynan Romão, Henrique Jannuzzelli Pires do Prado, Lia Theophilo Krüger, Maria Elisa Paiva Pires, Priscila Oliveira da Conceição
The Ketogenic Diet (KD) is a modality of treatment used since the 1920s as a treatment for intractable epilepsy. It has been proposed as a dietary treatment that would produce similar benefits to fasting, which is already recorded in the Hippocratic collection. The KD has a high fat content (90%) and low protein and carbohydrate. Evidence shows that KD and its variants are a good alternative for non-surgical pharmacoresistant patients with epilepsy of any age, taking into account that the type of diet should be designed individually and that less-restrictive and more-palatable diets are usually better options for adults and adolescents...
2019: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Umile G Longo, Francesco Sofi, Monica Dinu, Alessandra Berton, Giulia Cipriani, Carlo Massaroni, Emiliano Schena, Vincenzo Denaro
BACKGROUND: Young athletes need to consume an appropriate diet in order to maintain health and optimize growth and athletic performance. We evaluated nutritional habits of junior elite skiers. METHODS: Alpine junior elite skiers (n=68; 42 males and 26 females; age range 16-20 years) coming from 20 countries were recruited during the Alpine Junior World Ski Championship, Roccaraso, Italy. Nutritional habits were assessed using a 3-day food record and the NHANES Food Frequency Questionnaire...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Dalila Azzout-Marniche, Catherine Chaumontet, Julien Piedcoq, Nadezda Khodorova, Gilles Fromentin, Daniel Tomé, Claire Gaudichon, Patrick C Even
Background: We have reported large differences in adiposity (fat mass/body weight) gain between rats fed a low-fat, high-starch diet, leading to their classification into carbohydrate "sensitive" and "resistant" rats. In sensitive animals, fat accumulates in visceral adipose tissues, leading to the suggestion that this form of obesity could be responsible for rapid development of metabolic syndrome. Objective: We investigated whether increased amylase secretion by the pancreas and accelerated starch degradation in the intestine could be responsible for this phenotype...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Nutrition
Zamzam Paknahad, Atefeh Fallah, Amir Reza Moravejolahkami
Maternal nutritional status during pregnancy will affect the outcomes for the mother and the newborn. Maternal diet was assessed in 150 pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy by a 168-item food frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns were explored by Factor analysis, and association of patterns with maternal and neonatal outcomes such as gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), anemia and anthropometric indices were determined by analysis of variance and linear regression analysis. Three major dietary patterns were identified: 1) High Carbohydrate-Lower Fat (mean age, 27...
January 2019: Clinical Nutrition Research
Cliff J D C Harvey, Grant M Schofield, Caryn Zinn, Simon J Thornley, Catherine Crofts, Fabrice L R Merien
Background: Low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LCHF) diets are useful for treating a range of health conditions, but there is little research evaluating the degree of carbohydrate restriction on outcome measures. This study compares anthropometric and cardiometabolic outcomes between differing carbohydrate-restricted diets. Objective: Our hypothesis was that moderate carbohydrate restriction is easier to maintain and more effective for improving cardiometabolic health markers than greater restriction...
2019: PeerJ
Berkeley N Limketkai, Zipporah Iheozor-Ejiofor, Teuta Gjuladin-Hellon, Alyssa Parian, Laura E Matarese, Kelly Bracewell, John K MacDonald, Morris Gordon, Gerard E Mullin
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), comprised of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), is characterized by chronic mucosal inflammation, frequent hospitalizations, adverse health economics, and compromised quality of life. Diet has been hypothesised to influence IBD activity. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of dietary interventions on IBD outcomes. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane IBD Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, Clinicaltrials...
February 8, 2019: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Catherine Chaumontet, Dalila Azzout-Marniche, Anne Blais, Julien Piedcoq, Daniel Tomé, Claire Gaudichon, Patrick C Even
Low-protein diets most often induce increased energy intake in an attempt to increase protein intake to meet protein needs with a risk of accumulation as fat of the excess energy intake. In female adult BalbC mice, a decrease in dietary casein from 20% to 6% and 3% increased energy intake and slightly increased adiposity, and this response was exacerbated with soy proteins with low methionine content. The effect on fat mass was however limited because total energy expenditure (TEE) increased to the same extent as energy intake...
February 8, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Savini Britto, Richard Kellermayer
The nutritional developmental origins of inflammatory bowel disease(s) (IBDs: Crohn's disease or Crohn disease [CD] and ulcerative colitis [UC]) and their diet-based treatments continue to receive increasing attention. There is growing evidence for the success of nutrition-based treatments, such as exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) and the specific carbohydrate diet (SCD) in both pediatric and adult patients. Beyond these two dietary interventions, symptomatic benefit in IBD has also been shown from a gluten-free diet (GFD) and paleolithic diet (PALEO), among others...
January 30, 2019: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
Firoozeh Hosseini-Esfahani, Zohre Esfandiar, Parvin Mirmiran, Maryam S Daneshpour, Arash Ghanbarian, Fereidoun Azizi
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Gene-diet interactions may have an important role in the disparities between the lipid responses of individuals to diet. This study aimed to investigate whether polymorphisms (rs5882 and rs3764261) in the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene modify the association of diet with changes in serum lipid profiles. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A total of 4700 individuals aged ≥18 years were selected from among participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study...
January 31, 2019: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Reza Norouzirad, Mahboubeh Ghanbari, Zahra Bahadoran, Mohammad Amin Abdollahifar, Neda Rasouli, Asghar Ghasemi
AIMS: Type 2 diabetes and obesity are associated with chronic hypoxia, which contributes to adipose tissue dysfunction and development of insulin resistance and metabolic disorders. We assessed long-term effects of hyperoxia on browning of adipocytes and carbohydrate metabolism in a murine model of type 2 diabetes. MAIN METHODS: Male Wistar rats (190-210 g) were divided into 4 groups: Control, O2 -treated control, untreated diabetes, and O2 -treated diabetes. Diabetes was induced using high-fat diet followed by a low-dose of streptozotocin (30 mg/kg)...
January 28, 2019: Life Sciences
Marie Lindefeldt, Alexander Eng, Hamid Darban, Annelie Bjerkner, Cecilia K Zetterström, Tobias Allander, Björn Andersson, Elhanan Borenstein, Maria Dahlin, Stefanie Prast-Nielsen
The gut microbiota has been linked to various neurological disorders via the gut-brain axis. Diet influences the composition of the gut microbiota. The ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, adequate-protein, low-carbohydrate diet established for treatment of therapy-resistant epilepsy in children. Its efficacy in reducing seizures has been confirmed, but the mechanisms remain elusive. The diet has also shown positive effects in a wide range of other diseases, including Alzheimer's, depression, autism, cancer, and type 2 diabetes...
2019: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes
Keri J Fogle, Amber R Smith, Sidney L Satterfield, Alejandra C Gutierrez, J Ian Hertzler, Caleb S McCardell, Joy H Shon, Zackery J Barile, Molly O Novak, Michael J Palladino
Seizures are a feature not only of the many forms of epilepsy, but also of global metabolic diseases such as mitochondrial encephalomyopathy (ME) and glycolytic enzymopathy (GE). Modern anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) are successful in many cases, but some patients are refractory to existing AEDs, which has led to a surge in interest in clinically managed dietary therapy such as the ketogenic diet (KD). This high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet causes a cellular switch from glycolysis to fatty acid oxidation and ketone body generation, with a wide array of downstream effects at the genetic, protein, and metabolite level that may mediate seizure protection...
January 17, 2019: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
Nida Murtaza, Louise M Burke, Nicole Vlahovich, Bronwen Charlesson, Hayley O' Neill, Megan L Ross, Katrina L Campbell, Lutz Krause, Mark Morrison
We investigated extreme changes in diet patterns on the gut microbiota of elite race walkers undertaking intensified training and its possible links with athlete performance. Numerous studies with sedentary subjects have shown that diet and/or exercise can exert strong selective pressures on the gut microbiota. Similar studies with elite athletes are relatively scant, despite the recognition that diet is an important contributor to sports performance. In this study, stool samples were collected from the cohort at the beginning (baseline; BL) and end (post-treatment; PT) of a three-week intensified training program during which athletes were assigned to a High Carbohydrate (HCHO), Periodised Carbohydrate (PCHO) or ketogenic Low Carbohydrate High Fat (LCHF) diet (post treatment)...
January 24, 2019: Nutrients
Kohsuke Shirakawa, Wataru Yano, Keisuke Inoue, Yoshinori Katsumata, Jin Endo, Motoaki Sano
We previously found that senescence of cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) T cells is accelerated in the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO) due to a high-fat diet (HFD), and that these senescent-associated T cells cause chronic inflammation of visceral adipose tissue through secretion of osteopontin, provoking systemic insulin resistance. In this study, we examined whether the development of chronic inflammation and senescence-associated T cells in VAT of DIO mice was improved by long-term weight loss after switching to normal chow (NC) or by administration of a sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor (tofogliflozin)...
2019: PloS One
Mathieu Sinigaglia, Besma Mahida, Eve Piekarski, Renata Chequer, Nidaa Mikail, Khadija Benali, Fabien Hyafil, Dominique Le Guludec, François Rouzet
PURPOSE: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia and is associated with an increased risk of stroke. Indeed, silent AF is frequently identified in unexplained ischemic stroke. 18 F-FDG-PET/CT is a powerful tool for assessing myocardial metabolic shift and inflammation, both potentially at stake in AF. This case-control study investigated whether AF could promote FDG uptake in atria after physiological myocardial glucose uptake suppression, and the potential relationship between FDG atrial uptake and prevalence of stroke...
January 25, 2019: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Mlindeli Gamede, Lindokuhle Mabuza, Phikelelani Ngubane, Andile Khathi
The pathogenesis of prediabetes is associated with risk factors such as chronic consumption of an unhealthy diet. Recent studies have reported that diet-induced pre-diabetes is also associated with risk factors of cardiovascular complications, hence this study was aimed at evaluating the effects of oleanolic acid (OA) on pre-diabetes rats. Pre-diabetes was induced by chronic exposure of Sprague Dawley rats (SD) to high-fat high-carbohydrate diet (20 weeks), whereas the non-pre-diabetes control (NC) was given standard rat chow...
January 18, 2019: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Stephen J Freedland, Lauren Howard, Jenifer Allen, Jordan Smith, Jennifer Stout, William Aronson, Brant A Inman, Andrew J Armstrong, Daniel George, Eric Westman, Pao-Hwa Lin
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to test a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) plus walking to reduce androgen deprivation therapy (ADT)-induced metabolic disturbances. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This randomized multi-center trial of prostate cancer (PCa) patients initiating ADT was designed to compare an LCD (≤20g carbohydrate/day) plus walking (≥30 min for ≥5 days/week) intervention vs. control advised to maintain usual diet and exercise patterns. Primary outcome was change in insulin resistance by homeostatic model assessment at 6 months...
January 21, 2019: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
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