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Katherine Poinsatte, Emily E Smith, Vanessa O Torres, Sterling B Ortega, Ryan M Huebinger, C Munro Cullum, Nancy L Monson, Rhong Zhang, Ann M Stowe
Individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) experience cognitive declines in learning and memory greater than expected for normal aging, and are at a high risk of dementia. We previously reported that sedentary aMCI patients exhibited neuroinflammation that correlated with brain amyloid beta (Aβ) burden, as determined by 18F-florbetapir positron emission tomography (PET). These aMCI patients enrolled in a one-year randomized control trial (AETMCI, NCT01146717) to test the beneficial effects of 12 months of moderate-to-high intensity aerobic exercise training (AET) or stretching/toning (ST) control intervention on neurocognitive function...
2019: Exercise Immunology Review
Furkan Ayaz, Melis Özge Alaş, Melike Oğuz, Rükan Genç
In this manuscript, we aimed to report the synthesis of aluminum (Al) incorporated carbon nanodots (CD) and their activities on the immune cells. A green synthesis method involving the in situ doping of the nanodot was conducted. Synthesized nanodots immunomodulatory and immunostimulatory activities were tested in vitro on the macrophages. The produced carbon dots were water-soluble, fluorescent and monodispersed, with an average diameter of around 10-20 nm. After Al-doping, their surface properties, stability, crystallinity, as well as their fluorescent and optical properties were evaluated...
February 18, 2019: Molecular Biology Reports
Troy D Hubbard, Qing Liu, Iain A Murray, Fangcong Dong, Charles Miller Iii, Phillip B Smith, Krishne Gowda, Jyh Ming Lin, Shantu Amin, Andrew D Patterson, Gary H Perdew
The Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a major regulator of immune function within the gastrointestinal tract. Resident microbiota are capable influencing AHR-dependent signaling pathways via production of an array of bioactive molecules that act as AHR agonists, such as indole or indole-3-aldehyde. Bacteria produce a number of quinoline derivatives, of which some function as quorum-sensing molecules. Thus, we screened relevant hydroxyquinoline derivatives for AHR activity using AHR responsive reporter cell lines...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Proteome Research
Mani Ramzi, Abolfazl Khalafi-Nezhad, Mahdiyar Iravani Saadi, Zahra Jowkar
Background: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of transmembrane pattern-recognition receptors that play a crucial role in the realization of innate and adaptive immune response. TLRs may play a role in tumor development and growth because of expression or up-regulation of functional TLRs in some tumors and tumor cell lines. The participation of TLRs in the pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains unspecified. This study aimed to investigate the effect of TLR2 and TLR4 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of AML patients in response to induction chemotherapy...
October 1, 2018: International Journal of Hematology-oncology and Stem Cell Research
Yuantao Wu, Rui Xia, Chungang Dai, Suji Yan, Tao Xie, Bing Liu, Lei Gan, Zhixiang Zhuang, Qiang Huang
Objective: Dexamethasone (DEX) is a glucocorticoid that is commonly used in clinics. Previously, DEX has been shown to inhibit the function of immune system; however, DEX is often used to treat side reactions, such as nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy in clinics. Therefore, it is necessary to study the role of DEX in the treatment of cancer. Methods: The effects of DEX on HepG2 were studied in vitro by Cell Counting Kit-8 method, cell cycle, and scratch test...
2019: Cancer Management and Research
Ching-Yen Lin, Celeste Alexander, Andrew J Steelman, Chiristine M Warzecha, Maria R C de Godoy, Kelly S Swanson
Yeast products may serve as functional ingredients due to their benefits on host health, but vary greatly in source, composition, and functionality, justifying research in host species of interest. In this study, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SCFP) was investigated as a dietary supplement for adult dogs. Adult female beagles (n = 12; mean age = 3.3 ± 0.8 yr; mean BW = 10.3 ± 0.68 kg) were fed the same diet, but supplemented with 3 levels of SCFP (125, 250 and 500 mg/d) or a placebo (sucrose) via gelatin capsules in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design...
February 16, 2019: Journal of Animal Science
Zili Zhang, Jian Wang, Fei Liu, Liang Yuan, Mingjing Ding, Lingdan Chen, Jili Yuan, Kai Yang, Jing Qian, Wenju Lu
AIMS: A rat model of emphysema was established that mimics the features of the human emphysema subtype and explores the effects of demethylation on lung function and blood tests. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were randomly assigned to NO2 , NO2  + 5-Azacytidine, and normal air groups based on a emphysema rat model induced by chronic NO2 exposure. This study estimates the characteristics of emphysema by conducting an analysis for IL-6 and TNF-α levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) and plasma...
February 11, 2019: Life Sciences
Peter A Kessler
BACKGROUND: Mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 occurs in a minority of HIV-infected mother-infant pairs, even without any interventions. The mechanisms that protect the majority of HIV-exposed infants from infection are unclear. T regulatory cells (Treg) have important immunomodulatory functions, but their role in the fetus as well as in mother-to-child transmission of HIV is under-studied. METHODS: We studied available cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV-exposed infants from the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals and Nutrition (BAN) Study cohort in Malawi: 64 infants were HIV-uninfected and 28 infants were HIV-infected at birth...
February 12, 2019: Current HIV Research
Lina Antounians, Areti Tzanetakis, Ornella Pellerito, Vincenzo D Catania, Adrienne Sulistyo, Louise Montalva, Mark J McVey, Augusto Zani
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCs) mediate anti-apoptotic, pro-angiogenic, and immune-modulatory effects in multiple disease models, such as skeletal muscle atrophy and Alport syndrome. A source of potential variability in EV biological functions is how EV are isolated from parent cells. Currently, a comparative study of different EV isolation strategies using conditioned medium from AFSCs is lacking. Herein, we examined different isolation strategies for AFSC-EVs, using common techniques based on differential sedimentation (ultracentrifugation), solubility (ExoQuick, Total Exosome Isolation Reagent, Exo-PREP), or size-exclusion chromatography (qEV)...
February 12, 2019: Scientific Reports
Gulnur K Zakiryanova, Elena Kustova, Nataliya T Urazalieva, Emile T Baimuchametov, Narymzhan N Nakisbekov, Michael R Shurin
Natural killer (NK) cells have received a lot of attention in recent years for the roles they play in immunity and particularly in antitumor immune responses. Although defects in NK cell functions are recognized as important mechanisms for immune evasion of malignant cells, molecular pathways regulating NK cell dysfunction and exhaustion in cancer are largely unknown. Here we tested whether the c-myc proto-oncogene, known to promote cell proliferation, growth, differentiation, and apoptosis by regulating the expression of numerous target genes, may be involved in the mechanism of NK cell abnormalities in patients with lung and gastric cancer...
February 11, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Aislinn Hays, Xingyu Duan, Jianxin Zhu, Wei Zhou, Satya Upadhyayula, Juili Shivde, Li Song, Huizhi Wang, Li Su, Xuyu Zhou, Shuang Liang
Pregnancy is a special period marked with complicated changes in various immune responses. Although pregnant women are prone to developing gingival inflammation, its immunological mechanism remains to be clarified. In a modified ligature-induced periodontal disease murine model, pregnant mice developed more severe alveolar bone loss. Using this model, we investigated the Treg responses during exacerbated periodontal disease in pregnant mice. We tested Treg-associated molecules in gingival tissues by quantitative real-time PCR and found decreased gingival expression of Foxp3, TGFβ, CTLA-4, and CD28 in pregnant mice after periodontal disease induction...
February 9, 2019: International Immunopharmacology
Andrew W Perez, Jennifer M Watchmaker, Daniel B Brown, Filip Banovac
Background Patients who require long-term central venous access can present for port placement with depressed immune function as a result of their treatment or disease process. At present, there is no consensus regarding whether neutropenia at the time of port placement confers a higher risk for early infection-related port removal. Purpose To compare the incidence of early infection-related chest port removal in adults when placed in neutropenic versus nonneutropenic patient groups. Materials and Methods This retrospective cohort study examined 2580 port placements in 1081 men (41...
February 12, 2019: Radiology
Giulia Lanzolla, Alberto Coppelli, Mirco Cosottini, Stefano Del Prato, Claudio Marcocci, Isabella Lupi
Context: The programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death protein ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathway is a key regulator in T-cell activation and tolerance, limiting effector T-cell function in peripheral tissues. Atezolizumab, an anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody, is approved for treatment of some types of advanced cancer. Its main treatment-related adverse events are immune related, such as thyroid dysfunction and hypophysitis. Autoimmune endocrinopathy can occur as isolated manifestations; only a few cases of autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes have been reported thus far...
February 1, 2019: Journal of the Endocrine Society
Ran Li, Poornima Venkat, Michael Chopp, Qiang Zhang, Tao Yan, Jieli Chen
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) results in neurological damage, acute cardiac damage and has a high mortality rate. Immunoresponse in the acute phase after SAH plays a key role in mediating vasospasm, edema, inflammation and neuronal damage. The S1P/S1PR pathway impacts multiple cellular functions, exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects, promotes remyelination, and improves outcome in several central nervous system (CNS) diseases. RP001 hydrochloride is a novel S1PR agonist, which sequesters lymphocytes within their secondary tissues and prevents infiltration of immune cells into the CNS thereby reducing immune response...
February 5, 2019: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Kenrick M Semple, Carlos M Gonzaléz, Melissa Zarr, Jose' Austin, Vikram Patel, Kristina E Howard
CD20 monoclonal antibodies are well-established therapeutics for the treatment of B-cell malignancies. Several mechanisms of target cell killing occur from anti-CD20 therapy including complement-dependent cell lysis (CDC) and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). Human Fc Receptors (FcR) are required to mediate these functions and are either not present or not cross-reactive in mice and most animal species. In contrast, some non-human primates have cross-reactive FcR however, their cellular expression and function may differ from humans...
February 9, 2019: Clinical and Translational Science
Anna Kozłowska, Paweł Wojtacha, Maciej Równiak, Małgorzata Kolenkiewicz, Andrew Chih Wei Huang
RATIONALE: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurobehavioural disorders with morphological and functional brain abnormalities. However, there is a growing body of evidence that abnormalities in the immune and endocrine systems may also account for the ADHD pathogenesis. OBJECTIVES: To test ADHD pathogenesis in neurological, immune and endocrine systems, this study examined the concentrations of cytokines, chemokines, oxidative stress markers, metabolic parameters, steroid hormones and steroidogenic enzymes in the serum and/or tissues of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs, animal model of ADHD) and Wistar Kyoto rats (WKYs, control animals)...
February 8, 2019: Psychopharmacology
Tess O'Meara, Anton Safonov, David Casadevall, Tao Qing, Andrea Silber, Brigid Killelea, Christos Hatzis, Lajos Pusztai
PURPOSE: African-American (AA) patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) are less likely to achieve pathologic complete response from neoadjuvant chemotherapy and have poorer prognosis than Caucasian patients with TNBC, suggesting potential biological differences by race. Immune infiltration is the most consistent predictive marker for chemotherapy response and improved prognosis in TNBC. In this study, we test the hypothesis that the immune microenvironment differs between AA and Caucasian patients...
February 6, 2019: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Raffaella Fontana, Laura Raccosta, Lucrezia Rovati, Knut R Steffensen, Aida Paniccia, Tomas Jakobsson, Giulio Melloni, Alessandro Bandiera, Giorgia Mangili, Alice Bergamini, Daniela Maggioni, Claudio Doglioni, Roberto Crocchiolo, Marina Cella, Michela Mattioli, Cristina Battaglia, Marco Colonna, Vincenzo Russo
Dendritic cells (DCs) initiate adaptive immune responses after their migration to secondary lymphoid organs. The LXR ligands/oxysterols and the RXR ligand 9-cis Retinoic Acid (9-cis RA) were shown to dampen DC migration to lymphoid organs through the inhibition of CCR7 expression. We performed transcriptomics of DCs undergoing maturation in the presence of the LXR ligand 22R-Hydroxycholesterol (22R-HC). The analysis highlighted more than 1500 genes modulated by 22R-HC treatment, including the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM)-1, which was found markedly up-regulated...
2019: Oncoimmunology
Mathias Vormehr, Katharina Reinhard, Renata Blatnik, Kathrin Josef, Jan David Beck, Nadja Salomon, Martin Suchan, Abderraouf Selmi, Fulvia Vascotto, Johannes Zerweck, Holger Wenschuh, Mustafa Diken, Sebastian Kreiter, Özlem Türeci, Angelika B Riemer, Ugur Sahin
Cancer-associated mutations, mostly single nucleotide variations, can act as neoepitopes and prime targets for effective anti-cancer T-cell immunity. T cells recognizing cancer mutations are critical for the clinical activity of immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) and they are potent vaccine antigens. High frequencies of mutation-specific T cells are rarely spontaneously induced. Hence, therapies that broaden the tumor specific T-cell response are of interest. Here, we analyzed neoepitope-specific CD8+ T-cell responses mounted either spontaneously or after immunotherapy regimens, which induce local tumor inflammation and cell death, in mice bearing tumors of the widely used colon carcinoma cell line CT26...
2019: Oncoimmunology
Irun R Cohen, Sol Efroni
Here, we outline an overview of the mammalian immune system that updates and extends the classical clonal selection paradigm. Rather than focusing on strict self-not-self discrimination, we propose that the system orchestrates variable inflammatory responses that maintain the body and its symbiosis with the microbiome while eliminating the threat from pathogenic infectious agents and from tumors. The paper makes four points: The immune system classifies healthy and pathologic states of the body-including both self and foreign elements-by deploying individual lymphocytes as cellular computing machines; immune cells transform input signals from the body into an output of specific immune reactions...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
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