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Rsv maternal

M A Velázquez-Cervantes, M Martínez-Castillo, L D González-García, T A Vargas-Pavía, M G Martínez-Salazar, I Mancilla-Herrera, G León-Reyes, J García-Cordero, A C Helguera-Repetto, M León-Juárez
The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the main pathogen associated with upper respiratory tract infections during early childhood. Vertical transmission of this virus has been suggested in humans, based on observations recorded during animal studies that revealed an association of RSV with persistent structural and functional changes in the developing lungs of the offspring. However, human placentas have not yet been evaluated for susceptibility to RSV infection. In this study, we examined the capacity of RSV to infect a human trophoblast model, the BeWo cell line...
February 13, 2019: Virus Genes
Pia Hardelid, Maximiliane Verfuerden, Jim McMenamin, Rosalind L Smyth, Ruth Gilbert
IntroductionSeveral vaccines for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are under development. Designing an effective vaccination programme for RSV requires information about the relative contribution of risk factors for severe RSV symptoms.AimTo inform preventive strategies in Europe by quantifying the contribution of key child, family and health service risk factors to the burden of RSV hospital admissions in young children.MethodsWe constructed a birth cohort study of all singleton children born in Scotland between October 2009 and September 2012 using linkage between birth registration, maternity, vaccination and hospital admission records, with follow-up until the age of 3 years...
January 2019: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Juna Konomi Johnson, Frank L Harris, Xiao-Du Ping, Theresa W Gauthier, Lou Ann S Brown
BACKGROUND: We previously reported that maternal alcohol use significantly increases the risk of sepsis in premature and term newborns. In the mouse, fetal ethanol exposure results in an immunosuppressed phenotype for the alveolar macrophage (AM) and decreases bacterial phagocytosis. In pregnant mice, ethanol decreased AM zinc homeostasis which contributed to immunosuppression and impaired AM phagocytosis. In this study, we explored whether ethanol-induced zinc insufficiency extended to the pup AM and contributed to immunosuppression and exacerbated viral lung infections...
December 20, 2018: Alcohol
Sabelle Jallow, Yasmeen Agosti, Prudence Kgagudi, Megan Vandecar, Clare L Cutland, Eric A F Simões, Marta C Nunes, Melinda S Suchard, Shabir A Madhi
HIV-exposed-uninfected infants have higher risk of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-associated hospitalization than HIV-unexposed infants. Despite similar neutralizing-antibody titers between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women, maternal HIV-infection and hypergammaglobulinemia were independently associated with lower RSV neutralizing antibody titers in the newborns. Maternal hypergammaglobulinemia was also independently associated with lower cord-to-maternal antibody ratio.
December 18, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
R Garg, L Latimer, S Gomis, V Gerdts, A Potter, S van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk
Human parainfluenza virus 3 (PIV3) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are major causative agents of serious respiratory tract illness in newborns and infants. Maternal vaccination could be a promising approach to provide immediate protection against severe PIV3 and RSV infection in young infants. Previously, we demonstrated that maternal immunization with a subunit vaccine consisting of the RSV fusion (F) protein formulated with TriAdj, an adjuvant consisting of poly(I:C), immune defense regulatory peptide and polyphosphazene, protects newborn lambs from RSV...
December 12, 2018: Antiviral Research
Corinne A Riddell, Niranjan Bhat, Louis J Bont, William D Dupont, Daniel R Feikin, Deshayne B Fell, Tebeb Gebretsadik, Tina V Hartert, Jennifer A Hutcheon, Ruth A Karron, Harish Nair, Robert C Reiner, Ting Shi, Peter D Sly, Renato T Stein, Pingsheng Wu, Heather J Zar, Justin R Ortiz
BACKGROUND: Early RSV illness is associated with wheeze-associated disorders in childhood. Candidate respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccines may prevent acute RSV illness in infants. We investigated the feasibility of maternal RSV vaccine trials to demonstrate reductions in recurrent childhood wheezing in general paediatric populations. METHODS: We calculated vaccine trial effect sizes that depended on vaccine efficacy, allocation ratio, rate of early severe RSV illness, risk of recurrent wheezing at age 3, and increased risk of RSV infection on recurrent wheezing...
November 22, 2018: Vaccine
Michelle L Giles, Sushena Krishnaswamy, Euan M Wallace
The vaccination of pregnant women has enormous potential to protect not only mothers from vaccine-preventable diseases but also their infants through the passive acquisition of protective antibodies before they are able to themselves acquire protection through active childhood immunisations. Maternal tetanus programmes have been in place since 1989, and as of March 2018, only 14 countries in the world were still to reach maternal neonatal tetanus elimination status. This has saved hundreds of thousands of lives...
2018: F1000Research
Jacqueline U McDonald, Peter Rigsby, Thomas Dougall, Othmar G Engelhardt
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), a leading cause of lower respiratory tract illness, has been a focus of vaccine development efforts in recent years. RSV neutralisation assays are particularly useful in the evaluation of immunogenicity of RSV vaccine candidates. Here we report a collaborative study that was conducted with the aim to establish the 1st International Standard for antiserum to RSV, to enable the standardisation of results across multiple assay formats. Two candidate standards were produced from serum samples donated by healthy adult individuals...
November 29, 2018: Vaccine
Marwa Ghazaly, Simon Nadel
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is the most common cause of Acute Bronchiolitis (AVB) in infants. AVB causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, most deaths occurring in the developing world. AVB causes respiratory distress in infants, leading to respiratory failure in some cases. Disease is more severe in infants with risk factors, such as prematurity, chronic cardiac and lung disease and immunodeficiency. Areas covered: Despite major advances in supportive care in the developed world, which has led to a significant reduction in mortality, treatment remains symptomatic and supportive...
November 1, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Antonio Del Vecchio, Caterina Franco, Karin Del Vecchio, Angela Umbaldo, Letizia Capasso, Francesco Raimondi
Infants born prematurely before 37 weeks of gestational age (GA), have particular anatomical, immunological and metabolic characteristics that predispose them, even in the absence of diseases at birth, to severe morbidity. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of hospitalization for lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) in the first year of life, as well as an important cause of respiratory outcomes as recurrent wheezing in industrialized countries or mortality in developing countries. Prematurity is an important risk factor for hospitalization for severe RSV disease, but epidemiological , environmental and demographic risk factors also play a role in RSV infection...
October 18, 2018: Minerva Pediatrica
Elisabeth A van Erp, Dorien Feyaerts, Maxime Duijst, H Lie Mulder, Oliver Wicht, Willem Luytjes, Gerben Ferwerda, Puck B van Kasteren
Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of severe acute lower respiratory tract infections in infants. Natural killer (NK) cells are important anti-viral effector cells that likely encounter RSV in the presence of virus-specific (maternal) antibodies. Since NK cells potentially contribute to immunopathology, we investigated whether RSV affects their anti-viral effector functions. Methods: We assessed the phenotype and functionality of primary neonatal and adult NK cells by flow cytometry after stimulation with RSV or RSV-antibody complexes...
September 25, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Nijolė Drazdienė, Rasa Tamelienė, Daiga Kviluna, Pille Saik, Ervin Saik, Jolanta Zaikauskienė
Background: By two years of age, almost all children experience at least one episode of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, the most common viral cause of hospitalisation due to lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). We present data on LRTI hospitalisations (with a special focus on RSV), the course of illness, and LRTI hospitalisation risk factors in Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia. Materials and methods: The analysed data were part of a large multinational study conducted in 23 countries (PONI)...
2018: Acta Medica Lituanica
Weiguo Xie, Xiaohu Ge, Ling Li, Athena Yao, Xiaoyan Wang, Min Li, Xiang Gong, Zhigang Chu, Zhe Lu, Xiaodong Huang, Yun Jiao, Yifei Wang, Meifang Xiao, Haijia Chen, Wei Xiang, Paul Yao
Background: Recent literatures indicate that maternal hormone exposure is a risk factor for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We hypothesize that prenatal progestin exposure may counteract the neuroprotective effect of estrogen and contribute to ASD development, and we aim to develop a method to ameliorate prenatal progestin exposure-induced autism-like behavior. Methods: Experiment 1: Prenatal progestin exposure-induced offspring are treated with resveratrol (RSV) through either prenatal or postnatal exposure and then used for autism-like behavior testing and other biomedical analyses...
2018: Molecular Autism
N I Mazur, N Horsley, J A Englund, M Nederend, A Magaret, A Kumar, S R Jacobino, de Haan Xander, S K Khatry, S C LeClerq, M C Steinhoff, J M Tielsch, J Katz, B S Graham, L J Bont, J H W Leusen, H Y Chu
Background: Transplacental RSV antibody transfer has been characterized, but little is known about the protective effect of breast milk RSV-specific antibodies. Serum antibodies against the prefusion RSV fusion protein (pre-F) exhibit high neutralizing activity. We investigate protection of breast milk pre-F antibodies against RSV acute respiratory infection (ARI). Methods: Breast milk at 1, 3, and 6 months postpartum and mid-nasal swabs during infant illness episodes were collected in mother-infant pairs in Nepal...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Hsiao-Yun Shao, Ying-Chin Chen, Nai-Hsiang Chung, Yi-Ju Lu, Ching-Kun Chang, Shu-Ling Yu, Chia-Chyi Liu, Yen-Hung Chow
We evaluated the efficacy of a recombinant adenovirus that expresses a membrane-truncated respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) fusion protein (Ad-F0ΔTM) in newborns via maternal immunization (MI) of pregnant cotton rats. Intranasal Ad-F0ΔTM immunization was given to pregnant female rats, and MI-newborn rats were then challenged intranasally with RSV. Anti-RSV IgGs were observed in the serum of MI-newborn rats after birth. The pulmonary viral loads in Ad-F0ΔTM vs. control vector, Ad-LacZ, and MI-newborns on day 3 post-challenge were reduced by 4 log10 /g lung...
June 28, 2018: Virology
Nienke M Scheltema, Xynthia M Kavelaars, Kentigern Thorburn, Marije P Hennus, Job B van Woensel, Cornelis K van der Ent, José A M Borghans, Louis J Bont, Julia Drylewicz
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is an important cause of infant mortality. Here, we estimated the potential impact of maternal vaccination against RSV on life-threatening RSV infection in infants. METHODS: We developed a mathematical model for maternal vaccine-induced antibody dynamics and used characteristics of a maternal RSV vaccine currently in phase 3 of clinical development. The model was applied to data from two cohorts of children younger than 12 months with RSV-related paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission in the United Kingdom (n = 370) and the Netherlands (n = 167), and a cohort of 211 children younger than 12 months with RSV-related in-hospital death from 20 countries worldwide...
July 25, 2018: Vaccine
Sara A Taleb, Asmaa A Al Thani, Khalid Al Ansari, Hadi M Yassine
Respiratory syncytial virus continues to pose a serious threat to the pediatric populations worldwide. With a genomic makeup of 15,200 nucleotides, the virus encodes for 11 proteins serving as envelope spikes, inner envelope proteins, and non-structural and ribonucleocapsid complexes. The fusion (F) and attachment (G) surface glycoproteins are the key targets for neutralizing antibodies. The highly variable G with altered glycosylations and the conformational alternations of F create challenges for vaccine development...
June 6, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Jorge C G Blanco, Lioubov M Pletneva, Lori McGinnes-Cullen, Raymonde O Otoa, Mira C Patel, Lurds R Fernando, Marina S Boukhvalova, Trudy G Morrison
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of bronchiolitis in infants. Maternal immunization is an option to increase maternal antibody levels and protect infants from infection. Here we assess the efficacy of virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine candidates containing stabilized pre-fusion (pre-F) or post-fusion (post-F) conformations of the RSV F protein and the attachment RSV G protein in a maternal immunization model using cotton rats. VLP vaccines containing RSV F and G proteins strongly boost pre-existing RSV immunity in dams preventing their perinatal drop in immunity...
May 15, 2018: Nature Communications
Hajrija Maksić, Suada Heljić, Fahrija Skokić, Darinka Šumanović-Glamuzina, Veroslava Milošević, Almir Zlatanović, Notario Gerard
Prematurity is a risk factor for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-associated lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs), due to immature humoral and cell-mediated immune system in preterm newborns, as well as their incomplete lung development. Palivizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against the F glycoprotein of RSV, is licensed for the prevention of severe RSV LRTI in children at high risk for the disease. This study is a part of a larger observational, retrospective-prospective epidemiological study (PONI) conducted at 72 sites across 23 countries in the northern temperate zone...
August 1, 2018: Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Adriana Weinberg, Marisa M Mussi-Pinhata, Qilu Yu, Rachel A Cohen, Volia C Almeida, Fabiana R Amaral, Laura Freimanis, Donald Robert Harris, Christiana Smith, George Siberry
To identify factors that predispose human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed uninfected infants (HEUs) to higher incidence of severe infections, hospitalization, and death in the first 6-24 months of life compared with HEUs with and without lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in the first 6 months of life. Nested case-control study of 107 LRTI+ infants enrolled in the International Site Development Initiative (NISDI) Perinatal and Longitudinal Study in Latin American Countries (LILAC) studies with and 140 LRTI- in the first 6 months, matched by date and place of birth...
June 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
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