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K S Houschyar, C Tapking, D Duscher, C Wallner, A Sogorski, S Rein, D Pförringer, G Reumuth, K Weissenberg, G Grieb, L K Branski, F Siemers, B Behr, M Lehnhardt
BACKGROUND: Due to the loss of the natural skin barrier function with reduced immune competence as a result of a plasma loss and the numerous intensive care interventions, burn patients are particularly at risk for infection. STUDY DESIGN: systematic review METHODS: A systematic review of German and English literature between 1990 and 2018 analyzes the epidemiological and diagnostic aspects as well as the therapeutic use of antibiotics in infections of burn patients in clinical trials...
February 14, 2019: Handchirurgie, Mikrochirurgie, Plastische Chirurgie
Marie-Claire Danner, Anne Robertson, Volker Behrends, Julia Reiss
Worldwide, antibiotic usage exceeds 100,000 tons per year and there is increasing concern over the fate of these substances. Antibiotics are ubiquitous in the environment and significant concentrations have been detected in fresh waters. In this review, we highlight important aspects of antibiotic pollution in fresh waters: that concentrations of antibiotics in the environment are substantial, that micro-organisms are susceptible to this, that bacteria can evolve resistance in the environment, and that antibiotic pollution affects natural food webs while interacting with other stressors; which taken together poses a number of challenges for environmental scientists...
February 5, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Lise Charuaud, Emilie Jardé, Anne Jaffrézic, Marine Liotaud, Quentin Goyat, Fabien Mercier, Barbara Le Bot
In intensive livestock areas, veterinary pharmaceutical residues (VPRs) can occur in water resources, but also in tap water because treatment processes are not designed to remove these contaminants. The main objective of this study is to assess the occurrence of VPRs in water resources and tap waters in Brittany. As several identical compounds are used in both veterinary and human medicine, a toolbox (stanols and pharmaceuticals) is used to help determine the origin of contamination in the case of mixed-use molecules...
January 24, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Si Li, Ruijie Zhang, Jingrun Hu, Wanzi Shi, Yuzhu Kuang, Xiaoyu Guo, Weiling Sun
Simultaneous elimination of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) is rarely investigated in full-scale riverine wetlands. Here, we compared the occurrence, abundance, and removal of 60 antibiotics and 27 ARGs in natural (Yeya Lake (YL)) and constructed (Bai River (BR)) riverine wetlands in Beijing, China. The concentrations of antibiotics in YL wetland were ND-51.9 ng/L in water and ND-37.9 ng/g in sediments. Significantly higher concentrations were found in BR wetland (ND-546 ng/L in water and ND-118 ng/g in sediments), which locates at the downstream of a reclaimed water treatment plant...
February 5, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Sajjad Yazdansetad, Ehsan Najari, Ezzat Allah Ghaemi, Naemeh Javid, Ali Hashemi, Abdollah Ardebili
OBJECTIVES: Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) has emerged as a serious challenge and poses a threat to public health worldwide. This study aimed to determine drug susceptibility of A. baumannii, and then, investigate oxacillinase-encoding determinants and their association with ISAba1 sequence in CRAB isolates. METHODS: This study was performed on A. baumannii isolates recovered from patients with burn wound infections during 2013. All isolates were evaluated for antimicrobial susceptibility by disc agar diffusion method...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Kaitlyn E Kortright, Benjamin K Chan, Jonathan L Koff, Paul E Turner
Phage therapy, long overshadowed by chemical antibiotics, is garnering renewed interest in Western medicine. This stems from the rise in frequency of multi-drug-resistant bacterial infections in humans. There also have been recent case reports of phage therapy demonstrating clinical utility in resolving these otherwise intractable infections. Nevertheless, bacteria can readily evolve phage resistance too, making it crucial for modern phage therapy to develop strategies to capitalize on this inevitability. Here, we review the history of phage therapy research...
February 13, 2019: Cell Host & Microbe
Ziad Abi Khattar, Anne Lanois, Linda Hadchity, Sophie Gaudriault, Alain Givaudan
Photorhabdus luminescens is an enterobacterium establishing a mutualistic symbiosis with nematodes, that also kills insects after septicaemia and connective tissue colonization. The role of the bacterial mdtABC genes encoding a putative multidrug efflux system from the resistance/nodulation/cell division family was investigated. We showed that a mdtA mutant and the wild type had similar levels of resistance to antibiotics, antimicrobial peptides, metals, detergents and bile salts. The mdtA mutant was also as pathogenic as the wild-type following intrahaemocoel injection in Locusta migratoria, but had a slightly attenuated phenotype in Spodoptera littoralis...
2019: PloS One
Maximilian Kittel, Peter Findeisen, Beniam Ghebremedhin, Thomas Miethke, Alexander Grundt, Parviz Ahmad-Nejad, Michael Neumaier
Background The increasing number of multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria provides enormous challenges for choosing an appropriate antibiotic therapy in the early phase of sepsis. While bacterial identification has been greatly accelerated by the introduction of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), the antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) remains time-consuming. Here, we present a rapid susceptibility testing method for testing Gram-negative bacteria, exemplarily validated for Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp...
February 14, 2019: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Theerthankar Das, Huai-Jin Choong, Yee Chin Kwang, Hak-Kim Chan, Jim Manos, Philip Chi Lip Kwok, Hien T T Duong
Antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria has emerged as a big challenge to human and animal health and significant economy loss worldwide. Development of novel strategies to tackle antibiotic resistance is of the utmost priority. In this study, we combined glutathione (GSH), a master antioxidant in all mammalian cells, and nitric oxide, a proven biofilm-dispersing agent, to produce GSNO. Resazurin biofilm viability assay, crystal violet biofilm assay, and confocal microscopy techniques showed that GSNO disrupted biofilms of both P...
February 14, 2019: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Caitlyn M Rerucha, John T Ewing, Kathryn E Oppenlander, Wesley Charles Cowan
Acute hand infections are often caused by puncture wounds and are generally classified into superficial or deep infections. Superficial infections occur in the skin and subcutaneous tissues, whereas deep infections can involve the tendon sheaths, adjacent anatomic compartments, deep fascial planes, bursae, joint spaces, and bones. Superficial hand infections are more common than deep infections and are typically managed with elevation, warm soaks, splinting in the position of function, analgesics, and empiric antibiotics when indicated...
February 15, 2019: American Family Physician
Rajan R Murgai, Edward Compton, Kenneth D Illingworth, Robert M Kay
BACKGROUND: Retrograde percutaneous pinning often involves intra-articular pin placement. Classic teaching has cautioned about the risk of septic arthritis with intra-articular pins, although an incidence has not been reported for this complication. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of pin tract infections and septic arthritis following retrograde percutaneous pinning of the distal femur. METHODS: A retrospective review identified patients who underwent retrograde percutaneous pinning of the distal femur for osteotomy or physeal fracture fixation at a tertiary pediatric hospital from 2006 to 2017 and had at least 3 months follow-up...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
Felicia Skelton, Lindsey Ann Martin, Charlesnika T Evans, Jennifer Kramer, Larissa Grigoryan, Peter Richardson, Mark E Kunik, Ivy Oiyee Poon, S Ann Holmes, Barbara W Trautner
BACKGROUND: Bacteriuria, either asymptomatic (ASB) or symptomatic, urinary tract infection (UTI), is common in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). Current Veterans Health Administration (VHA) guidelines recommend a screening urinalysis and urine culture for every veteran with SCI during annual evaluation, even when asymptomatic, which is contrary to other national guidelines. Our preliminary data suggest that a positive urine culture (even without signs or symptoms of infection) drives antibiotic use...
February 14, 2019: JMIR Research Protocols
Peter Yao, Sunday Clark, Kriti Gogia, Baria Hafeez, Hanson Hsu, Peter Greenwald
BACKGROUND: Direct-to-consumer telemedicine is becoming part of mainstream medicine, but questions exist regarding the quality of care provided. We assessed antibiotic stewardship, one measure of quality, by comparing antibiotic prescription rates for acute respiratory infections (ARIs) between patients seen by telemedicine and patients seen in-person in two urban emergency departments (EDs). METHODS: In two urban EDs where low-acuity patients in the ED have the option of being seen by telemedicine rather than in-person, we analyzed telemedicine and in-person visits of patients ≥18 years who received ARI diagnoses between July 2016 and September 2017...
February 14, 2019: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
Radoslaw Jaworski, Andrzej Kansy, Katarzyna Dzierzanowska-Fangrat, Bohdan Maruszewski
BACKGROUND: Prophylactic antibiotic therapy is given routinely in the peri-operative period to prevent surgical site infection. However, in pediatric cardiac surgery, an optimal schedule has not been defined. Pediatric recommendations follow the guidelines for adults, which might be improper because of the inherent challenges in pediatric research and the heterogeneity of the population. Implementation of an effective prophylaxis protocol is needed for children undergoing cardiac surgery, especially in view of worldwide antibiotic overuse and the development of drug resistance...
February 14, 2019: Surgical Infections
A C Maloupazoa Siawaya, E Kuissi Kamgaing, S Minto'o Rogombe, T Obiang, E Moungoyi Massala, M J V Magossou Mbadinga, M Leboueny, O Mvoundza Ndjindji, A Mveang-Nzoghe, J P Ondo, A Mintsa Ndong, P N Essone, S T Agnandji, M Kaba, S Ategbo, J F Djoba Siawaya
BACKGROUND: HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU)-infants have been shown to be particularly vulnerable to infections. In this population, disturbance of the gut micro-environment might increase their susceptibility to enteric diseases and even favour the translocation of bacteria in the bloodstream. METHODS: The gastro-intestinal micro-environment was explored in 22 HEU infants and 16 HIV-unexposed (HU) infants aged 6-24 weeks. Faecal leucocytes, firmicutes (gram-positive bacteria) and gracilicutes (gram-negative bacteria) were assessed by cytology...
February 14, 2019: Paediatrics and International Child Health
Robbie P Miller, Marie E Berlouis, Alan G Hall, A Hamish R W Simpson, Innes D M Smith, Andrew C Hall
OBJECTIVE: Septic arthritis results from joint infection by Staphylococcus aureus, which produces potent α-toxin causing cell death, potentially leading to permanent cartilage damage. Treatment is by joint irrigation and antibiotics, although it is unclear if, following treatment with antibiotics which cause bacterial lysis, there is release of additional stored α-toxin. DESIGN: A rabbit erythrocyte hemolysis assay was optimised to assess biologically-active α-toxin from cultured S...
February 14, 2019: Cartilage
Xinnan Tong, Xinze Wang, Xiaojuan He, Yanming Sui, Jian Shen, Jimeng Feng
To investigate the effects of antibiotics on nitrogen removal and uptake by wetland plants, four typical macrophyte species, Cyperus alternifolius L., Typha angustifolia L., Lythrum salicaria L., and Acorus calamus L., were grown in hydroponic cultivation systems and fed wastewater polluted with 10 μg L-1 Ofloxacin (OFL) and Tetracycline (TET). Biomass production, nitrogen mass concentration, chlorophyll content, root exudates, and nitrogen removal efficiency of hydroponic cultivation were investigated. The results indicated that in all hydroponic systems, NH4 + -N was entirely removed from the hydroponic substrate within 1 day and plant nitrogen accumulation was the main role of the removed NO3 - ...
February 14, 2019: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Mainul Haque, Nor Azlina A Rahman, Judy McKimm, Shahidah Leong Binti Abdullah, Md Zakirul Islam, Zainal Zulkifli, Nurfarhana Binti Saidan, Nadia Iman Khairul Azhar, Siti Nur Najihah Binti Lutfi, Syamirah Aishah Binti Othman
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The introduction of antibiotics into modern medicine has changed clinical care by saving millions of lives. However, antibiotics are not a panacea for everything and misuse of antibiotics has led to their many benefits being overshadowed by the development of antimicrobial resistance. This study aimed to assess university students' knowledge and beliefs about and their use of antibiotics. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted among medical and non-medical students of the National Defence University of Malaysia...
February 14, 2019: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Cicero L A Freitas, Francisca F P Santos, Orlando M Dantas-Junior, Vital V Inácio, Edinardo F F Matias, Lucindo J Quintans-Júnior, José J S Aguiar, Henrique D M Coutinho
The present study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial and modulatory activity of the Turnera subulate methyl extract in isolation or in combination with aminoglycoside antibiotics, using the microdilution method. The Turnera subulata methyl extract was used in isolation in the antibacterial assays and in combination with antibiotics in the modulation assays. All tests were performed in triplicates. The Turnera subulata methyl extract presented both antibacterial and antibiotic-modulatory effects in vitro, in isolation and in association with aminoglycosides...
February 14, 2019: Natural Product Research
Kelly M Craft, Steven D Townsend
This Account describes the risky proposition of organizing a multidisciplinary team to interrogate a challenging problem in chemical biology: characterizing how human milk, at the molecular level, protects infants from infectious diseases. At the outset, our initial hypothesis was that human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) possess antimicrobial and antivirulence activities. Early on, we discovered that HMOs do indeed modulate bacterial growth and biofilm production for numerous bacterial pathogens. In light of this discovery, three priorities emerged for our program moving forward...
February 14, 2019: Accounts of Chemical Research
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