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Pneumonia AND Nosocomial Infections

R Cantón, E Loza, J Aznar, F J Castillo, E Cercenado, P A Fraile-Ribot, F González-Romo, J L López-Hontangas, J Rodríguez-Lozano, A I Suárez-Barrenechea, F Tubau, J Díaz-Regañón, D López-Mendoza
OBJECTIVE: Continuous antimicrobial resistance surveillance is recommended by Public Health authorities. We up-dated data from the SMART (Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends) surveillance study in Spain. METHODS: The antimicrobial susceptibility data and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production in isolates recovered from intra-abdominal (IAI) (n=1,429) and urinary tract (UTI) (n=937) infections during the 2016- 2017 SMART study in 10 Spanish hospitals were analysed...
February 13, 2019: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
Isabelle Viel-Thériault, Jeremy Saban, Alana Lewis, Erika Bariciak, David Grynspan
Bacillus cereus is a ubiquitous Gram-positive rod seldom considered pathogenic in clinical isolates. However, it possesses multiple virulence factors explaining why it has been linked to fulminant and pyogenic infections in vulnerable hosts. Its recovery from sterile samples in immunocompromised patients cannot be disregarded. Premature infants would fall into this category. We describe the case of a neonate born at 26 weeks of gestational age, who died of a rapidly progressive B. cereus necrotizing pneumonia following suspected nosocomial acquisition...
February 13, 2019: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
Linchuan Wang, Kai-Ha Zhou, Wei Chen, Yan Yu, Si-Fang Feng
BACKGROUND: To determine the epidemiology and risk factors for nosocomial infection (NI) in the Respiratory Intensive Care Unit (RICU) of a teaching hospital in Northwest China. METHODS: An observational, prospective surveillance was conducted in the RICU from 2013 to 2015. The overall infection rate, distribution of infection sites, device-associated infections and pathogen in the RICU were investigated. Then, the logistic regression analysis was used to test the risk factors for RICU infection...
February 12, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
Sofia Altuna-Venegas, Raul Aliaga-Vega, Jorge L Maguiña, Jose F Parodi, Fernando M Runzer-Colmenares
INTRODUCTION: Sarcopenia is a geriatric syndrome characterized by loss of muscle mass and strength. The prevalence in people between 60-70 years is about 5-13% and in adults over 80 years, between 11-50% in the USA. Sarcopenia increases the risk of mortality and nosocomial infections. Community-acquired pneumonia is the first infectious-related cause of death in elderly people. However, there is lack of evidence about the association between sarcopenia and pneumonia. The aim of our study was to determine the incidence and risk factors of community-acquired pneumonia in older adults with sarcopenia in a Peruvian hospital...
January 29, 2019: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Arash Seifi, Nahid Dehghan-Nayeri, Leili Rostamnia, Shokoh Varaei, Ali Akbari Sari, Hamid Haghani, Vahid Ghanbari
BACKGROUND: Valid data are a crucial aspect of infection prevention and control programs. The aim of this study was to examine the accuracy of routine reporting in the Iranian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System in intensive care units. METHODS: A blinded retrospective review of general intensive care unit medical records was performed with a standard case-finding form. Infection control nurses (ICNs) were also interviewed to explore possible reasons for differences...
February 6, 2019: American Journal of Infection Control
Claas Baier, Sabine Pirr, Stefan Ziesing, Ella Ebadi, Gesine Hansen, Bettina Bohnhorst, Franz-Christoph Bange
BACKGROUND: Preterm infants and critically ill neonates are predisposed to nosocomial infections as sepsis. Moreover, these infants acquire commensal bacteria, which might become potentially harming. On-ward transmission of these bacteria can cause outbreaks. AIM: To report the findings of a prospective surveillance of bacterial colonization and primary sepsis in preterm infants and neonates. METHODS: We analyzed the results of the surveillance of bacterial colonization of the gut and the respiratory tract, targeting meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and Gram-negative bacteria from November 2016 to March 2018...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Hospital Infection
Tania Nawfal Dagher, Charbel Al-Bayssari, Selma Chabou, Nadine Antar, Seydina M Diene, Eid Azar, Jean-Marc Rolain
BACKGROUND: Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen causing various nosocomial infections. The spread of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii is a major public health problem. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular epidemiology and the genetic support of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii isolates collected from Saint-Georges Hospital in Lebanon. METHODS: Between January and August 2016, 31 A. baumannii isolates were collected from sputum samples of patients infected with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and treated with colistin-carbapenem combination therapy...
February 2, 2019: BMC Microbiology
Yi-Jiun Pan, Tzu-Lung Lin, Yi-Yin Chen, Peng-Hsuan Lai, Yun-Ting Tsai, Chun-Ru Hsu, Pei-Fang Hsieh, Yi-Tsung Lin, Jin-Town Wang
Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important human pathogen causing opportunistic nosocomial and community-acquired infections. A major public health concern regarding K. pneumoniae is the increasing incidence of multidrug-resistant strains. Here, we isolated three novel Klebsiella bacteriophages, KN1-1, KN3-1 and KN4-1, which infect KN1, KN3 and K56, and KN4 types respectively. We determined their genome sequences and conducted a comparative analysis that revealed a variable region containing capsule depolymerase-encoding genes...
January 31, 2019: Microbial Biotechnology
Elizabeth Cadavid, Fernando Echeverri
Human nosocomial infections are common around the world. One of the main causes is the bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae , which shows high rates of resistance to antibiotics. Thus, drugs with novel mechanisms of action are needed. In this work, we report the effects of various natural substances on the formation of biofilm in Klebsiella pneumoniae , as well as its stability. The effect of the molecules on the growth of K. pneumoniae was initially determined by measuring the optical density. The modification of the biofilm, the changes relating to its resistance, the effects on the bacterial adhesion to the urethral catheter and its antagonist role the hexanoyl-homoserinelactone were assessed by crystal violet, as well as by microscopy...
January 30, 2019: Biomolecules
Saleh F Alquethamy, Marjan Khorvash, Victoria G Pederick, Jonathan J Whittall, James C Paton, Ian T Paulsen, Karl A Hassan, Christopher A McDevitt, Bart A Eijkelkamp
Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as one of the leading causative agents of nosocomial infections. Due to its high level of intrinsic and adapted antibiotic resistance, treatment failure rates are high, which allows this opportunistic pathogen to thrive during infection in immune-compromised patients. A. baumannii can cause infections within a broad range of host niches, with pneumonia and bacteraemia being associated with the greatest levels of morbidity and mortality. Although its resistance to antibiotics is widely studied, our understanding of the mechanisms required for dealing with environmental stresses related to virulence and hospital persistence, such as copper toxicity, is limited...
January 29, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Angela Gentile, María Florencia Lucion, María Del Valle Juarez, María Soledad Areso, Julia Bakir, Mariana Viegas, Alicia Mistchenko
BACKGROUND: Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is the leading cause of acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) in children. We aimed to describe the clinical-epidemiological pattern and risk factors for mortality associated with RSV infection. METHODS: A prospective, cross-sectional study of ALRI in children admitted to the Children's Hospital among 2000-2017. Viral diagnosis was made by fluorescent antibody techniques or real time-PCR. We compared clinical-epidemiological characteristics of RSV infection in non-fatal versus fatal cases...
January 10, 2019: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Shampa Das, Jianguo Li, Todd Riccobene, Timothy J Carrothers, Paul Newell, David Melnick, Ian A Critchley, Gregory G Stone, Wright W Nichols
Avibactam is a non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor that has been approved in combination with ceftazidime for the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections, complicated urinary tract infections and nosocomial pneumonia, including ventilator-associated pneumonia. In Europe, ceftazidime-avibactam is also approved for the treatment of Gram-negative infections with limited treatment options. Selection and validation of the ceftazidime-avibactam dosage regimen was guided by an iterative process of population pharmacokinetic (PK) modelling, whereby population PK models for ceftazidime and avibactam were developed using PK data from clinical trials and updated periodically...
January 22, 2019: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Niloofar Hassannejad, Abbas Bahador, Nasim Hayati Rudbari, Mohammad Hossein Modarressi, Kazem Parivar
Background: Acinetobacter baumannii is an important pathogen in health care and is responsible for severe nosocomial and community-acquired pneumonia. To design novel therapeutic agents, a mouse model for A. baumannii pneumonia is essential. Methods: We described a mouse model of A. baumannii using clinical and 19606R standard strains for developing a quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) for rapid identification of A. baumannii infection from lung tissues of BALB/c mice...
March 2019: Iranian Biomedical Journal
Eric S Donkor
Nosocomial or healthcare-associated infections are regarded as the most frequent adverse event that threatens patients' safety and has serious economic and social consequences. Cockroach infestation is common in many hospitals, especially in the developing world. Common nosocomial pathogens isolated from cockroaches include Staphylococcus aureus , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Escherichia coli , and Klebsiella pneumoniae . Cockroaches also harbor epidemiologically significant antibiotic-resistant organisms, such as carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae , which complicate nosocomial infections...
January 17, 2019: Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease
Hastyar Najmuldeen, Rashed Alghamdi, Fayez Alghofaili, Hasan Yesilkaya
Microbes can have multiple enzymes that are able to catalyse the same enzymatic reactions but may differ in structure. These are known as isozymes. It is assumed that isozymes have the same functional role for cells. Contrary to this assumption, we hypothesised that isozymes can confer different functions for microbial cells despite catalysing the same reactions. To test this hypothesis, we studied the role of superoxide dismutases (SOD) in Klebsiella pneumoniae, the causative agent of several nosocomial and community-acquired infections, in infection relevant assays...
January 15, 2019: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Fei-Ju Li, Lora Starrs, Gaetan Burgio
Acinetobacter baumannii is an emerging nosocomial, opportunistic pathogen with growing clinical significance. A. baumannii has an exceptional ability to rapidly develop drug resistance and to adhere to abiotic surfaces, including medical equipment, significantly promoting bacterial spread and also limiting our ability to control A. baumannii infections. Consequently, A. baumannii is frequently responsible for ventilator-associated pneumonia in clinical settings. In order to develop an effective treatment strategy, understanding host-pathogen interactions during A...
January 17, 2019: Pathogens and Disease
Spiridon Topoulos, Christian Giesa, Sören Gatermann, Rene Fussen, Sebastian Lemmen, Santiago Ewig
PURPOSE: We studied the incidence, morbidity and mortality of all patients presenting in our teaching hospital with proven influenza virus and/or respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection during the influenza epidemic season 2018 which was characterized by a predominant incidence of influenza virus B type B of the Yamagata line. METHODS: In the fall of 2017, specific precaution measures in addition to standard measures were implemented, including standardized testing for influenza virus A,B and RSV by multiplex PCR of pharyngeal swabsData from all consecutive patients were analyzed retrospectively...
January 16, 2019: Infection
Xing Chen, Wu Zhou, Wanjun Luo, Xia Wang, Xiaolu Deng, Xuliang Chen, Qinghua Hu, Yingji Chen, Lingjin Huang
To observe the results of different treatment of congenital heart disease (CHD) complicated with severe pneumonia in infants.
 Methods: A total of 27 infants with CHD and severe pneumonia were admitted to the Department of Pediatrics, Xiangya Hospital from January 2014 to December 2014, of whom 18 were male and 9 were female. The average age was 2.0-19.0(5.9±4.3) months, with an average body weight of 3.3-10.0 (5.8±1.8) kg. Infants were treated with a strategy of complete control of the lung infection before surgery (internal medicine group)...
November 28, 2018: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
L Ferreira, A C Moniz, A S Carneiro, A S Miranda, C Fangueiro, D Fernandes, I Silva, I Palhinhas, J Lemos, J Antunes, M Leal, N Sampaio, S Faria
AIM: To investigate the influence of glycemic variability (GV) on length of stay and in-hospital mortality in non-critical diabetic patients. METHODS: A observation retrospective study was performed. Diabetic patients admitted between January and June 2016 with the diagnosis of community-acquire pneumonia (CAP) and/or acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were enrolled and glycemic control (persistent hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, mean glucose level (MGL) and respective standard deviation (SD) and coefficient of variation (CV)) were evaluated...
January 2019: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
Kullappan Malathi, Anand Anbarasu, Sudha Ramaiah
Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) is a Gram-negative bacterium, which is a leading causal agent for nosocomial infections. Penicillin, cephalosporin and carbapenems along with the inhibitors such as tazobactam, sulbactam and clavulanic acid are prescribed for the treatment of K. pneumoniae infections. Prolonged exposure to β-lactam antibiotics leads to the development of resistance. The major reason for the β-lactam resistance in K. pneumoniae is the secretion of the enzyme K. pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)...
January 11, 2019: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
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