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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30875462/isolation-of-alveolar-type-ii-cells-from-adult-bovine-lung
#1
Diane Frances Lee, Mark Andrew Chambers
Alveolar type II (ATII) cells play a key role as part of the distal lung epithelium, including in the innate immune response and as self-renewing progenitors to replace alveolar type I (ATI) cells during epithelial regeneration. Their secretion of surfactant protein helps maintain homeostasis and exerts protective, antimicrobial properties. ATII cells remain difficult to study, partly due to inefficient and expensive isolation methods, a propensity to differentiate into ATI cells, and susceptibility to fibroblast contamination...
March 15, 2019: Current Protocols in Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30870492/chronic-administration-of-limk2-inhibitors-alleviates-cavernosal-veno-occlusive-dysfunction-through-suppression-of-cavernosal-fibrosis-in-a-rat-model-of-erectile-dysfunction-after-cavernosal-nerve-injury
#2
Juhyun Park, Hwancheol Son, Ji Sun Chai, Soo Woong Kim, Jae-Seung Paick, Min Chul Cho
We evaluated whether chronic administration of LIMK2-inhibitors could improve erectile function by alleviating CVOD through suppressing cavernosal fibrosis in a rat model of cavernosal nerve crush-injury (CNCI). Forty-two 12-week-old rats were equally categorized into the three groups: sham-surgery (S), CNCI (I), and CNCI treated with LIMK2-inhibitors (L). The L-group was treated with daily intraperitoneal injection of LIMK2-inhibitors (10.0 mg/kg) for 30-days after surgery. Erectile function was assessed using dynamic-infusion-cavernosometry (DIC)...
2019: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30865383/genetically-encoded-fret-based-tension-sensors
#3
Anna-Lena Cost, Samira Khalaji, Carsten Grashoff
Genetically encoded Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based tension sensors measure piconewton-scale forces across individual molecules in living cells or whole organisms. These biosensors show comparably high FRET efficiencies in the absence of tension, but FRET quickly decreases when forces are applied. In this article, we describe how such biosensors can be generated for a specific protein of interest, and we discuss controls to confirm that the observed differences in FRET efficiency reflect changes in molecular tension...
March 13, 2019: Current Protocols in Cell Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30863276/effects-of-intranasal-oxytocin-on-pup-deprivation-evoked-aberrant-maternal-behavior-and-hypogalactia-in-rat-dams-and-the-underlying-mechanisms
#4
Xiao Yu Liu, Dongyang Li, Tong Li, Haitao Liu, Dan Cui, Yang Liu, Shuwei Jia, Xiaoran Wang, Runsheng Jiao, Hui Zhu, Fengmin Zhang, Danian Qin, Yu-Feng Wang
Oxytocin (OT), a hypothalamic neuropeptide, applied through nasal approach (IAO), could improve maternal health during lactation that is disrupted by mother-baby separation; however, the regulation of IAO effects on maternal behaviors and lactation as well as the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Using lactating rats, we observed effects of intermittent pup deprivation (PD) with and without IAO on maternal behaviors and lactation as well as the activity of OT neurons in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) and the activity of hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal axis, key factors determining the milk-letdown reflex during lactation and maternal behaviors...
2019: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30861131/absence-of-axonal-sprouting-following-unilateral-lesion-in-125-day-old-rat-supraoptic-nucleus-may-be-due-to-age-dependent-decrease-in-protein-levels-of-ciliary-neurotrophic-factor-receptor-alpha
#5
Jason M Askvig, John A Watt
Within the supraoptic nucleus (SON) of a 35-day-old rat we previously demonstrated a collateral sprouting response that reinnervates the partially denervated neural lobe (NL) after unilateral lesion of the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial tract. Others have shown a decreased propensity for axonal sprouting in an aged brain; therefore, in order to see if the SON exhibits a decreased propensity for axonal sprouting as the animal ages, we performed a unilateral lesion in the 125-day-old rat SON. Ultrastructural analysis of axon profiles in the NL of the 125-day-old rat demonstrated an absence of axonal sprouting following injury...
March 12, 2019: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30860609/cristazine-a-novel-dioxopiperazine-alkaloid-induces-apoptosis-via-the-death-receptor-pathway-in-a431-cells
#6
Mi Jeong Jo, Maheshkumar P Patil, Hyun Il Jung, Yong Bae Seo, Han Kyu Lim, Byeng Wha Son, Gun-Do Kim
The fungus Chaetomium sp. is a causative agent of infections in humans and is ubiquitous in the natural environment. The secondary metabolites of this genus exhibit many biological activities, including antifungal activity and toxicity in mitochondria. In this study, we isolated cristazine from the fungus C. cristatum, which has the potential to inhibit the growth of human epidermoid carcinoma (A431) cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Its inhibitory activity was examined using a cell viability assay and cell death was elucidated by western blot analysis...
March 12, 2019: Drug Development Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30858197/nuclear-speckle-fusion-via-long-range-directional-motion-regulates-speckle-morphology-after-transcriptional-inhibition
#7
Jiah Kim, Kyu Young Han, Nimish Khanna, Taekjip Ha, Andrew S Belmont
Although the formation of RNA-protein bodies has been studied intensively, their mobility and how their number and size are regulated are still poorly understood. Here, we show significant increased mobility of nuclear speckles after transcriptional inhibition, including long-range directed motion of one speckle towards another speckle, terminated by speckle fusion, over distances up to 4 um and with velocities between 0.2-1.5 µm/min. Frequently, 3 or even 4 speckles follow very similar paths, with new speckles appearing along the path followed by a preceding speckle...
March 11, 2019: Journal of Cell Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30857327/prion-variants-of-yeast-are-numerous-mutable-and-segregate-on-growth-affecting-prion-pathogenesis-transmission-barriers-and-sensitivity-to-anti-prion-systems
#8
REVIEW
Reed B Wickner, Moonil Son, Herman K Edskes
The known amyloid-based prions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae each have multiple heritable forms, called "prion variants" or "prion strains". These variants, all based on the same prion protein sequence, differ in their biological properties and their detailed amyloid structures, although each of the few examined to date have an in-register parallel folded β sheet architecture. Here, we review the range of biological properties of yeast prion variants, factors affecting their generation and propagation, the interaction of prion variants with each other, the mutability of prions, and their segregation during mitotic growth...
March 9, 2019: Viruses
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30853821/physical-and-functional-interaction-between-5-ht-6-receptor-and-nova-1
#9
Soon-Hee Kim, Misun Seo, Hongik Hwang, Dong-Min Moon, Gi Hoon Son, Kyungjin Kim, Hyewhon Rhim
5-HT6 receptor (5-HT6 R) is implicated in cognitive dysfunction, mood disorder, psychosis, and eating disorders. However, despite its significant role in regulating the brain functions, regulation of 5-HT6 R at the molecular level is poorly understood. Here, using yeast two-hybrid assay, we found that human 5-HT6 R directly binds to neuro-oncological ventral antigen 1 (Nova-1), a brain-enriched splicing regulator. The interaction between 5-HT6 R and Nova-1 was confirmed using GST pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays in cell lines and rat brain...
February 2019: Experimental Neurobiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30849108/cell-wall-skeleton-of-mycobacterium-bovis-bcg-enhances-the-vaccine-potential-of-antigen-85b-against-tuberculosis-by-inducing-th1-and-th17-responses
#10
Yong Woo Back, Seunga Choi, Han-Gyu Choi, Ki-Won Shin, Yeo-Jin Son, Tae-Hyun Paik, Hwa-Jung Kim
A safe and effective adjuvant is necessary to induce reliable protective efficacy of the protein-based vaccines against tuberculosis (TB). Mycobacterial components, such as synthetic cord factor and arabinogalactan, have been used as one of the adjuvant components. Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette- Guérin cell-wall skeleton (BCG-CWS) has been used as an effective immune-stimulator. However, it is not proven whether BCG-CWS can be an effective adjuvant for the subunit protein vaccine of TB. In this study, we demonstrated that the BCG-CWS effectively coupled with Ag85B and enhanced the conjugated Ag85B activity on the maturation of dendritic cells (DCs)...
2019: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30848529/brassinin-a-phytoalexin-in-cruciferous-vegetables-suppresses-obesity-induced-inflammatory-responses-through-the-nrf2-ho-1-signaling-pathway-in-an-adipocyte-macrophage-co-culture-system
#11
Bobin Kang, Chae Young Kim, Jisu Hwang, Hyung Joo Suh, Hyeon-Son Choi
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of brassinin (BR), a phytoalexin found in plants belonging to the Brassicaceae family, on the obesity-induced inflammatory response and its molecular mechanism in co-culture of 3T3-L1 adipocytes and RAW264.7 macrophages. BR effectively suppressed lipid accumulation by down-regulating the expression of adipogenic factors, which in turn, were regulated by early adipogenic factors such as CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein-β and Kruppel-like factor 2. Production of inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species, induced by adipocyte-conditioned medium, was significantly decreased in BR-treated cells...
March 8, 2019: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30846600/a-molecular-assembly-phase-transition-and-kinetic-proofreading-modulate-ras-activation-by-sos
#12
William Y C Huang, Steven Alvarez, Yasushi Kondo, Young Kwang Lee, Jean K Chung, Hiu Yue Monatrice Lam, Kabir H Biswas, John Kuriyan, Jay T Groves
The guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) Son of Sevenless (SOS) is a key Ras activator that is autoinhibited in the cytosol and activates upon membrane recruitment. Autoinhibition release involves structural rearrangements of the protein at the membrane and thus introduces a delay between initial recruitment and activation. In this study, we designed a single-molecule assay to resolve the time between initial receptor-mediated membrane recruitment and the initiation of GEF activity of individual SOS molecules on microarrays of Ras-functionalized supported membranes...
March 8, 2019: Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30845175/efficient-expression-of-enterovirus-71-based-on-virus-like-particles-vaccine
#13
Hye-Jin Kim, Ho Sun Son, Sang Won Lee, Youngsil Yoon, Ji-Yeon Hyeon, Gyung Tae Chung, June-Woo Lee, Jung Sik Yoo
Enterovirus (EV) 71 is the main pathogen associated with hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) and can lead to the disease with severe mortality in children. Since 2009, in the Republic of Korea, an outbreak of EV71 C4a infection with neurologic involvement emerged, where in HFMD involvement was identified and central nervous system complications were reported. In this study, EV71 C4a virus-like particles (VLPs) produced by recombinant technology were generated in a baculovirus expression system. To improve the production yield, EV71 VLP was constructed using the dual promoter system baculovirus P1 and 3CD (baculo-P1-3CD), which harbored both the structural protein-encoding P1 region under the control of the polyhedron promoter and the 3CD protease gene under the regulation of the CMV-IE, lef3, gp41, or chitinase promoters to augment the level of gene transcription...
2019: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30843667/preparation-and-measuring-of-brain-gaba-a-r-coupled-cl-hco-3-activity-for-integral-assessment-of-aquatic-toxicity
#14
Sergey A Menzikov
The wide use of aromatic hydrocarbons in various industries is having a negative effect on the environment and human health. Therefore, a key focus of current toxicology is the development and use of protein reporters with high sensitivity to various aromatic hydrocarbons (including phenolics and drugs). One molecular target for a wide range of pharmacology drugs and aromatic hydrocarbons (including phenol) is the neuronal GABAA R-coupled Cl- /HCO3 - -ATPase. In this study, we present a protocol for isolation of the membrane-bound Cl- /HCO3 - -ATPase from neuronal cells of animal brain...
March 7, 2019: Current Protocols in Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30840366/comparing-complex-protein-samples-using-two-dimensional-polyacrylamide-gels
#15
Sandra Harper, David W Speicher
This manuscript describes protocols for separation of complex protein samples using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE). Electrophoresis in a single dimension, e.g., 1D SDS polyacrylamide gels, has the potential to rapidly separate hundreds of proteins. When two orthogonal high-resolution electrophoretic methods are efficiently combined in perpendicular dimensions, complex protein mixtures can be separated into thousands of discrete spots. The most common 2D gel separation for intact proteins involves a first-dimensional separation using isoelectric focusing (IEF) followed by separation based on protein size (SDS-PAGE)...
March 6, 2019: Current Protocols in Protein Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30826522/neuropathic-pain-upregulates-hypothalamo-neurohypophysial-and-hypothalamo-spinal-oxytocinergic-pathways-in-oxytocin-monomeric-red-fluorescent-protein-1-transgenic-rat
#16
Haruki Nishimura, Makoto Kawasaki, Hitoshi Suzuki, Takanori Matsuura, Yasuhito Motojima, Hideo Ohnishi, Yoshiaki Yamanaka, Mitsuhiro Yoshimura, Takashi Maruyama, Reiko Saito, Hiromichi Ueno, Satomi Sonoda, Kazuaki Nishimura, Tatsushi Onaka, Yoichi Ueta, Akinori Sakai
Despite the high incidence of neuropathic pain, its mechanism remains unclear. Oxytocin (OXT) is an established endogenous polypeptide produced in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. OXT, which is synthesized by OXT neurons in the SON and the magnocellular part of the PVN (mPVN), is delivered into the posterior pituitary (PP), then released into the systemic blood circulation. Meanwhile, OXT-containing neurosecretory cells in the parvocellular part of the PVN (pPVN) are directly projected to the spinal cord and are associated with sensory modulation...
February 28, 2019: Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30810187/23pmatricellular-protein-ccn3-nov-regulates-tumorigenesis-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#17
S Son, H Kim, I Shin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2019: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30807472/effects-of-granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating-factor-on-neuronal-senescence-in-ultraviolet-irradiated-skin
#18
Kyung-Chul Moon, Hyun-Su Lee, Seung-Tae Son, Jae-Sun Lee, Eun-Sang Dhong, Seong-Ho Jeong, Seung-Kyu Han
Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation affects neuronal structures of the skin and accelerates skin aging. Cytokine cascades in keratinocytes after UV irradiation may result in a paracrine inhibitory effect on nerve cells. The purpose of the present study was to determine the direct effect of cytokines induced by UV radiation on nerve cells in terms of neuronal senescence. Our group performed a preliminary study to determine cytokines induced in UV-irradiated keratinocytes. Among 40 cytokines studied, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) was increased 4-fold in inflammation antibody array...
February 16, 2019: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30804538/conversion-of-a-soluble-protein-into-a-potent-chaperone-in-vivo
#19
Soon Bin Kwon, Kisun Ryu, Ahyun Son, Hotcherl Jeong, Keo-Heun Lim, Kyun-Hwan Kim, Baik L Seong, Seong Il Choi
Molecular chaperones play an important role in cellular protein-folding assistance and aggregation inhibition. As a different but complementary model, we previously proposed that, in general, soluble cellular macromolecules with large excluded volume and surface charges exhibit intrinsic chaperone activity to prevent aggregation of their connected polypeptides irrespective of the connection type, thereby contributing to efficient protein folding. As a proof of concept, we here demonstrated that a model recombinant protein with a specific sequence-binding domain robustly exerted chaperone activity toward various proteins harbouring a short recognition tag of 7 residues in Escherichia coli...
February 25, 2019: Scientific Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30801717/bridging-genomics-and-phenomics-of-gastric-carcinoma
#20
Junhun Cho, Soomin Ahn, Dae-Soon Son, Nayoung Kd Kim, Ki-Wook Lee, Seungtae Kim, Jeeyun Lee, Se Hoon Park, Joon Oh Park, Won Ki Kang, Ji Yeong An, Min Gew Choi, Jun-Ho Lee, Tae Sung Sohn, Jae Moon Bae, Sung Kim, Kyoung-Mee Kim
Genetic alterations are the starting point leading to numerous changes in clinical and pathologic features (phenotypes) of individual cancers; however, their inter-relationships in gastric cancers (GC) are unclear. We performed massive parallel sequencing of 381 cancer-related genes and compared the results with clinical and pathologic findings in 330 GC. High tumor mutation burden (TMB) accounted for 11% of GC (n=37) and all 19 MSI-H GCs were high TMB. High TMB was significantly more frequent in intestinal-type by Lauren, tumor with higher host cellular immune response, earlier AJCC stage, and favorable prognosis...
February 23, 2019: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
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