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depression; bipolar, dementia

Ahmed Naguy, Najah Al-Enezi
BACKGROUND: Lamotrigine (LAM), an antiepileptic, with panoply of indications and uses in neurology, is FDA approved, in psychiatry, for bipolar prophylaxis. Apart from this indication, trend of its use in psychiatry is on the rise addressing a multitude of disorders. STUDY QUESTION: LAM remains one of only few psychotropic drugs with antiglutamate activity. This might render LAM a potential therapeutic option in treatment-resistant major psychiatric disorders. We reviewed LAM pharmacology and its diverse indications while examining the extant evidence...
January 2019: American Journal of Therapeutics
B Kumar, A Kuhad, A Kuhad
Lumateperone tosylate (ITI-007 tosylate, ITI-722) is a first-in-class investigational drug which acts syn-ergistically through multiple systems (serotonergic, dopaminergic and glutamatergic), thus representing a unique approach for the therapeutic management of a range of neuropsychiatric disorders. It possesses a potent antagonistic activity at 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) 2A (5-HT2A) receptors and also binds to dopamine (D1, D2) receptors with partial agonism at presynaptic D2 receptors and postsynaptic antagonism...
December 2018: Drugs of Today
Maryam Hatami, Sabine Conrad, Pooyan Naghsh, Gonzalo Alvarez-Bolado, Thomas Skutella
The dentate gyrus (DG) receives highly processed information from the associative cortices functionally integrated in the trisynaptic hippocampal circuit, which contributes to the formation of new episodic memories and the spontaneous exploration of novel environments. Remarkably, the DG is the only brain region currently known to have high rates of neurogenesis in adults (Andersen et al., 1966, 1971). The DG is involved in several neurodegenerative disorders, including clinical dementia, schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder and temporal lobe epilepsy...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Cole B Haskins, Bradley D McDowell, Ryan M Carnahan, Jess G Fiedorowicz, Robert B Wallace, Brian J Smith, Elizabeth A Chrischilles
PURPOSE: Patients with estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer are often non-adherent to endocrine therapies, despite clear survival benefits. We utilized a nationally representative cancer cohort to examine the role of specific mental illnesses on endocrine therapy adherence. METHODS: Using the SEER-Medicare database, we included 21,894 women aged 68+ at their first surgically treated stage I-IV ER+ breast cancer during 2007-2013. All had continuous fee-for-service Medicare Parts A and B for 36+ months before, 18+ months after diagnosis, and continuous Part D for 4+ months before, 18+ after diagnosis...
November 21, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Xi Cen, Yue Li, Michael Hasselberg, Thomas Caprio, Yeates Conwell, Helena Temkin-Greener
OBJECTIVES: We measured the prevalence and severity of aggressive behaviors (ABs) among nursing home (NH) residents and examined whether individuals with behavioral health disorders were more likely to exhibit aggressive behaviors than others. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The analytical sample included 3,270,713 first Minimum Data Set (MDS) assessments for residents in 15,706 NHs in 2015. MEASURES: Individuals were identified as having (1) behavioral health disorders only (hierarchically categorized as schizophrenia/psychosis, bipolar disorder, personality disorder, substance abuse, depression/anxiety); (2) dementia only; (3) behavioral health disorders and dementia; or (4) neither...
December 2018: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
Michael H Connors, Lena Quinto, Henry Brodaty
Depression and a number of other psychiatric conditions can impair cognition and give the appearance of neurodegenerative disease. Collectively, this group of disorders is known as 'pseudodementia' and are important to identify given their potential reversibility with treatment. Despite considerable interest historically, the longitudinal outcomes of patients with pseudodementia remain unclear. We conducted a systematic review of longitudinal studies of pseudodementia. Bibliographic databases were searched using a wide range of search terms...
October 15, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Charis Lengen, Christian Timm, Thomas Kistemann
The ability to remember, recognize and reconstruct places is a key component of episodic autobiographical memory. In this respect, place forms an essential basis for the unfolding of experiences in memory and imagination. The autobiographical memory is seen to contribute to a sense of self and place identity. The aim of this study was to concertedly analyze paintings, autobiographical narrations and places of birth and life of clients under treatment at a psychiatric clinic in Switzerland who were manifesting psychiatric disorders, e...
September 22, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Michelle L Palumbo, Christopher J McDougle
Comorbid psychiatric disorders are common in Down syndrome (DS). Evidence for pharmacotherapy of psychiatric co-morbidity in DS is limited. Areas covered: This article reviews the literature on the pharmacotherapy of psychiatric conditions co-occurring with DS, including major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), psychosis, and catatonia. A section on the phenomenon of regression is included...
September 26, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Ching-Wen Chu, Wu-Chien Chien, Chi-Hsiang Chung, Pei-Chun Chao, Hsin-An Chang, Yu-Chen Kao, Yu-Ching Chou, Nian-Sheng Tzeng
Background: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective treatment for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder, and a temporary memory loss may occur after ECT. However, the association between ECT in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder, and the risk of dementia is yet to be examined. Objective: This study aimed to clarify as to whether ECT is associated with the risk of dementia after ECT in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder, using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Dongmi Kim, Nicole L Ryba, Julie Kalabalik, Ligia Westrich
Currently, all second-generation antipsychotics are approved for schizophrenia. Many are also approved for bipolar disorder, with some also approved as adjunctive treatment for depression and autism-related irritability. Second-generation antipsychotics are increasingly being prescribed for indications other than those approved by the Food and Drug Administration, such as in dementia, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder to name a few. Obsessive-compulsive and related disorders are a group of disorders characterized by preoccupation and repetitive behaviors...
September 2018: Drugs in R&D
Robert C Bransfield
There is increasing evidence and recognition that Lyme borreliosis (LB) causes mental symptoms. This article draws from databases, search engines and clinical experience to review current information on LB. LB causes immune and metabolic effects that result in a gradually developing spectrum of neuropsychiatric symptoms, usually presenting with significant comorbidity which may include developmental disorders, autism spectrum disorders, schizoaffective disorders, bipolar disorder, depression, anxiety disorders (panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, intrusive symptoms), eating disorders, decreased libido, sleep disorders, addiction, opioid addiction, cognitive impairments, dementia, seizure disorders, suicide, violence, anhedonia, depersonalization, dissociative episodes, derealization and other impairments...
August 25, 2018: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
Panagiotis Zis, Dimos-Dimitrios Mitsikostas
Placebo is an intervention with no therapeutic effect that is used as a control in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Placebo effects and responses can produce a beneficial effect that cannot be attributed to the properties of the intervention itself, since it is usually inactive, and should, therefore, be due to the patient's expectations about treatment (placebo effects), or confounding factors such as natural history, co-interventions, biases, among other co-factors (placebo responses). However, adverse events (AEs) may occur when using a placebo intervention, a phenomenon that is called nocebo...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Daniel G Amen, Sachit Egan, Somayeh Meysami, Cyrus A Raji, Noble George
BACKGROUND: Understanding the influence of aging on the brain remains a challenge in determining its role as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. OBJECTIVE: To identify patterns of aging in a large neuroimaging cohort. METHODS: A large psychiatric cohort of 31,227 individuals received brain SPECT at rest and during a concentration task for a total of 62,454 scans. ANOVA was done to identify the mean age trends over the course of the age range in this group, 0-105 years...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Susel Góngora Alonso, Isabel de la Torre-Díez, Sofiane Hamrioui, Miguel López-Coronado, Diego Calvo Barreno, Lola Morón Nozaleda, Manuel Franco
Data Mining in medicine is an emerging field of great importance to provide a prognosis and deeper understanding of disease classification, specifically in Mental Health areas. The main objective of this paper is to present a review of the existing research works in the literature, referring to the techniques and algorithms of Data Mining in Mental Health, specifically in the most prevalent diseases such as: Dementia, Alzheimer, Schizophrenia and Depression. Academic databases that were used to perform the searches are Google Scholar, IEEE Xplore, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus and Web of Science, taking into account as date of publication the last 10 years, from 2008 to the present...
July 21, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
R Thompson, R Hornigold, L Page, T Waite
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to describe the mental health effects of high ambient temperatures and heat waves, determine whether heat-related morbidity and mortality are increased among people with known mental disorders and identify knowledge gaps to inform targeting of future research. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic literature review and narrative synthesis. METHODS: A systematic review of published literature using MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO without geographical or temporal limits was conducted...
August 2018: Public Health
Adrian Handforth, Gail A Parker
Background: Increased depression, hearing loss, dementia, alcoholism, and mortality in essential tremor patients remain unexplained. We investigated whether conditions associated with tremor are linked to chronic stress. Methods: The FY2013 Veterans Affairs database was queried for 38 selected dual diagnosis combinations in 5,854,223 veterans aged 21-95 years. Results: Post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and depression were the most common psychiatric diagnoses in tremor patients, with the odds ratio exceeding 2 in all 15-year cohorts...
2018: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
Camila Wanderley Pereira, Isabelly Sanally Monteiro Florentino, Leonardo Machado
Cotard's Syndrome (CS), among the noncognitive changes in the forms of dementia, is a seldom-found manifestation (1). This syndrome is characterized by the delusion of having lost organs (the individual experiences huge changes in the body and believes that he/she no longer has one or more organs) and by nihilistic delusion (the individual believes he/she or everyone in the world has died or been destroyed) (2). In 1880, Jules Cotard (1840-1889) described a clinical condition that he believed corresponded to a new subtype of depression, which he called anxious melancholia...
June 26, 2018: Clinical Schizophrenia & related Psychoses
Alma Mihaljević-Peleš, Maja Bajs Janović, Ana Stručić, Marina Šagud, Milena Skočić HanŽek, Maja Živković, Špiro Janović
Despite controversy, ECT has been recognized as significantly effective for the treatment of mental disorders since 1938, when Cerletti and Bini introduced ECT in clinical psychiatric practice for treatment of schizophrenia. In the next period, indication for ECT switched more toward depression and catatonia. ECT was even banned from psychiatric training in 1960's, due to the anti-psychiatric movement, which were fortified by Oscar winning movie "One Flew over the Cuckoo's Nest". Due to its robust effectiveness, ECT revived in the early 1980's and today holds its position in clinical psychiatric practices around the world...
June 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
Osvaldo P Almeida, Andrew H Ford, Graeme J Hankey, Bu B Yeap, Jonathan Golledge, Leon Flicker
BACKGROUND: Recent research has identified several potentially modifiable risk factors for dementia, including mental disorders. Psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia and delusional disorder, have also been associated with increased risk of cognitive impairment and dementia, but currently available data difficult to generalise because of bias and confounding. We designed the present study to investigate if the presence of a psychotic disorder increased the risk of incident dementia in later life...
January 2019: Psychological Medicine
F Senese, P Rucci, M P Fantini, D Gibertoni, E Semrov, M Nassisi, R Messina, C Travaglini
BACKGROUND: Information on individual mental healthcare costs and utilization patterns in Italy is scant. We analysed the use and the annual costs of community mental health services (MHS) in an Italian local health authority (LHA). Our aims are to compare the characteristics of patients in the top decile of costs with those of the remaining 90%, and to investigate the demographic and clinical determinants of costs. METHODS: This retrospective study is based on administrative data of adult patients with at least one contact with MHS in 2013...
June 2018: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
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