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virus infection

Marcelo Henrique Matias da Silva, Raiza Nara Cunha Moises, Brenda Elen Bizerra Alves, Hannaly Wana Bezerra Pereira, Anne Aline Pereira de Paiva, Ingryd Câmara Morais, Yasmim Mesquita Nascimento, Joelma Dantas Monteiro, Janeusa Trindade de Souto, Manuela Sales Lima Nascimento, Josélio Maria Galvão de Araújo, Paulo Marcos Matta da Guedes, José Veríssimo Fernandes
Innate immunity receptors (Toll-like receptors/TLRs and RIG-like receptors/RLRs) are important for the initial recognition of Zika virus (ZIKV), modulation of protective immune response, and IFN-α and IFN-β production. Immunological mechanisms involved in protection or pathology during ZIKV infection have not yet been determined. In this study, we evaluated the mRNA expression of innate immune receptors (TLR3, TLR7, TLR8, TLR9, melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5/MDA-5, and retinoic acid inducible gene/RIG-1), its adapter molecules (Myeloid Differentiation Primary Response Gene 88/Myd88, Toll/IL-1 Receptor Domain-Containing Adaptor-Inducing IFN-β/TRIF), and cytokines (IL-6, IL-12, TNF-α, IFN-α, IFN-β, and IFN-γ) in the acute phase of patients infected by ZIKV using real-time PCR in peripheral blood...
March 16, 2019: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Catharina Majer, Jan Moritz Schüssler, Renate König
SAMHD1 was initially described for its ability to efficiently restrict HIV-1 replication in myeloid cells and resting CD4+ T cells. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that SAMHD1-mediated restriction is by far not limited to lentiviruses, but seems to be a general concept that applies to most retroviruses and at least a number of DNA viruses. SAMHD1 anti-viral activity was long believed to be solely due to its ability to deplete cellular dNTPs by enzymatic degradation. However, since its discovery, several new functions have been attributed to SAMHD1...
March 16, 2019: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Sourav Kumar Sasmal, Yasuhiro Takeuchi, Shinji Nakaoka
Dengue infection results in a significant number of deaths, mostly in the tropical and subtropical regions across the world. Yet, despite the seriousness of this disease, vaccine, and antiviral drugs that could be employed in dengue treatment remain elusive. The desire to establish the factors determining the disease severity and the growing need for efficient drugs has prompted extensive research interest in within-host viral dynamics. However, very few mathematical models of within-host dengue dynamics pertaining to secondary dengue infection with another serotype are presently available...
March 13, 2019: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Emmanuel Couacy-Hymann, Mathurin Y Koffi, Valère K Kouadio, Arsène Mossoum, Léonce Kouadio, Antonette Kouassi, Krou Assemian, Privat H Godji, Pauline Nana
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a major Transboundary animal disease (TADs) of sheep and goats in tropical regions caused by PPRV which can also infect cattle without any clinical signs but inducing seroconversion. However the epidemiological role of cattle in the maintenance and spread of the disease is not known. For the purposes of the present study, cattle were infected with a wild type candidate from each of the four lineages of PPRV and placed in separate boxes. Naive goats were then introduced into each specific box for the 30 days duration of the experiment...
March 1, 2019: Research in Veterinary Science
Linda Ferreira-Venter, Eudri Venter, Jacques Theron, Vida van Staden
The African horse sickness virus non-structural protein 3 (NS3) is involved in the final stages of infection. To gain insight into the function of different NS3 domains, we generated reverse genetics-derived mutants, each expressing a modified version of the protein. A functional comparison of these mutants to the wild-type virus in mammalian cells indicated the variable contribution of the different domains to the cytopathic effect and in ensuring effective virus trafficking and release. The transmembrane domains were determined as essential mediators of NS3 localisation, as the abnormal processing of these mutant proteins resulted in their nuclear localisation and interaction with NS1...
March 9, 2019: Virology
Florence Maurier, Delphine Beury, Léa Fléchon, Jean-Stéphane Varré, Hélène Touzet, Anne Goffard, David Hot, Ségolène Caboche
Genome sequencing of virus has become a useful tool for better understanding of virus pathogenicity and epidemiological surveillance. Obtaining virus genome sequence directly from clinical samples is still a challenging task due to the low load of virus genetic material compared to the host DNA, and to the difficulty to get an accurate genome assembly. Here we introduce a complete sequencing and analyzing protocol called V-ASAP for Virus Amplicon Sequencing Assembly Pipeline. Our protocol is able to generate the viral dominant genome sequence starting from clinical samples...
March 9, 2019: Virology
Khaled Aziz, Jazeel F Limzerwala, Ines Sturmlechner, Erin Hurley, Cheng Zhang, Karthik B Jeganathan, Grace Nelson, Steve Bronk, Raul Fierro Velasco, Erik-Jan van Deursen, Daniel R O'Brien, Jean-Pierre A Kocher, Sameh A Youssef, Janine H van Ree, Alain de Bruin, Hilda van den Bos, Diana C J Spierings, Floris Foijer, Bart van de Sluis, Lewis R Roberts, Gregory Gores, Hu Li, Jan M van Deursen
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The CCNE1 locus, which encodes cyclin E1, is amplified in many types of cancer cells and is activated in hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) from patients infected with hepatitis B virus or adeno-associated virus type 2, due to integration of the virus nearby. We investigated cell cycle and oncogenic effects of cyclin E1 overexpression in tissues of mice. METHODS: We generated mice with doxycycline-inducible expression of Ccne1 (Ccne1T mice) and activated overexpression of cyclin E1 from age 3 weeks onwards...
March 13, 2019: Gastroenterology
Xiaohan Ning, Yutao Wang, Miao Jing, Mengyin Sha, Mengze Lv, Pengfei Gao, Rui Zhang, Xiaojun Huang, Ji-Ming Feng, Zhengfan Jiang
Viral infection triggers host defenses through pattern-recognition receptor-mediated cytokine production, inflammasome activation, and apoptosis of the infected cells. Inflammasome-activated caspases are known to cleave cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS). Here, we found that apoptotic caspases are critically involved in regulating both DNA and RNA virus-triggered host defenses, in which activated caspase-3 cleaved cGAS, MAVS, and IRF3 to prevent cytokine overproduction. Caspase-3 was exclusively required in human cells, whereas caspase-7 was involved only in murine cells to inactivate cGAS, reflecting distinct regulatory mechanisms in different species...
March 11, 2019: Molecular Cell
Anna W Brittain, Euna M August, Lisa Romero, Margaret Sheahan, Jamie Krashin, Charity Ntansah, Margaret A Honein, Denise J Jamieson, Esther M Ellis, Michelle S Davis, Eva Lathrop
BACKGROUND: Between January and October 2016, 575 symptomatic confirmed cases of Zika virus infection were reported in the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI). Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause serious birth defects. Preventing unintended pregnancy among women who choose to delay or avoid pregnancy is a primary strategy to reduce these adverse outcomes. METHODS: A rapid assessment, using one men's and five women's focus groups (N = 43), was conducted to inform communication efforts to increase awareness of contraception as a means for preventing unintended pregnancy in the context of a Zika outbreak in the USVI...
March 13, 2019: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
Teng Chen, Xintao Zhou, Yu Qi, Lijuan Mi, Xuefei Sun, Shoufeng Zhang, Ye Liu, Victoria Olson, Wei Qiu, Xianfu Wu, Rongliang Hu
In China, cats cause about 5% of human rabies cases. Rabies control in cats plays a role in achieving the ultimate goal of elimination of dog rabies-mediated human deaths. However, there is no cat-specific rabies vaccine in China yet. In this study, we constructed a recombinant rabies vaccine by using a felid herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1) isolate, and deleted the gI/E in the FHV-1 and replaced the region with a glycoprotein (G) of rabies virus (RABV) strain BD06 through homologous recombination. The recombinant virus FHV-RVG was recovered and purified, and the expression of RABV glycoprotein was verified by indirect immunofluorescent assay...
March 13, 2019: Vaccine
Trang Thi Thu Hau, Midori Nakamura-Hoshi, Yoshiaki Kanno, Takushi Nomura, Masako Nishizawa, Sayuri Seki, Hiroshi Ishii, Ai Kawana-Tachikawa, William W Hall, Lan Anh Nguyen Thi, Tetsuro Matano, Hiroyuki Yamamoto
In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infections, host major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) genotypes have a great impact on viral replication and MHC-I-associated viral genome mutations are selected under CD8+ T-cell pressure. Association of MHC-I genotypes with HIV/SIV control has been investigated at MHC-I allele levels but not fully at haplotype levels. We previously established groups of rhesus macaques sharing individual MHC-I haplotypes. In the present study, we compared viral genome diversification after SIV infection in macaques possessing a protective MHC-I haplotype, 90-010-Id, with those possessing a non-protective MHC-I haplotype, 90-010-Ie...
March 13, 2019: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Andrew J Prendergast, Ameena E Goga, Catriona Waitt, Antoine Gessain, Graham P Taylor, Nigel Rollins, Elaine J Abrams, E Hermione Lyall, Philippe Van de Perre
Breastfeeding is a crucial child survival intervention. However, the potential for transmission of viral infections from mother to child presents the dilemma of how best to interpret the benefits and risks of breastfeeding in different settings. In this Review, we compare the transmission dynamics, risk factors, and outcomes of infection with three chronic viruses transmitted through breastmilk: cytomegalovirus, human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1, and HIV. We provide an overview of intervention approaches and discuss scientific, policy, and programming gaps in the understanding of these major global infections...
April 2019: Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
Laura Setyo, Shannon L Donahoe, Jan Šlapeta
Tritrichomonas foetus is a flagellate protist which commonly causes a waxing and waning large bowel diarrhoea in young cats. We report severe T. foetus infection of the colon, cecum and ileum with concurrent feline enteric coronavirus (FCoV) and feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) in a 3-month-old Bengal kitten with an 8-day history of vomiting, diarrhoea, failure to thrive and coughing. Protozoa filling the lumen and crypts and occasional invading into lamina propria were identified within the affected colon and confirmed by PCR as T...
March 2019: Veterinary Parasitology
S S Makarova, A V Makhotenko, A V Khromov, E V Skurat, A G Solovyev, V V Makarov, N O Kalinina
Capsid proteins (CPs) of (+)RNA-containing plant viruses are multifunctional proteins involved in many stages of viral infection cycle, in addition to their main function of virus capsid formation. For example, the tobamoviral CP ensures virus systemic transport in plants and defines the virus-host interactions, thereby influencing the virus host range, virus infectivity, pathogenicity, and manifestation of infection symptoms. Hordeiviruses and tobamoviruses belong to the Virgaviridae family and have rod-shaped virions with a helical symmetry; their CPs are similar in structure...
December 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
A M Lebedeva, A V Shpektor, E Yu Vasilieva, L B Margolis
Atherosclerosis underlies the development of many cardiovascular diseases that continue to hold a leading place among the causes of death in developed countries. The role of activated immune cells in atherosclerosis progression has been convincingly demonstrated, but the mechanism of their action remains poorly investigated. Since atherosclerosis is associated with chronic inflammatory response, involvement of viral and bacterial infections in atherogenesis has been examined. A special place among the infectious agents is held by human herpesviruses as the most common persistent viruses in human population coupled to chronic inflammation during atherosclerosis...
December 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Slavica Matić, Emanuela Noris, Roberta Contin, Daniele Marian, Jeremy R Thompson
A single-chain variable antibody fragment (scFv) library tested against the non-structural NSP5 protein of human rotavirus A was screened by a yeast two-hybrid system against three proteins derived from the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), with the aim of blocking their function and preventing viral infection once expressed in planta. The constructs tested were (i) '2a' consisting of the full-length 2a gene (839 amino acids, aa), (ii) 'Motifs' covering the conserved RdRp motifs (IV-VII) (132 aa) and (iii) 'GDD' located within the conserved RdRp motif VI (GDD, 22 aa)...
March 13, 2019: Phytochemistry
Ayad Ali, Ivayla E Gyurova, Stephen N Waggoner
Natural killer (NK) cells play a multitude of antiviral roles that are significant enough to provoke viral counterefforts to subvert their activity. As innate lymphocytes, NK cells provide a rapid source of pro-inflammatory antiviral cytokines and bring to bear cytolytic activities that are collectively meant to constrain viral replication and dissemination. Additionally, NK cells participate in adaptive immunity both by shaping virus-specific T-cell responses and by developing adaptive features themselves, including enhanced antibody-dependent effector functions...
March 13, 2019: Current Opinion in Virology
A E Absalón, Diana V Cortés-Espinosa, E Lucio, P J Miller, C L Afonso
Newcastle disease (ND) infects wild birds and poultry species worldwide, severely impacting the economics of the poultry industry. ND is especially problematic in Latin America (Mexico, Colombia, Venezuela, and Peru) where it is either endemic or re-emerging. The disease is caused by infections with one of the different strains of virulent avian Newcastle disease virus (NDV), recently renamed Avian avulavirus 1. Here, we describe the molecular epidemiology of Latin American NDVs, current control and prevention methods, including vaccines and vaccination protocols, as well as future strategies for control of ND...
March 15, 2019: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Shengjie Xue, Fuxiang Mao, Dongbing Hu, Huihui Yan, Jihai Lei, Enoch Obeng, Yuefan Zhou, Yanping Quan, Wei Yu
Silkworm (Bombyx mori) is not only a model organism for scientific studies, but also a commercial insect for agricultural production. BmAtg8 (a B. mori homolog of yeast Atg8) plays crucial roles in macroautophagy (hereafter referred to autophagy), which is helpful for silkworm metamorphosis. Relevant mechanism about BmAtg8 currently remains ambiguous. Based on our previous acetylome of B. mori after BmNPV infection, we focused on that acetylation of BmAtg8 K13 was changed upon virus challenge. Subsequently, anti-BmAtg8 antibody was generated, and EBSS-induced BmN cellular autophagy model was established...
March 15, 2019: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Dan Liu, Changming Liu, Xing Liu, Xin Li, Liping Huang, Junying Hu, Yanwu Wei, Hongzhen Zhu, Qun Zhang, Xinping Wang
Full-length infectious cDNA clones for recombinant HY12 bovine enteroviruses designated as rHY12-3A-2-HA, rHY12-3A-3-HA, and rHY12-3A-9-HA were constructed by the insertion of an epitope from influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) at the N-terminus of the HY12-encoded 3A protein at amino acid positions 2, 3, and 9. The recombinant HY12 viruses expressing the HA epitope were rescued and characterized using immunoperoxidase monolayer assay, western blotting, and electron microscopy. The three rescued recombinant marker viruses showed similar characteristics, such as TCID50 titer, plaque size, and growth properties, to those of parental rHY12 virus...
March 15, 2019: Archives of Virology
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