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Cardiomyocytes and mToR

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30782608/fndc5-irisin-inhibits-pathological-cardiac-hypertrophy
#1
Qing Yu, Wenxin Kou, Xu Xu, Shunping Zhou, Peipei Luan, Xiaopeng Xu, Hailing Li, Jianhui Zhuang, Jun Wang, Yifan Zhao, Yawei Xu, Wen-Hui Peng
Cardiac hypertrophy is a common pathophysiological process in various cardiovascular diseases, which still has no effective therapies. Irisin is a novel myokine mainly secreted by skeletal muscle and is believed involved in the regulation of energy metabolism. In the present study, we found that irisin expression was elevated in hypertrophic murine hearts and serum. Moreover, angiotension II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was attenuated after irisin administration and aggravated after irisin knockdown in vitro...
February 19, 2019: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30771309/the-cardiomyocyte-redox-rheostat-redox-signalling-via-the-ampk-mtor-axis-and-regulation-of-gene-and-protein-expression-balancing-survival-and-death
#2
Daniel N Meijles, Georgia Zoumpoulidou, Thomais Markou, Kerry A Rostron, Rishi Patel, Kenneth Lay, Balvinder S Handa, Bethany Wong, Peter H Sugden, Angela Clerk
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a key role in development of heart failure but, at a cellular level, their effects range from cytoprotection to induction of cell death. Understanding how this is regulated is crucial to develop novel strategies to ameliorate only the detrimental effects. Here, we revisited the fundamental hypothesis that the level of ROS per se is a key factor in the cellular response by applying different concentrations of H2 O2 to cardiomyocytes. High concentrations rapidly reduced intracellular ATP and inhibited protein synthesis...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30756206/minocycline-promotes-cardiomyocyte-mitochondrial-autophagy-and-cardiomyocyte-autophagy-to-prevent-sepsis-induced-cardiac-dysfunction-by-akt-mtor-signaling
#3
Erfei Zhang, Xiaoying Zhao, Li Zhang, Nan Li, Jinqi Yan, Ke Tu, Ruhu Yan, Jianqiang Hu, Mingming Zhang, Dongdong Sun, Lichao Hou
Myocardial damage is responsible for the high mortality of sepsis. However, the underlying mechanism is not well understood. Cardiomyocyte autophagy alleviates the cardiac injury caused by myocardial infarction. Enhanced cardiomyocyte autophagy also has protective effects against cardiomyocyte mitochondrial injury. Minocycline enhances autophagy in many types of cells under different types of pathological stress and can be easily taken up by cardiomyocytes. The present study investigated whether minocycline prevented myocardial injury caused by sepsis and whether cardiomyocyte autophagy participated in this process...
February 12, 2019: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30735749/wheat-phenolics-suppress-doxorubicin-induced-cardiotoxicity-via-inhibition-of-oxidative-stress-map-kinase-activation-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-pi3k-akt-mtor-impairment-and-cardiac-apoptosis
#4
Ranabir Sahu, Tarun K Dua, Sonjit Das, Vincenzo De Feo, Saikat Dewanjee
The present investigation has been undertaken to reveal the protective mechanism of polyphenolics extract of whole wheat grains (WWGPE), ferulic acid and apigenin against doxorubicin (Dox)-induced cardio-toxicity. WWGPE, apigenin, and ferulic acid exhibited concentration dependent cyto-protective effect against Dox (1 μM) in rat cardiomyocytes. Dox treatment significantly (p < 0.01) induced oxidative stress in the myocardial cells via excessive ROS production, increase in iNOS expression, NADPH oxidase activation, Nrf-2/HO-1 impairment, and inactivation of cellular redox defense system...
February 5, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30734677/histone-deacetylase-inhibition-attenuates-cardiomyocyte-hypoxia-reoxygenation-injury
#5
Aaron M Williams, Wei He, Yongqing Li, Umar F Bhatti, Vahagn C Nikolian, Panpan Chang, Zhigang Chang, Ihab Halaweish, Baoling Liu, Xin Cheng, Hasan B Alam
Cardiac reperfusion injury can have devastating consequences. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are potent cytoprotective agents, but their role in the prevention of cardiac injury remains ill-defined. We sought to determine the therapeutic potential of HDAC inhibitors in an in vitro model of cardiomyocyte hypoxia-reoxygenation (H/R). H9c2 cardiomyocytes were subjected to H/R and treated with various class-specific and pan-HDAC inhibitors in equal concentrations (5μM). Biologic activity of inhibitors was determined, as a proxy for concentration adequacy, by Western blot for acetylated histone H3 and α-tubulin...
February 7, 2019: Current Molecular Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30715350/titin-truncations-lead-to-impaired-cardiomyocyte-autophagy-and-mitochondrial-function-in-vivo
#6
Jin Zhou, Benjamin Ng, Nicole S J Ko, Lorna R Fiedler, Ester Khin, Andrea Lim, Norliza E Sahib, Yajun Wu, Sonia P Chothani, Sebastian Schafer, Boon-Huat Bay, Rohit A Sinha, Stuart A Cook, Paul M Yen
Titin-truncating variants (TTNtv) are the most common genetic cause of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). TTNtv occur in ~1% of the general population and causes subclinical cardiac remodeling in asymptomatic carriers. In rat models with either proximal or distal TTNtv, we previously showed altered cardiac metabolism at baseline and impaired cardiac function in response to stress. However, the molecular mechanism(s) underlying these effects remains unknown. In the current study, we used rat models of TTNtv to investigate the effect of TTNtv on autophagy and mitochondrial function, which are essential for maintaining cellular metabolic homeostasis and cardiac function...
February 4, 2019: Human Molecular Genetics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30662349/g-protein-coupled-estrogen-receptor-1-inhibits-angiotensin-ii-induced-cardiomyocyte-hypertrophy-via-the-regulation-of-pi3k-akt-mtor-signalling-and-autophagy
#7
Hui Pei, Wei Wang, Di Zhao, Hongyan Su, Guohai Su, Zhuo Zhao
Estrogen has been demonstrated to protect the heart against cardiac remodelling and heart failure in women. G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER1) is a recently discovered estrogen receptor (ER) that is expressed in various tissues. However, the mechanisms by which estrogen protects the heart, especially the roles played by ERs, are not clear. In this study, we explored the effect of GPER1 activation on angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and the involved signalling pathways and mechanisms...
2019: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30621510/endothelial-leptin-receptor-deletion-promotes-cardiac-autophagy-and-angiogenesis-following-pressure-overload-by-suppressing-akt-mtor-signaling
#8
Rajinikanth Gogiraju, Astrid Hubert, Jörg Fahrer, Beate K Straub, Moritz Brandt, Philip Wenzel, Thomas Münzel, Stavros Konstantinides, Gerd Hasenfuss, Katrin Schäfer
BACKGROUND: Cardiac remodeling is modulated by overnutrition or starvation. The adipokine leptin mediates energy balance between adipose tissue and brain. Leptin and its receptors are expressed in the heart. METHODS AND RESULTS: To examine the importance of endothelial leptin signaling in cardiac hypertrophy, transverse aortic constriction was used in mice with inducible endothelium-specific deletion of leptin receptors (End.LepR-KO) or littermate controls (End...
January 2019: Circulation. Heart Failure
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30551524/long-noncoding-rna-rmrp-upregulation-aggravates-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-by-sponging-mir-206-to-target-atg3-expression
#9
Fei Kong, Juan Jin, Xiaolin Lv, Yubo Han, Xue Liang, Yanyu Gao, Xinglin Duan
OBJECTIVE: Coronary heart disease is a common cause of death and disability worldwide and mainly results from myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. This study aimed to elucidate the roles and possible mechanism of long noncoding RNA Component Of Mitochondrial RNA Processing Endoribonuclease (RMRP) in protecting against ischemic myocardial injury. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The H9c2 cardiomyocytes were cultured under hypoxia condition to induce myocardial injury...
January 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30542917/sevoflurane-prevents-hypoxia-reoxygenation-induced-cardiomyocyte-apoptosis-by-inhibiting-pi3kc3-mediated-autophagy
#10
Yanfeng Lu, Min Bu, Huifang Yun
Cardiomyocyte apoptosis plays an important role in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced myocardial injury. Autophagy is suggested to be widely implicated in regulating cell survival and death. The cardioprotection of sevoflurane postconditioning has been long recognized, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. This study aims to investigate whether the cardioprotective effects of sevoflurane are associated with autophagy regulation. An in vitro hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) model was established in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes...
December 12, 2018: Human Cell
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30515791/effect-of-gpx3-gene-silencing-by-sirna-on-apoptosis-and-autophagy-in-chicken-cardiomyocytes
#11
REVIEW
Yafan Gong, Jie Yang, Jingzeng Cai, Qi Liu, Jun Min Zhang, Ziwei Zhang
Glutathione peroxidase 3 (Gpx3), as an important selenoprotein, is the most crucial antioxidant defense in cardiomyocytes. However, the role of Gpx3 in Se-deficient cardiomyocyte damage still less reported. Here, we developed Gpx3 silence cardiomyocytes culture model (small interfering RNA; siRNA) for research the crosstalk between autophagy and apoptosis. Quantitative real-time PCR and western blot analysis are performed to detect the expression of apoptosis and autophagy-related genes. MDC stain, flow cytometry, AO/EB stain, and electron microscope were performed to observe the changes of cell morphology...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30459625/activating-cannabinoid-receptor-2-protects-against-diabetic-cardiomyopathy-through-autophagy-induction
#12
Aiping Wu, Pengfei Hu, Jian Lin, Wan Xia, Rui Zhang
Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2 ) has been reported to produce a cardio-protective effect in cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial infarction. Here in this study, we investigated the role of CB2 in diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) and its underlying mechanisms. HU308 was used for the selective activation of CB2 . Bafilomycin A1 was used for the blockade of autophagy and compound C was used to inhibit AMPK signaling. An streptozotocin (STZ)-induced mice model and high glucose (HG)-challenged cardiomyocytes were applied for study...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30431062/mir-181b-5p-suppresses-starvation-induced-cardiomyocyte-autophagy-by-targeting-hspa5
#13
Liuhui Chang, Xiaoming Chai, Peiming Chen, Jianfang Cao, Hong Xie, Jiang Zhu
This study aimed to investigate the role of microRNA‑181b‑5p (miR‑181b‑5p) in starvation‑induced cardiomyocyte autophagy by targeting heat shock protein family A member 5 (Hspa5). For this purpose, H9c2 cardiomyocytes and neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) were glucose‑starved in Earle's Balanced Salt Solution (EBSS) for different periods of time (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h). RT‑qPCR analysis was performed to examine the expression of miR‑181b‑5p in the different groups. Immunofluorescence was performed to detect the expression of LC3...
January 2019: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30412827/resveratrol-as-a-new-inhibitor-of-immunoproteasome-prevents-pten-degradation-and-attenuates-cardiac-hypertrophy-after-pressure-overload
#14
Chen Chen, Lei-Xin Zou, Qiu-Yue Lin, Xiao Yan, Hai-Lian Bi, Xin Xie, Shuai Wang, Qing-Shan Wang, Yun-Long Zhang, Hui-Hua Li
Sustained cardiac hypertrophy is a major cause of heart failure (HF) and death. Recent studies have demonstrated that resveratrol (RES) exerts a protective role in hypertrophic diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms involved are not fully elucidated. In this study, cardiac hypertrophic remodeling in mice were established by pressure overload induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Cardiac function was evaluated by echocardiography and invasive pressure-volume analysis. Cardiomyocyte size was detected by wheat germ agglutinin staining...
January 2019: Redox Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30405071/study-on-cardiotoxicity-and-mechanism-of-fuzi-extracts-based-on-metabonomics
#15
Guangyao Huang, Liang Yang, Wei Zhou, Xianglin Tang, Yuguang Wang, Zengchun Ma, Shan Gao, Yue Gao
To investigate the toxicity of water and ethanol "Fuzi" (FZ) extracts and to explore the toxicity mechanism in rats. Water and ethanol extracts were prepared. Three groups of rats received the water extract, ethanol extract, or water by oral gavage for seven days. Pathological section staining of heart tissue. Colorimetric analysis was used to determine serum lactate dehydrogenase. The metabolic expression of small molecules in rats was measured by a metabolomics method. Western blotting was used to detect the expression of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (Akt), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), and caspase-3...
November 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30401566/granulocyte-colony-stimulating-factor-enhances-load-induced-muscle-hypertrophy-in-mice
#16
Maiko Ohashi, Kazumasa Okubo, Sakiko Mizuno, Masaki Yoda, Hideyuki Shirasawa, Kazuhiro Chiba, Keisuke Horiuchi, Morio Matsumoto, Masaya Nakamura
Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a cytokine crucially involved in the regulation of granulopoiesis and the mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells from bone marrow. However, emerging data suggest that G-CSF exhibits more diverse functions than initially expected, such as conferring protection against apoptosis to neural cells and stimulating mitogenesis in cardiomyocytes and skeletal muscle stem cells after injury. In the present study, we sought to investigate the potential contribution of G-CSF to the regulation of muscle volume...
November 3, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30367996/soluble-receptor-for-advance-glycation-end-products-inhibits-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-myocardial-autophagy-via-the-stat3-pathway
#17
Mengqiu Dang, Xiangjun Zeng, Buxing Chen, Hongxia Wang, Huihua Li, Yu Liu, Xiuling Zhang, Xianxian Cao, Fenghe Du, Caixia Guo
The pathogenesis of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is poorly understood, but recent evidence suggests that autophagy plays crucial roles in I/R injuries. Soluble receptor for advanced glycation end-products (sRAGE) exerts protective effects during I/R by decreasing cardiac apoptosis, which is mediated via increasing the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). The present study examined the effects and mechanisms of sRAGE on I/R-triggered cardiac autophagy...
October 25, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30312797/fisetin-inhibits-cardiac-hypertrophy-by-suppressing-oxidative-stress
#18
Bin Dong, Chen Liu, Ruicong Xue, Yan Wang, Yu Sun, Zhuomin Liang, Wendong Fan, Jingzhou Jiang, Jingjing Zhao, Qiao Su, Gang Dai, Yugang Dong, Huiling Huang
Cardiac hypertrophy is a pathophysiological response to various pathological stresses and ultimately leads to heart failure. Oxidative stress is one of the critical processes involved in hypertrophy development. Fisetin, a small molecular flavonoid, has been shown to have anti-oxidative, anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effect of fisetin on cardiac hypertrophy remains unknown. In our present study, we showed that fisetin inhibited pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy, improved cardiac function in vivo and suppressed phenylephrine (PE)-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in vitro...
December 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30283359/lysophosphatidic-acid-is-associated-with-cardiac-dysfunction-and-hypertrophy-by-suppressing-autophagy-via-the-lpa3-akt-mtor-pathway
#19
Jinjing Yang, Jiyao Xu, Xuebin Han, Hao Wang, Yuean Zhang, Jin Dong, Yongzhi Deng, Jingping Wang
Background: Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), as a phospholipid signal molecule, participates in the regulation of various biological functions. Our previous study demonstrated that LPA induces cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in vitro ; however, the functional role of LPA in the post-infarct heart remains unknown. Growing evidence has demonstrated that autophagy is involved in regulation of cardiac hypertrophy. The aim of the current work was to investigate the effects of LPA on cardiac function and hypertrophy during myocardial infarction (MI) and determine the regulatory role of autophagy in LPA-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30275441/metformin-increases-cardiac-rupture-after-myocardial-infarction-via-the-ampk-mtor-pgc-1%C3%AE-signaling-pathway-in-rats-with-acute-myocardial-infarction
#20
Jinghai Hua, Zhanghua Liu, Zuheng Liu, Dongqi An, Wenyan Lai, Qiong Zhan, Qingchun Zeng, Hao Ren, Dingli Xu
BACKGROUND Cardiac rupture often occurs after acute myocardial infarction due to complex and unclear pathogenesis. This study investigated whether metformin increases the incidence of cardiac rupture after myocardial infarction through the AMPK-MTOR/PGC-1α signaling pathway. MATERIAL AND METHODS An acute myocardial infarction (MI) mouse model was established. A series of experiments involving RT-qPCR, Western blot, TUNEL staining, and Masson staining were performed in this study. RESULTS Myocardial infarction occurred, resulting in the cardiac rupture, and the expression level of PGC-1α increased in the cardiac myocardium...
October 2, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
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