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Bowel microbiota nutrients absorption

Miguel Quiros, Asma Nusrat
The intestinal mucosa serves as a highly selective barrier that allows the absorption of nutrients and water while restricting microbiota access to tissues. This barrier is compromised in inflammatory conditions such as infectious colitis and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In response to mucosal injury, there is a temporal recruitment of leukocytes that crosstalk with epithelial cells to orchestrate repair. Specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) play an important role in the resolution of inflammation and epithelial repair...
January 11, 2019: Trends in Molecular Medicine
Mircea T Chiriac, Mousumi Mahapatro, Markus F Neurath, Christoph Becker
It has become increasingly evident over the past two decades that the microbiota plays a nurturing role in the development of the immune system. This appears to be important since the amplitude of immune responses has a crucial regulatory function in homeostasis and the prevention of unwanted inflammation. Hence, a malfunctioning gut flora has been shown to play a key role in visceral medicine. Strong evidence demonstrates for example that intestinal inflammation can develop as a result of a dysregulated microbiota, deficient antimicrobial responses, and aberrant bacterial translocation into the bowel wall...
May 2017: Visceral Medicine
Piero Portincasa, Antony Lembo, Ornella De Bari, Domenica M Di Palo, Anna Maggio, Ilaria Cataldo, Giuseppe Calamita
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic functional disorder of the gastrointestinal tract and is one of the most frequent gastrointestinal diseases. In IBS multiple pathophysiological mechanisms including alterations in intestinal motility, permeability, nutrient absorption, and intestinal microbiota have been implicated. Foods are commonly reported by patients to be a trigger of symptoms and therefore are likely involved in the generation of symptoms in IBS. Among all possible therapeutic options, a first-line approach to IBS is dietary education and identification of foods potentially responsible for the onset or worsening of symptoms...
April 27, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
M A Guevara, L L Bauer, K A Garleb, G C Fahey, M R C de Godoy
The objectives were to examine in vitro fermentation characteristics, in vivo nutrient digestibility, fecal microbiota, and serum lipid profiles as affected by α-cyclodextrin (ACD) supplementation. Short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production was measured after in vitro fermentation for 3, 6, 9, and 12 h of ACD, β-cyclodextrin, and γ-cyclodextrin. Five mixed-breed hounds were used in a Latin square design. Each experimental period comprised 14 d, including 10 d for diet adaptation and 4 d for fecal collection...
May 2016: Journal of Animal Science
J Magarian Blander
Every 4-5 days, intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) are terminated as they reach the end of their life. This process ensures that the epithelium is comprised of the fittest cells that maintain an impermeable barrier to luminal contents and the gut microbiota, as well as the most metabolically able cells that conduct functions in nutrient absorption, digestion, and secretion of antimicrobial peptides. IEC are terminated by apical extrusion-or shedding-from the intestinal epithelial monolayer into the gut lumen...
July 2016: FEBS Journal
Ai-Qun Yu, Lianqin Li
The human gut microbiota has a significant effect on many aspects of human physiology such as metabolism, nutrient absorption, and immune function. Imbalance of the microbiota has been implicated in many disorders including inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, asthma, psychiatric illnesses, and cancers. As a kind of functional foods, probiotics have been shown to play a protective role against cancer development in animal models. Clinical application of probiotics indicated that some probiotic strains could diminish the incidence of postoperative inflammation in cancer patients...
May 2016: Nutrition and Cancer
Calum J Walsh, Caitriona M Guinane, Colin Hill, R Paul Ross, Paul W O'Toole, Paul D Cotter
BACKGROUND: The human gut microbiota comprises approximately 100 trillion microbial cells which significantly impact many aspects of human physiology - including metabolism, nutrient absorption and immune function. Disturbances in this population have been implicated in many conditions and diseases, including obesity, type-2 diabetes and inflammatory bowel disease. This suggests that targeted manipulation or shaping of the gut microbiota, by bacteriocins and other antimicrobials, has potential as a therapeutic tool for the prevention or treatment of these conditions...
2015: BMC Microbiology
Ewelina Rebizak, Katarzyna Sierant, Krzysztof Łabuzek, Bogusław Okopień
Intestinal bacteria play an important role in human physiology, taking part in the metabolism, absorption of nutrients and regulation of the immune system. In many illnesses the bacterial imbalance in the digestive tract occurs, and fecal transplantation is one method that allows you to restore the balance. The essence of the described method is to replace the pathogenesis, abnormal bacterial flora with the flora occurring in normal healthy individuals. So far, the main use of the method described in the article is resistant to antibiotics Clostridium difficile infection, which gives you a chance to avoid total colectomy...
August 2015: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Anna Bazsó, Péter Szodoray, Gábor Sütő, Yehuda Shoenfeld, Gyula Poór, Emese Kiss
A strong connection between spondylarthropathies and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) is well established. About 10-15% of IBD are associated with different forms of spondylarthritis. Arthritis can be manifested as axial, peripheral form or both. The primary functions of the gastrointestinal tract are digestion and absorption of nutrients, electrocytes and maintenance of water homoeostasis. The anatomic and functional lesions could lead to the development of IBD based on molecular mimicry and bystander effects...
February 2015: Immunologic Research
Hiroaki Konishi, Mikihiro Fujiya, Yutaka Kohgo
Living organisms take in essential molecules and get rid of wastes effectively through the selective transport of materials. Especially in the digestive tract, advanced transport systems are indispensable for the absorption of nutrients and elimination of waste products. These transport pathways control physiological functions by modulating the ionic environment inside and outside the cells. Moreover, recent studies have shown the importance of the expression of trafficking-related molecules and the population of gut microbiota...
April 2015: Environmental Microbiology
Bryon W Petschow, Anthony T Blikslager, Eric M Weaver, Joy M Campbell, Javier Polo, Audrey L Shaw, Bruce P Burnett, Gerald L Klein, J Marc Rhoads
The gastrointestinal tract is responsible for a multitude of digestive and immune functions which depend upon the balanced interaction of the intestinal microbiota, diet, gut barrier function, and mucosal immune response. Disruptions in one or more of these factors can lead to intestinal disorders or enteropathies which are characterized by intestinal inflammation, increased gut permeability, and reduced capacity to absorb nutrients. Enteropathy is frequently associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, inflammatory bowel disease, autoimmune enteropathy, radiation enteritis, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), where pathologic changes in the intestinal tract lead to abdominal discomfort, bloating, abnormal bowel function (e...
September 7, 2014: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Hanru Wang, Mark S Geier, Gordon S Howarth
Mucositis, characterized by ulcerative lesions along the alimentary tract, is a common consequence of many chemotherapy regimens. Chemotherapy negatively disrupts the intestinal microbiota, resulting in increased numbers of potentially pathogenic bacteria, such as Clostridia and Enterobacteriaceae, and decreased numbers of "beneficial" bacteria, such as Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria. Agents capable of restoring homeostasis in the bowel microbiota could, therefore, be applicable to mucositis. Prebiotics are indigestible compounds, commonly oligosaccharides, that seek to reverse chemotherapy-induced intestinal dysbiosis through selective colonization of the intestinal microbiota by probiotic bacteria...
2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Tiangang Li, John Y L Chiang
Bile acids are the end products of cholesterol catabolism. Hepatic bile acid synthesis accounts for a major fraction of daily cholesterol turnover in humans. Biliary secretion of bile acids generates bile flow and facilitates hepatobiliary secretion of lipids, lipophilic metabolites, and xenobiotics. In the intestine, bile acids are essential for the absorption, transport, and metabolism of dietary fats and lipid-soluble vitamins. Extensive research in the last 2 decades has unveiled new functions of bile acids as signaling molecules and metabolic integrators...
October 2014: Pharmacological Reviews
Bryon W Petschow, Bruce Burnett, Audrey L Shaw, Eric M Weaver, Gerald L Klein
The health and performance of the gastrointestinal tract is influenced by the interaction of a variety of factors, including diet, nutritional status, genetics, environment, stress, the intestinal microbiota, immune status, and gut barrier. Disruptions in one or more of these factors can lead to enteropathy or intestinal disorders that are known to occur in concert with certain disease states or conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Nutritional support in the form of a medical food along with current therapies could help manage the adverse effects of enteropathy, which include effects on nutrient digestion, absorption, and metabolism, as well as utilization of nutrients from foodstuffs...
2014: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
Calum J Walsh, Caitriona M Guinane, Paul W O'Toole, Paul D Cotter
The human gut microbiota comprises approximately 100 trillion microbial cells and has a significant effect on many aspects of human physiology including metabolism, nutrient absorption and immune function. Disruption of this population has been implicated in many conditions and diseases, including examples such as obesity, inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer that are highlighted in this review. A logical extension of these observations suggests that the manipulation of the gut microbiota can be employed to prevent or treat these conditions...
November 17, 2014: FEBS Letters
Eamonn M M Quigley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To critically review recent literature on small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). RECENT FINDINGS: When originally described, SIBO was added to the list of causes of the malabsorption syndrome and the pathophysiology of its consequences for the digestion and absorption of various nutrients was gradually revealed. More recently, SIBO was incriminated as a cause of diarrhea, especially in the elderly. However, the suggestion that SIBO may be a causative factor in irritable bowel syndrome and of its constituent symptoms has sparked debate and controversy on the very definition of SIBO...
March 2014: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Darlene G Kelly, Kelly A Tappenden, Marion F Winkler
Short bowel syndrome (SBS) occurs as a result of intestinal resection, and in many patients is associated with complications, such as diarrhea, dehydration, weight loss, and nutrition deficiencies. Many individuals with SBS develop intestinal failure and require parenteral nutrition (PN) and/or intravenous (IV) fluids (PN/IV). Although PN is essential for survival, some patients with SBS who require long-term PN experience significant complications that contribute to morbidity and mortality. Consequently, therapies that decrease reliance on PN are of considerable importance...
May 2014: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Najla Arshad, Sandhya S Visweswariah
The intestine is the primary site of nutrient absorption, fluid-ion secretion, and home to trillions of symbiotic microbiota. The high turnover of the intestinal epithelia also renders it susceptible to neoplastic growth. These diverse processes are carefully regulated by an intricate signaling network. Among the myriad molecules involved in intestinal epithelial cell homeostasis are the second messengers, cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cyclic GMP (cGMP). These cyclic nucleotides are synthesized by nucleotidyl cyclases whose activities are regulated by extrinsic and intrinsic cues...
July 2013: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
Helen E Raybould
The gut epithelium is a barrier between the 'outside' and 'inside' world. The major function of the epithelium is to absorb nutrients, ions and water, yet it must balance these functions with that of protecting the 'inside' world from potentially harmful toxins, irritants, bacteria and other pathogens that also exist in the gut lumen. The health of an individual depends upon the efficient digestion and absorption of all required nutrients from the diet. This requires sensing of meal components by gut enteroendocrine cells, activation of neural and humoral pathways to regulate gastrointestinal motor, secretory and absorptive functions, and also to regulate food intake and plasma levels of glucose...
February 1, 2012: Journal of Physiology
Stephen M Collins, Premsyl Bercik
Although many people are aware of the communication that occurs between the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and the central nervous system, fewer know about the ability of the central nervous system to influence the microbiota or of the microbiota's influence on the brain and behavior. Within the GI tract, the microbiota have a mutually beneficial relationship with their host that maintains normal mucosal immune function, epithelial barrier integrity, motility, and nutrient absorption. Disruption of this relationship alters GI function and disease susceptibility...
May 2009: Gastroenterology
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