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Pulmonary clearance

Sushweta Mahalanobish, Sukanya Saha, Sayanta Dutta, Parames C Sil
Arsenic contaminated drinking water consumption is a serious health issue around the world. Chronic inorganic arsenic exposure has been associated with respiratory dysfunctions. It exerts various detrimental effects, disrupting normal cellular homeostasis and turning on severe pulmonary complications. This study elucidated the role of mangiferin, a natural xanthone, against arsenic induced lung toxicity. Chronic exposure of sodium arsenite (NaAsO2 ) at 10 mg/kg bw for 3 months abruptly increased the LDH release in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid, generated reactive oxygen species (ROS), impaired the antioxidant defense and distorted the alveoli architecture...
February 12, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Angela Sepe, Valeria R Villella, Chiara Cimbalo, Alice Castaldo, Francesco Nunziata, Adele Corcione, Gianni Bona, Luigi Maiuri, Valeria Raia
Structural lung disease begins very early in children with Cystic Fibrosis, often in the first three months of life. Inhaled medications represent an attractive therapeutic approach in Cystic Fibrosis that are routinely used as early intervention strategies. Two aerosolized solutions, hypertonic saline and dornase alfa, have significant potential benefits by improving mucociliary clearance, with minimal associated side-effects. In particular, they favor rehydration of airway surface liquid and cleavage of extracellular DNA in the airways, respectively, consequently reducing rate of pulmonary disease exacerbations...
February 13, 2019: Minerva Pediatrica
Mansi Sethi, Alex E Brantley, Keegan Kincaid, Jihye Kim, Daniel T Merrick, Robert L Keith, York E Miller, Moumita Ghosh
RATIONALE: Airway basal progenitor cells are critical for maintenance and repair of the epithelium after injury, because they can renew themselves and differentiate into all cell types that make up a normal airway. We have shown that these functions of progenitors are significantly impaired in smoking-induced lung diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and airway premalignancy. Interestingly, progenitors isolated from the diseased airways mimic the in vivo histology after differentiation in vitro at the air-liquid interface (ALI)...
December 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Karl J Fischer, Vijaya Kumar Yajjala, Shruti Bansal, Christopher Bauer, Ruiling Chen, Keer Sun
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has emerged as a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality associated with influenza infection. In this study, we show in a mouse model that preceding influenza infection promotes S. aureus resistance to killing by antibiotics. This resistance coincides with influenza-induced accumulation of inflammatory monocytes in the lung. CCR type 2 (CCR2) is responsible for pulmonary monocyte recruitment after influenza infection. We found that antibiotic-treated Ccr2-deficient (Ccr2-/- ) mice exhibit significantly improved bacterial control and survival from influenza and methicillin-resistant S...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Jisheng Sui, Guoqiang Shao, Lulu Zhang, Pengjun Zhang, Ting Bu, Qingqiang Yao, Liming Wang
Objective: To investigate the value of integrin α v β 3 targeted microPET/CT imaging with 68 Ga-NODAGA-RGD 2 as radiotracer for the detection of osteosarcoma and theranostics of osteosarcoma lung metastasis. Methods: The 68 Ga-NODAGA-RGD 2 and 177 Lu-NODAGA-RGD 2 were prepared via one-step method and their stability and integrin α v β 3 binding specificity were investigated in vitro . Forty-one nude mice were injected with human MG63 osteosarcoma to established the animal model bearing subcutaneous osteosarcoma ( n =21), osteosarcoma in tibia ( n =5), and osteosarcoma pulmonary metastatic ( n =15)...
February 1, 2019: Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery
Dayna A Goldsmith, Aslı Mete, Joseph B Pesavento, John M Adaska
Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a disease of surfactant clearance in which functional abnormalities in alveolar macrophages lead to accumulation of surfactant within alveoli in mammals. Histologic examination of 6 avian autopsies, including 4 chickens, a turkey, and a cockatiel, revealed accumulation of hypereosinophilic densely arrayed lamellar material in the lungs that was magenta by periodic acid-Schiff stain and diastase resistant. Transmission electron microscopy of the proteinaceous material in 2 cases demonstrated alternating electron-dense and electron-lucent lamellae that formed whorls and had a regular periodicity of 6-14 nm, consistent with pulmonary surfactant...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Daniela Machado, Filipa Lima, Catarina Marques, Regina Monteiro
RATIONALE: Swyer-James-Macleod syndrome (SJMS) is a rare lung disorder characterized by unilateral hyperlucent lungs which arises as a complication of bronchiolitis obliterans. It is typically diagnosed during childhood, although some patients may only be diagnosed in adulthood, often as an incidental finding, but others due to recurrent chest infections. PATIENT CONCERNS: Three patients were referred to our institution with complaints of dyspnea on exertion, chronic productive cough, and recurrent pulmonary infections...
February 2019: Medicine (Baltimore)
Archana Chacko, Sophie Ch Wen, Gunter Hartel, Nitin Kapur, Claire E Wainwright, Julia E Clark
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium abscessus complex pulmonary disease (M. abscessus PD) in cystic fibrosis (CF) is challenging to treat. Current guideline therapeutic regimens involving an intensive phase of intravenous antibiotics followed by a consolidation phase of inhaled and oral antibiotics are not evidence-based. The objectives of this study were to characterize the clinical outcomes and clearance of Mycobacterium abscessus complex (M. abscessus) from respiratory cultures in children with CF M...
February 4, 2019: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Valdis Gibietis, Dana Kigitovica, Barbara Vitola, Sintija Strautmane, Andris Skride
<br>To determine the impact of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and creatinine clearance (CrCl) on long-term all-cause mortality following acute PE in association with other routine laboratory analyses and comorbidities.<br> Materials (Subjects) and Methods<br>The prospective study enrolled 141 consecutive patients presenting with objectively confirmed acute PE. Demographic, clinical data, comorbidities and laboratory values were recorded. CrCl and GFR was estimated using Cockcroft-Gault, MDRD and CKD-EPI equations...
February 4, 2019: Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
W Poncin, P Lebecque
INTRODUCTION: Small airways' involvement in cystic fibrosis (CF) pulmonary disease is a very early event, which can progress sub-clinically and insidiously since it is poorly reflected by commonly used lung function tests. STATE OF ART: Sensitive and discriminative tools are available to investigate small airways function. However their complexity and/or invasiveness has confined their use to research purposes and to some specialized research teams. By contrast, the multiple breath washout (MBW) test is more affordable and non-invasive...
January 24, 2019: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
Karoline Stentoft Larsen, Birgit Skoffer, Lisa Gregersen Oestergaard, Maurits Van Tulder, Annemette Krintel Petersen
PURPOSE: The purpose of this review was to investigate the effect of respiratory physiotherapy after lung resection on mortality, postoperative pulmonary complications (PPC), length of stay, lung volumes, and adverse events. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials were searched in CENTRAL, PubMed, EMBASE, Cinahl, PEDro, and hand searching of related studies. Various respiratory physiotherapy interventions were compared to standard care, sham treatment, or no treatment...
January 24, 2019: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
Min-Jung Kang, Jin-A Choi, Joo-Hee Choi, Ah-Ra Jang, Ji-Yeon Park, Jae-Hun Ahn, Tae-Sung Lee, Dong-Yeon Kim, Jong-Hwan Park
Nucleotide-binding domain 1 (Nod1) is a cytosolic receptor that is responsible for the recognition of a bacterial peptidoglycan motif containing meso -diaminophimelic acid. In this study, we sought to identify the role of Nod1 in host defense in vivo against pulmonary infection by multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii . Wildtype (WT) and Nod1-deficient mice were intranasally infected with 3×107 CFU of A. baumannii and sacrificed at 1 and 3 days post-infection (dpi). Bacterial CFUs, cytokines production, histopathology, and mouse β-defensins (mBD) in the lungs of infected mice were evaluated...
December 2018: Laboratory Animal Research
Jose Francis, Simbarashe P Zvada, Paolo Denti, Mark Hatherill, Salome Charalambous, Stanley Mungofa, Rodney Dawson, Susan Dorman, Nikhil Gupte, Lubbe Wiesner, Amina Jindani, Thomas S Harrison, Adeniyi Olagunju, Deirdre Egan, Andrew Owen, Helen M McIlleron
Rifapentine is a rifamycin used to treat tuberculosis. As for rifampicin, plasma exposures of rifapentine are associated with treatment response. While concomitant food intake and HIV infection explain part of the pharmacokinetic variability associated with rifapentine, few studies have evaluated the contribution of genetic polymorphisms. We evaluated the effects of functionally significant polymorphisms of the genes encoding OATP1B1, PXR, CAR, and AADAC on rifapentine exposure. Two studies evaluating novel regimens amongst Southern African patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis were included in this analysis...
January 22, 2019: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Pralay Shankar Ghosh, Afzal Azim, Sai Saran, Arvind Kumar Baronia, Banani Poddar, Ratender Kumar Singh, Mohan Gurjar, Prabhaker Mishra
Introduction: Lung-protective ventilation strategy and prone positioning are the strategies practiced to manage patients suffering from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Inferior Vena Cava Distensibility (dIVC) Index has been used for predicting fluid responsiveness (FR) in supine position. We conducted this study to observe the utility of dIVC in prone position in ARDS patients and compare it with esophageal Doppler (ED) parameters. Materials and Methods: After ethical clearance, a prospective observational pilot study was conducted in a 12-bedded tertiary care hospital...
December 2018: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Filip Gawecki, Timothy Strangeways, Alisha Amin, Joseph Perks, Heidi Wolfenden, Saranya Thurainatnam, Abeer Rizvi, James E Jackson, Vatshalan Santhirapala, J Myers, J Brown, Luke S G E Howard, Hannah C Tighe, Claire L Shovlin
Background: Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) generate a right-to-left shunt. Impaired gas exchange results in hypoxemia and impaired CO2 clearance. Most patients compensate effectively but a proportion are dyspneic, and these are rarely the most hypoxaemic. Aim: To test degrees of concurrent pathology influencing exercise capacity. Design: Replicate, sequential single centre, prospective studies. Methods: Cardiopulmonary exercise tests (CPET) were performed in 26 patients with PAVMs, including individuals with and without known airflow obstruction...
January 17, 2019: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
Francisco Vileimar Andrade de Azevedo, Fabrício Oliveira Lima, Jozélio Freire de Carvalho, Andrea Rocha de Saboia Mont'Alverne, Carlos Ewerton Maia Rodrigues
BACKGROUND: Little has been published about the epidemiology of Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) in South America, especially in the intertropical zone, and no epidemiological data from Brazil are available. The purpose of the present study was to draw a clinical and demographic profile of GPA patients living in Northeastern Brazil based on laboratory, histological and imaging findings, and evaluate the frequency of organic involvement. METHODS: Clinical, epidemiological and treatment data of GPA patients were collected retrospectively and compared with the literature...
June 28, 2018: Advances in rheumatology
Sarah A Ingelse, Jenny Juschten, Martinus A W Maas, Gustavo Matute-Bello, Nicole P Juffermans, Job B M van Woensel, Reinout A Bem
Experimental acute lung injury models are often used to increase our knowledge on the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), however, existing animal models often do not take into account the impact of specific fluid strategies on the development of lung injury. In contrast, the current literature strongly suggests that fluid management strategies have a significant impact on clinical outcome of patients with ARDS. Thus, it is important to characterize the role of fluid management strategies in experimental models of lung injury...
2019: PloS One
Katherine O'Neill, Anne E O'Donnell, Judy M Bradley
This paper aims to provide physiological rationale for airway clearance, mucoactive therapy and pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) (or exercise interventions) in bronchiectasis. There is increasing emphasis on the role of airway clearance techniques (ACT) in the management of bronchiectasis. No single ACT has currently shown superior effect over another. Given the large range of different techniques available, consideration of the physiological effects underpinning a technique including expiratory flow, ventilation and oscillation, is essential to effectively personalize ACT...
January 16, 2019: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Julie A Preston, Martin A Bewley, Helen M Marriott, A McGarry Houghton, Mohamed Mohasin, Jamil Jubrail, Lucy Morris, Yvonne L Stephenson, Simon Cross, David R Greaves, Ruth W Craig, Nico van Rooijen, Colin D Bingle, Robert C Read, Timothy J Mitchell, Moira K B Whyte, Steven D Shapiro, David H Dockrell
RATIONALE: Antimicrobial resistance challenges therapy of pneumonia. Enhancing macrophage microbicidal responses would combat this problem but is limited by our understanding of how alveolar macrophages (AM) kill bacteria. OBJECTIVES: To define the role and mechanism of AM apoptosis-associated bacterial killing in the lung. METHODS: We generated a unique CD68.hMcl-1 transgenic mouse with macrophage-specific over-expression of the human anti-apoptotic Mcl-1 protein, a factor upregulated in AM from patients at increased risk of community-acquired pneumonia, to address the requirement for apoptosis-associated killing...
January 16, 2019: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Hosahalli K Mohan, Lefteris Livieratos, A Michael Peters
Tc-99m-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile (Tc-99m-MIBI) is a radiolabelled xenobiotic, the disappearance rate of which from lungs following inhalation as a radioaerosol correlates inversely with broncho-pulmonary MRP1 expression. Tc-99m-MIBI clearance has previously been shown to be delayed in cigarette smokers. The aim of the current study was to determine if smoking correlates with broncho-pulmonary MRP1 expression, to confirm that Tc-99m-MIBI disappearance rate from the lungs following inhalation is delayed in smokers, and to determine the effects of gender and age on disappearance rate...
January 16, 2019: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
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