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Aaron Mascaro, Yoichi Miyahara, Tyler Enright, Omur E Dagdeviren, Peter Grütter
Recently, there have been a number of variations of electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) that allow for the measurement of time-varying forces arising from phenomena such as ion transport in battery materials or charge separation in photovoltaic systems. These forces reveal information about dynamic processes happening over nanometer length scales due to the nanometer-sized probe tips used in atomic force microscopy. Here, we review in detail several time-resolved EFM techniques based on non-contact atomic force microscopy, elaborating on their specific limitations and challenges...
2019: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Svetlana Krstevska Blazhevska, Doncho Donev
INTRODUCTION: Multiple factors can cause infection and other pathological conditions in mothers during childbirth. These risk factors and diseases/complications can be prevented or timely detected through the implementation of special protocols/procedures. The aim of this paper is to identify the implementation of procedures/measures for the prevention and detection of infections and risk factors for morbidity and mortality in four hospitals in the Republic of Macedonia, before and during childbirth...
December 1, 2018: Prilozi (Makedonska Akademija Na Naukite i Umetnostite. Oddelenie za Medicinski Nauki)
Daan H de Groot, Coco van Boxtel, Robert Planqué, Frank J Bruggeman, Bas Teusink
Growth rate is a near-universal selective pressure across microbial species. High growth rates require hundreds of metabolic enzymes, each with different nonlinear kinetics, to be precisely tuned within the bounds set by physicochemical constraints. Yet, the metabolic behaviour of many species is characterized by simple relations between growth rate, enzyme expression levels and metabolic rates. We asked if this simplicity could be the outcome of optimisation by evolution. Indeed, when the growth rate is maximized-in a static environment under mass-conservation and enzyme expression constraints-we prove mathematically that the resulting optimal metabolic flux distribution is described by a limited number of subnetworks, known as Elementary Flux Modes (EFMs)...
March 11, 2019: PLoS Computational Biology
Jonathan Lai, Niamh C Nowlan, Ravi Vaidyanathan, Gerard H A Visser, Christoph C Lees
PURPOSE: Third trimester maternal perception of fetal movements is often used to assess fetal well-being. However, its true clinical value is unknown, primarily because of the variability in subjective quantification. The actograph, a technology available on most cardiotocograph machines, quantifies movements, but has never previously been investigated in relation to fetal health and existing monitoring devices. The objective of this study was to quantify actograph output in healthy third trimester pregnancies and investigate this in relation to other methods of assessing fetal well-being...
March 5, 2019: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Mei Er Pam, Zibo Li, Yee Sin Ang, Yumeng Shi, Dechao Geng, Shaozhuan Huang, Xiaoxu Zhao, Stephen J Pennycook, Huizhen Yao, Xue Gong, Lay Kee Ang, Hui Ying Yang
The interlayer screening effects and charge conduction mechanisms in atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) materials are crucial for the design and engineering of novel electronics and optoelectronics devices. However, such effects remain largely unexplored in highly-crystalline chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) crystals, which are critically important for large-scale fabrication. In this work, we report the controllable CVD-grown of monolayer MoS2 and layer-by-layer pyramidal-structured MoS2 crystals with an oxidized Mo foil as source precursor...
March 1, 2019: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Ebony B Carter, Cheryl S Chu, Zach Thompson, Methodius G Tuuli, George A Macones, Alison G Cahill
OBJECTIVE:  To determine the association between nuchal cord, electronic fetal monitoring parameters, and adverse neonatal outcomes. STUDY DESIGN:  This was a prospective cohort study of 8,580 singleton pregnancies. Electronic fetal monitoring was interpreted, and patients with a nuchal cord at delivery were compared with those without. The primary outcome was a composite neonatal morbidity index. Logistic regression was used to adjust for confounders. RESULT:  Of 8,580 patients, 2,071 (24...
February 28, 2019: American Journal of Perinatology
Lisa Heelan-Fancher, Ling Shi, Yuqing Zhang, Yurun Cai, Ampicha Nawai, Suzanne Leveille
BACKGROUND: Continuous electronic fetal monitoring (CEFM) is a standard of hospital care during the intrapartum period. We investigated its use on childbirth outcomes in low-risk pregnancies, and examined whether outcomes differed by gestational age within a term pregnancy. METHODS: A retrospective secondary data analysis using birth registry data from two diverse northeastern US states from 1992 to 2014. Chi-square test and the Fisher exact tests were used to examine associations between CEFM and childbirth outcomes...
February 27, 2019: Birth
Erika Hagrot, Hildur Æsa Oddsdóttir, Meeri Mäkinen, Anders Forsgren, Véronique Chotteau
Mathematical modelling can provide precious tools for bioprocess simulation, prediction, control and optimization of mammalian cell-based cultures. In this paper we present a novel method to generate kinetic models of such cultures, rendering complex metabolic networks in a poly-pathway kinetic model. The model is based on subsets of elementary flux modes (EFMs) to generate macro-reactions. Thanks to our column generation-based optimization algorithm, the experimental data are used to identify the EFMs, which are relevant to the data...
June 2019: Metabolic Engineering Communications
Peng Wen, Teng-Gen Hu, Yan Wen, Robert J Linhardt, Min-Hua Zong, Yu-Xiao Zou, Hong Wu
Phycocyanin (PC), a water-soluble biliprotein, exhibits potent anti-colon cancer properties. However, its application in functional foods is limited by the poor stability and low bioavailability of PC. In this study, we successfully encapsulated PC by coaxial electrospinning. The colon targeted release of PC was achieved with retention of the antioxidant activity of PC. The PC-loaded electrospun fiber mat (EFM) obtained inhibited HCT116 cell growth in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. In particular, the PC-loaded EFM exerted its anti-cancer activity by blocking the cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase and inducing cell apoptosis involving the decrease of Bcl-2/Bax, activation of caspase 3 and release of cytochrome c...
February 26, 2019: Food & Function
Fátima Linares, Emilio García-Fernández, F Javier López-Garzón, María Domingo-García, Angel Orte, Antonio Rodríguez-Diéguez, Miguel A Galindo
DNA molecules containing a 1D silver array may be applied for nanotechnology applications, but first their conducting and photoluminescence behavior must be enhanced. Here we have synthesized and characterized three new helical compounds based on stacked silver-mediated cytosine base pairs [Ag(mC)2 ]X (mC = N1-methylcytosine; X = NO3 ( 1 ), BF4 ( 2 ) and ClO4 ( 3 )), that contain uninterrupted polymeric AgI chains that run through the center of the helixes, comparable to related silver-DNA structures. The exposure of nanostructures of [Ag(mC)2 ]BF4 ( 2 ) to cold hydrogen plasma stimulates the reduction of the prearranged AgI polymeric chains to metallic silver along the material...
January 28, 2019: Chemical Science
Peggy Schoenherr, Konstantin Shapovalov, Jakob Schaab, Zewu Yan, Edith D Bourret, Mario Hentschel, Massimiliano Stengel, Manfred Fiebig, Andrés Cano, Dennis Meier
Low-temperature electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) is used to probe unconventional domain walls in the improper ferroelectric semiconductor Er$_{0.99}$Ca$_{0.01}$MnO$_3$ down to cryogenic temperatures. The low-temperature EFM maps reveal pronounced electric far fields generated by partially uncompensated domain-wall bound charges. Positively and negatively charged walls display qualitatively different fields as a function of temperature, which we explain based on different screening mechanisms and the corresponding relaxation time of the mobile carriers...
February 12, 2019: Nano Letters
Jared Tepper, Kathryn Corelli, Reshama Navathe, Stephen Smith, Jason K Baxter
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate maternal and neonatal outcomes following management of preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) by two fetal assessment strategies. METHODS: In a retrospective cohort study performed at two hospitals in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania between July 2010 and June 2015, data were reviewed from 180 singleton pregnancies with PPROM at 230 -336  weeks of gestation that underwent expectant management. Outcomes were compared between continuous electronic fetal heart monitoring (EFM) with daily biophysical profile (BPP) ("continuous monitoring") and non-stress test (NST) three times per day ("periodic monitoring") using Mann-Whitney U and Fisher exact tests...
April 2019: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
Joshua I Rosenbloom, Molly J Stout, Methodius G Tuuli, Julia D López, George A Macones, Alison G Cahill
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between elevated umbilical arterial lactate at birth and electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) characteristics at admission and in the beginning of the active phase of labor. STUDY DESIGN: Nested case-control study within a prospective cohort of laboring patients at term who achieved active labor. Neonates with umbilical arterial lactate ≥ 4 mmol/L (cases, n = 119), were matched 1:1 to controls with lactate < 4 mmol/L...
March 2019: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
(no author information available yet)
Obstetrician-gynecologists, in collaboration with midwives, nurses, patients, and those who support them in labor, can help women meet their goals for labor and birth by using techniques that require minimal interventions and have high rates of patient satisfaction. Many common obstetric practices are of limited or uncertain benefit for low-risk women in spontaneous labor. For women who are in latent labor and are not admitted to the labor unit, a process of shared decision making is recommended to create a plan for self-care activities and coping techniques...
February 2019: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Ambra Stefani, Birgit Högl
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sleep-related movement disorders (SRMD) include several different motor activities during sleep. Few of them are well known and well classified, whereas others are minor motor disorders of sleep which are neither thoroughly characterized and classified nor have been extensively investigated to clarify their pathogenesis and clinical relevance. This review will focus on those minor sleep-related movement disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Before diagnosing periodic limb movement (PLM) disorder in patients with PLM during polysomnography, other disorders associated with PLM need to be excluded, namely restless legs syndrome (RLS), narcolepsy, REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), and sleep-related breathing disorder...
January 19, 2019: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Matthias P Gerstl, Stefan Müller, Georg Regensburger, Jürgen Zanghellini
Motivation: Elementary flux mode (EFM) analysis allows an unbiased description of metabolic networks in terms of minimal pathways (involving a minimal set of reactions). To date, the enumeration of EFMs is impracticable in genome-scale metabolic models. In a complementary approach, we introduce the concept of a flux tope (FT), involving a maximal set of reactions (with fixed directions), which allows one to study the coordination of reaction directions in metabolic networks and opens a new way for EFM enumeration...
January 15, 2019: Bioinformatics
Qiang Li, In Ho Cho, Rana Biswas, Jaeyoun Kim
Nanoscale contact electrification (CE) of elastomer surfaces and the resulting tribocharge formation are important in many branches of nanotechnology but their mechanism is not fully clarified. In this Letter, we investigate the mechanism using the recently discovered phenomenon of replica molding-induced nanoscale CE. By generating tribocharge distributions patterned in close correlation with the interfacial nanotextures, the phenomenon provides well-defined targets for the investigation. By applying a variety of scanning probe microscopy techniques (AFM/KPFM/EFM) and finite element modeling (FEM) to the tribocharge distributions, we extract a process model that can explain how their patterns are formed and affected by the interfacial nanotexture's morphology...
January 14, 2019: Nano Letters
Xiaoli Liu, Line Hagner Nielsen, Haiyan Qu, Lars Porskjær Christensen, Jukka Rantanen, Mingshi Yang
In this study, we investigated the feasibility of incorporating protein drugs into electrospun fibrous mats (EFMs) for wound healing using lysozyme as a model drug. Lysozyme nanoparticles (Lyso- NPs) were first obtained by electrospray. Lysozyme solutions were prepared with a binary solvent mixture of ethanol (EtOH)-water (H2 O) at varied volume ratios. Subsequently, Lyso-NPs were suspended in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) solutions using trifluoroethanol (TFE) as a solvent. Lyso-NPs loaded EFMs were obtained by electrospinning of the aforementioned suspensions, and the bioactivity of lysozyme in the EFMs was investigated using fluorescence-based assay kit...
January 7, 2019: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Gulseren Daglar, Gulbahtiyar Demirel, Handan Guler, Burcu Yurtsal
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to train midwifery students on electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) within the scope of the course and then to evaluate their pre- and post-course EFM knowledge and EFM interpreting skills. METHODS: This interventional study was carried out at the Department of Midwifery, Faculty of Health Sciences. The study population comprised of the senior (last-year, 4th-year) students who attended the Midwifery Department of the Faculty of Health Sciences during the academic years 2015-2016 and 2016-2017...
January 4, 2019: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Diana El Khoury, Richard Arinero, Jean-Charles Laurentie, Mikhaël Bechelany, Michel Ramonda, Jérôme Castellon
The unusual properties of nanocomposites are commonly explained by the structure of their interphase. Therefore, these nanoscale interphase regions need to be precisely characterized; however, the existing high resolution experimental methods have not been reliably adapted to this purpose. Electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) represents a promising technique to fulfill this objective, although no complete and accurate interphase study has been published to date and EFM signal interpretation is not straightforward...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
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