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Epilepsy Functional Neuroanatomy

William B Barr
Effects of Carbamazepine and Lamotrigine on Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Cognitive Networks Xiao F, Caciagli L, Wandschneider B, Sander JW, Sidhu M, Winston G, Burdett J, Trimmel K, Hill A, Vollmar C, Vos SB, Ourselin S, Thompson PJ, Zhou D, Duncan JS, Koepp MJ. Epilepsia. 2018;59:1362-1371. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of sodium channel-blocking antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) language network activations in patients with focal epilepsy...
January 2019: Epilepsy Currents
Kaijia Yu, Tao Yu, Liang Qiao, Chang Liu, Xueyuan Wang, Xiaoxia Zhou, Duanyu Ni, Guojun Zhang, Yongjie Li
PURPOSE: Using direct intracerebral electrical stimulation (ES) in epileptic patients to evoke symptoms to help identify the functional neuroanatomy of the insular lobe and opercula. METHODS: We selected 43 patients who had at least 1 electrode inserted into the insula or opercula via an oblique approach among 135 patients with intractable epilepsy. Bipolar stimulation was chosen, and the stimulation parameters of the biphasic waves included a pulse width of 0.2 ms, a frequency of 50 Hz, a duration of 3 s, and an intensity gradually increasing from 0...
October 22, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Pierre Deman, Manik Bhattacharjee, François Tadel, Anne-Sophie Job, Denis Rivière, Yann Cointepas, Philippe Kahane, Olivier David
In some cases of pharmaco-resistant and focal epilepsies, intracranial recordings performed epidurally (electrocorticography, ECoG) and/or in depth (stereoelectroencephalography, SEEG) can be required to locate the seizure onset zone and the eloquent cortex before surgical resection. In SEEG, each electrode contact records brain's electrical activity in a spherical volume of 3 mm diameter approximately. The spatial coverage is around 1% of the brain and differs between patients because the implantation of electrodes is tailored for each case...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
Fenglai Xiao, Lorenzo Caciagli, Britta Wandschneider, Josemir W Sander, Meneka Sidhu, Gavin Winston, Jane Burdett, Karin Trimmel, Andrea Hill, Christian Vollmar, Sjoerd B Vos, Sebastien Ourselin, Pamela J Thompson, Dong Zhou, John S Duncan, Matthias J Koepp
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of sodium channel-blocking antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) language network activations in patients with focal epilepsy. METHODS: In a retrospective study, we identified patients who were treated at the time of language fMRI scanning with either carbamazepine (CBZ; n = 42) or lamotrigine (LTG; n = 42), but not another sodium channel-blocking AED. We propensity-matched 42 patients taking levetiracetam (LEV) as "patient-controls" and included further 42 age- and gender-matched healthy controls...
July 2018: Epilepsia
Archie A Khan, Tawfeeq Shekh-Ahmad, Ayatakin Khalil, Matthew C Walker, Afia B Ali
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD), shows promising results as an effective potential antiepileptic drug in some forms of refractory epilepsy. To elucidate the mechanisms by which CBD exerts its anti-seizure effects, we investigated its effects at synaptic connections and on the intrinsic membrane properties of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells and two major inhibitory interneurons: fast spiking, parvalbumin (PV)-expressing and adapting, cholecystokinin (CCK)-expressing interneurons...
June 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Giulia Cossu, Sebastien Lebon, Margitta Seeck, Etienne Pralong, Mahmoud Messerer, Eliane Roulet-Perez, Roy Thomas Daniel
Refractory frontal lobe epilepsy has been traditionally treated through a frontal lobectomy. A disconnective technique may allow similar seizure outcomes while avoiding the complications associated with large brain resections. The aim of this study was to describe a new technique of selective disconnection of the frontal lobe that can be performed in cases of refractory epilepsy due to epileptogenic foci involving 1 frontal lobe (anterior to the motor cortex), with preservation of motor function. In addition to the description of the technique, an illustrative case is also presented...
February 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Clemens Neudorfer, Mohammad Maarouf
The H fields of Forel constitute an intricate neuroanatomical structure that occupies a central position within the posterior subthalamus. Anatomically, it features a dense concentration of fiber bundles including corticofugal, pallidothalamic, cerebellothalamic and other projections that connect functionally relevant areas of the brain. Functionally, the fields of Forel are embedded within the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit and constitute the main link between the striatopallidal system and the thalamocortical network...
January 2018: Brain Structure & Function
David Satzer, David J Bond
OBJECTIVES: Approximately 3.5 million Americans will experience a manic episode during their lifetimes. The most common causes are psychiatric illnesses such as bipolar I disorder and schizoaffective disorder, but mania can also occur secondary to neurological illnesses, brain injury, or neurosurgical procedures. METHODS: For this narrative review, we searched Medline for articles on the association of mania with stroke, brain tumors, traumatic brain injury, multiple sclerosis, neurodegenerative disorders, epilepsy, and neurosurgical interventions...
May 2016: Bipolar Disorders
Alexander J McDonald, David D Mott
The amygdalar nuclear complex and hippocampal/parahippocampal region are key components of the limbic system that play a critical role in emotional learning and memory. This Review discusses what is currently known about the neuroanatomy and neurotransmitters involved in amygdalo-hippocampal interconnections, their functional roles in learning and memory, and their involvement in mnemonic dysfunctions associated with neuropsychiatric and neurological diseases. Tract tracing studies have shown that the interconnections between discrete amygdalar nuclei and distinct layers of individual hippocampal/parahippocampal regions are robust and complex...
March 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Yehezkel Sztainberg, Hong-mei Chen, John W Swann, Shuang Hao, Bin Tang, Zhenyu Wu, Jianrong Tang, Ying-Wooi Wan, Zhandong Liu, Frank Rigo, Huda Y Zoghbi
Copy number variations have been frequently associated with developmental delay, intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorders. MECP2 duplication syndrome is one of the most common genomic rearrangements in males and is characterized by autism, intellectual disability, motor dysfunction, anxiety, epilepsy, recurrent respiratory tract infections and early death. The broad range of deficits caused by methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) overexpression poses a daunting challenge to traditional biochemical-pathway-based therapeutic approaches...
December 3, 2015: Nature
Kate Baker, Duncan E Astle, Gaia Scerif, Jessica Barnes, Jennie Smith, Georgina Moffat, Jonathan Gillard, Torsten Baldeweg, F Lucy Raymond
OBJECTIVE: Systematic investigation of individuals with intellectual disability after genetic diagnosis can illuminate specific phenotypes and mechanisms relevant to common neurodevelopmental disorders. We report the neurological, cognitive and neuroanatomical characteristics of nine males from three families with loss-of-function mutations in ZDHHC9 (OMIM #300799). METHODS: All known cases of X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) due to ZDHHC9 mutation in the United Kingdom were invited to participate in a study of neurocognitive and neuroimaging phenotypes...
May 2015: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Michele Augusto Riva, Iacopo Bellani, Lucio Tremolizzo, Lorenzo Lorusso, Carlo Ferrarese, Giancarlo Cesana
The year 2015 marks the 750th birth anniversary of the Italian poet Dante Alighieri (1265-1321). It is less known that Dante had a sound level of medical knowledge, probably derived by his academic studies. In his works, medieval notions of neuroanatomy and neurophysiology (e.g. the connection between brain and spinal cord, function of optic nerve and peripheral nerves, knowledge of vegetative nervous system) and descriptions of neurological disorders (e.g. epileptic seizures, effects on nervous system by metal intoxication, and narcolepsy) may be found, specially in the Inferno, the first part of his masterpiece, the Divine Comedy...
2015: European Neurology
Mansi B Parekh, Brian K Rutt, Ryan Purcell, Yuanxin Chen, Michael M Zeineh
The hippocampus is a very important structure in memory formation and retrieval, as well as in various neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, epilepsy and depression. It is composed of many intricate subregions making it difficult to study the anatomical changes that take place during disease. The hippocampal hilus may have a unique neuroanatomy in humans compared to that in monkeys and rodents, with field CA3h greatly enlarged in humans compared to that in rodents, and a white-matter pathway, called the endfolial pathway, possibly only present in humans...
May 15, 2015: NeuroImage
T Ostergard, J P Miller
The role of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the treatment of movement disorders is well established, but there has recently been a proliferation of additional indications that have been shown to be amenable to this technology. The combination of innovative approaches to neural interface technology with novel target identification based on previously discovered clinical effects of lesioning procedures has led to a fundamental paradigm for new directions in the application of DBS. The historical use of neurosurgical lesioning procedures in the treatment of psychiatric diseases such as obsessive compulsive disorder provided an initial opportunity to expand the use of DBS...
December 2014: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
Hal Blumenfeld, Kimford J Meador
Impaired consciousness has important practical consequences for people living with epilepsy. Recent pathophysiologic studies show that seizures with impaired level of consciousness always affect widespread cortical networks and subcortical arousal systems. In light of these findings and their clinical significance, efforts are underway to revise the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) 2010 report to include impaired consciousness in the classification of seizures. Lüders and colleagues have presented one such effort, which we discuss here...
August 2014: Epilepsia
Carol Di Perri, Johan Stender, Steven Laureys, Olivia Gosseries
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 13, 2014: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Britt C Emerton, David A Gansler, Elisabeth H Sandberg, Matthew Jerram
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used in a non-patient experimental sample to assess the neuroanatomical dissociation of picture and description naming (PN and DN) in temporal lobe (TL). The purpose was to determine the generalizability of findings in semantic organization in the epilepsy patient population to the broader population. It was hypothesized that, akin to patient derived findings, DN would uniquely activate left TL regions anterior to those associated with PN, while overlapping in middle and posterior left TL...
December 2014: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Paul Eling
In the nineteenth century, there was a continuous debate on the structure and function of the brain, focusing on localization of function and on epilepsy. France, Germany, and England played a leading role. This article addresses the question of what happened with respect to the study of epilepsy in the Netherlands in that period. A systematic search of the literature has been performed and papers by Schroeder van der Kolk, Huet, Jelgersma, and Niermeijer are discussed. Also two dissertations were selected for discussion, those of Kroon and Langelaan...
2013: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
Thorsten Bartsch, Christopher Butler
Transient amnesic syndromes are striking clinical phenomena that are commonly encountered by physicians in acute medical settings. Diagnosis of such syndromes can be challenging, and their causes have been debated for over 50 years. Critical clinical distinctions, such as between transient global amnesia (TGA) and transient epileptic amnesia (TEA), as well as important clues to the underlying pathophysiology, have recently been revealed. TGA is characterized by the sudden onset of a profound anterograde and retrograde amnesia that lasts for up to 24 h, with neuroimaging after an acute TGA event showing transient perturbation of specific hippocampal circuits that are involved in memory processing...
February 2013: Nature Reviews. Neurology
Martinus Hauf, Roland Wiest, Kaspar Schindler, Kay Jann, Thomas Dierks, Werner Strik, Gerhard Schroth, Daniela Hubl
Auditory hallucinations (AH) occur in various neurological and psychiatric disorders. In psychosis, increased neuronal activity in the primary auditory cortex (PAC) contributes to AH. We investigated functional neuroanatomy of epileptic hallucinations by measuring cerebral perfusion in three patients with AH during simple partial status epilepticus. Hyperperfusion in the temporal lobe covering the PAC occurred in all patients. Our perfusion data support the hypothesis of PAC being a constituting element in the genesis of AH independent of their aetiology...
March 30, 2013: Psychiatry Research
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