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Daniel Bruno, Oscar Belmar, Anthony Maire, Adrien Morel, Bernard Dumont, Thibault Datry
Understanding and predicting how biological communities respond to climate change is critical for assessing biodiversity vulnerability and guiding conservation efforts. Glacier- and snow-fed rivers are one of the most sensitive ecosystems to climate change, and can provide early warning of wider-scale changes. These rivers are frequently used for hydropower production but there is minimal understanding of how biological communities are influenced by climate change in a context of flow regulation. This study sheds light on this issue by disentangling structural (water temperature preference, taxonomic composition, alpha, beta and gamma diversities) and functional (functional traits, diversity, richness, evenness, dispersion and redundancy) effects of climate change in interaction with flow regulation in the Alps...
January 30, 2019: Global Change Biology
Jack Sullivan, Megan L Smith, Anahí Espíndola, Megan Ruffley, Andrew Rankin, David Tank, Bryan Carstens
Predictive phylogeography seeks to aggregate genetic, environmental and taxonomic data from multiple species in order to make predictions about unsampled taxa using machine-learning techniques such as Random Forests. To date, organismal trait data have infrequently been incorporated into predictive frameworks due to difficulties inherent to the scoring of trait data across a taxonomically broad set of taxa. We refine predictive frameworks from two North American systems, the inland temperate rainforests of the Pacific Northwest (PNW) and the Southwestern Aridlands (SWAL), by incorporating a number of organismal trait variables...
January 22, 2019: Molecular Ecology
Piotr Minias
1.Lymphocytes and heterophils are the two most abundant leukocyte types, which play a major role in adaptive and innate immune defence, respectively. The ratio of heterophils to lymphocytes (H/L ratio) may reflect a readiness to cope with infection through injury (via heterophils) rather than with a communicable disease (via lymphocytes). Since elevated H/L ratio constitutes a corticosterone-mediated response to external stressors, this trait is generally acknowledged as the robust measure of physiological stress in vertebrates...
January 10, 2019: Journal of Animal Ecology
Gabriela de Azambuja Garcia, Gabriel Sylvestre, Raquel Aguiar, Guilherme Borges da Costa, Ademir Jesus Martins, José Bento Pereira Lima, Martha T Petersen, Ricardo Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Marion F Shadbolt, Gordana Rašić, Ary A Hoffmann, Daniel A M Villela, Fernando B S Dias, Yi Dong, Scott L O'Neill, Luciano A Moreira, Rafael Maciel-de-Freitas
BACKGROUND: Traditional vector control approaches such as source reduction and insecticide spraying have limited effect on reducing Aedes aegypti population. The endosymbiont Wolbachia is pointed as a promising tool to mitigate arbovirus transmission and has been deployed worldwide. Models predict a rapid increase on the frequency of Wolbachia-positive Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in local settings, supported by cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) and high maternal transmission rate associated with the wMelBr strain...
January 8, 2019: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Yasuyo Hayashi, Mitsuru Esaki, Sho Suzuki, Eikichi Ihara, Azusa Yokoyama, Seiichiro Sakisaka, Taizo Hosokawa, Yoshimasa Tanaka, Takahiro Mizutani, Shinichi Tsuruta, Aya Iwao, Shun Yamakawa, Akira Irie, Yosuke Minoda, Yoshitaka Hata, Haruei Ogino, Hirotada Akiho, Yoshihiro Ogawa
AIM: To compare the outcomes of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for gastric neoplasms using Clutch Cutter (ESD-C) or other knives (ESD-O). METHODS: This was a single-center retrospective study. Gastric neoplasms treated by ESD between April 2016 and October 2017 at Kitakyushu Municipal Medical Center were reviewed. Multivariate analyses and propensity score matching were used to reduce biases. Covariates included factors that might affect outcomes of ESD, including age, sex, underlying disease, anti-thrombotic drugs use, tumor location, tumor position, tumor size, tumor depth, tumor morphology, tumor histology, ulcer (scar), and operator skill...
December 15, 2018: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
Andrzej Antoł, Marcin Czarnoleski
In isopods, parental care takes the form of offspring brooding in marsupial pouches. Marsupial brooding was an important step towards the origin of terrestrial lifestyles among isopods, but its potential role in shaping isopod life histories remains unknown. It is here considered that marsupial brooding imposes costs and creates a temporary association between the survival of mothers and that of their offspring. Integrating findings from different life history models, we predicted that the effects of marsupial brooding set selective conditions for the continuation of growth after maturation, which leads to indeterminate growth, and the production of larger offspring by larger females...
2018: ZooKeys
Stefano Podofillini, Jacopo G Cecere, Matteo Griggio, Andrea Curcio, Enrico L De Capua, Egidio Fulco, Simone Pirrello, Nicola Saino, Lorenzo Serra, Matteo Visceglia, Diego Rubolini
The quality of a breeding site may have major fitness consequences. A fundamental step to understanding the process of nest-site selection is the identification of the information individuals use to choose high-quality nest sites. For secondary cavity-nesting bird species that do not add nest lining material, organic remains (faeces, pellets) accumulated inside nest cavities during previous breeding events may be a cue for high-quality nest-sites, as they contain information about past successful breeding and may improve thermal insulation of eggs during incubation...
December 2018: Current Zoology
Bao-Jun Sun, Yang Wang, Yong Wang, Hong-Liang Lu, Wei-Guo Du
Parental effects may produce adaptive or maladaptive plasticity that either facilitates persistence or increases the extinction risk of species and populations in a changing climate. However, empirical evidence of transgenerational adaptive plastic responses to climate change is still scarce. Here we conducted thermal manipulation experiments with a factorial design in a Chinese lacertid lizard ( Takydromus septentrionalis ) to identify the fitness consequences of parental effects in response to climate warming...
2018: Frontiers in Zoology
Guadalupe López Juri, Margarita Chiaraviglio, Gabriela Cardozo
BACKGROUND: Comparing sexual size dimorphism (SSD) in the light of the phylogenetic hypothesis may help to understand the phenotypic evolution associated with sexual selection (size of whole body and of reproduction-related body parts). Within a macroevolutionary framework, we evaluated the association between the evolution of SSD and the evolution of reproduction-related phenotypic traits, and whether this association has favored female fecundity, considering also variations according to reproductive modes...
December 7, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
T L F Leung, J Koprivnikar
1.Understanding how parasite communities are assembled, and the factors that influence their richness, can improve our knowledge of parasite-host interactions and help to predict the spread of infectious diseases. Previous comparative analyses have found significant influences of host ecology and life history, but focused on a few select host taxa. 2.Host diet and habitat use play key roles in the acquisition of parasitic helminths as many are trophically-transmitted, making these attributes potentially key indicators of infection risk...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
Ji-Young Lee, Jin-Young Park, Incheol Kim, Woo-Yuel Kim, Ha-Cheol Sung
There is much controversy over the species and subspecies status of the white wagtail complex, which is further compounded by interbreeding between two subspecies, the Amur Wagtail ( Motacilla alba leucopsis ) and the Black-backed Wagtail ( M. a. lugens ). This study presents preliminary information on the breeding biology of both subspecies on Ulleung Island, Korea, over two breeding seasons (2012-2013). Mixed pairs of the two subspecies were common on this island, with almost 50% of all pairs being heterotypic or intermediate pairs; however, assortative mating was still present...
2018: Animal Cells and Systems
Alexander K Maytin, Isaac Y Ligocki
Organisms living at high densities may be forced to engage in conflict for access to resources such as food or shelter. When these resources are limited, the outcome of interactions may have important fitness implications. We investigated the behavioural interactions of the invasive Round Goby (Neogobius melanostomus) in a shelter-limited environment. Round Goby are benthic fish that utilize rocky shelters for predator avoidance and as reproductive sites in which territorial males defend clutches of eggs. Previous work on this and other species has shown that larger individuals have greater resource holding potential in dyadic interactions...
November 13, 2018: Behavioural Processes
James J Roper, André M X Lima, Angélica M K Uejima
Food limitation may interact with nest predation and influence nesting patterns, such as breeding season length and renesting intervals. If so, reproductive effort should change with food availability. Thus, when food is limited, birds should have fewer attempts and shorter seasons than when food is not limiting. Here we experimentally test that increased food availability results in increased reproductive effort in a fragmented landscape in the Variable Antshrike ( Thamnophilus caerulescens ) in southern Brazil...
2018: PeerJ
Katja Heubel
Mating decisions can be affected by intrasexual competition and sensitive to operational sex-ratio (OSR) changes in the population. Conceptually, it is assumed that both male and female mate-competition may interfere with female reproductive decisions. Experimentally, however, the focus has been on the effect of male competition on mate choice. In many species with paternal care as in the common goby Pomatoschistus microps , the OSR is often female-biased and female mate-competition for access to available nesting males occurs...
June 2018: Current Zoology
Tao Liang, Lu Zhou, Wenfeng He, Lirong Xiao, Lei Shi
Background: Egg size and clutch size are key life history traits. During the breeding period, it is possible for females to increase their reproductive output either by increasing the number of eggs if the optimal egg size (OES) is maintained, or by increasing the allocation of energy to each egg. However, the strategies adopted are often influenced by animals' morphology and environment. Methods: Here, we examined variation in female morphological and reproductive traits, tested for trade-offs between egg size and clutch size, and evaluated the relationship between egg size and female morphology in three populations of Phrynocephalus helioscopus ...
2018: PeerJ
Karen L Wiebe
Age-related improvement in reproductive performance is widespread in vertebrates and constraints at young ages are a common cause. The sex that invests energetically more in reproduction, typically the female, is predicted to show stronger age-related performance but the effect of the male's age on reproduction has often been ignored. I studied age-related reproduction of both sexes in northern flickers, in which males invest more parental care than females, predicting that the effect of age would be stronger in males than in females...
December 2018: Oecologia
John Eme, Cassidy J Cooper, Andrew Alvo, Juan Vasquez, Sara Muhtaseb, Susan Rayman, Thomas Schmoyer, Ruth M Elsey
Allometric equations represent relationships between morphological/physiological traits and body mass Y = aMb , where Y is the trait, a is elevation, b is the exponent describing the shape of the line, and M is body mass. We measured visceral organ masses in hatchling alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from five clutches from approximately 45 to 500 g wet body mass. The interaction between initial egg mass and clutch identity was significant for initial hatchling mass, but only egg mass, not clutch, had a significant effect on initial snout-vent and head length...
October 26, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Torben Lode, Jan Heuschele, Tom Andersen, Josefin Titelman, Ketil Hylland, Katrine Borgå
To examine whether natural stressors like predation risk affect responses to anthropogenic contaminants, we exposed nauplii of the copepod Tigriopus brevicornis to chemical cues from fish (kairomones) and copper (Cu). We tested effects of these treatments, singly and combined, on copepod age and size at maturity, and development stage sensitivity, while controlling for effects of genetic heterogeneity (clutch identity). Predation risk, Cu and clutch identity interacted in their effect on development time. Predation risk alone had minor effects, but potentiated Cu toxicity in the combined treatment by doubling the delay in age at maturity, as compared to Cu exposure alone...
October 31, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Laura Picchi, Guénaël Cabanes, Claire Ricci-Bonot, Maria Cristina Lorenzi
Reciprocity [1] is one of the most controversial evolutionary explanations of cooperation among non-kin [2, 3]. For some authors, cognitive capacity of non-human organisms is limiting, and more parsimonious mechanisms should apply [3-5]; for others, the debate is mainly semantic [2, 6], and empirical evidence can be found in a wide range of taxa [7]. However, while the ability to alternate cooperative behaviors does not settle the reciprocity controversy, the capacity to adjust cooperative behavior to the value of received help could prove decisive...
October 22, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Mirosława Bańbura, Michał Glądalski, Adam Kaliński, Marcin Markowski, Joanna Skwarska, Jarosław Wawrzyniak, Piotr Zieliński, Jerzy Bańbura
Background: Interspecies variation in avian egg shape and size is understandable in terms of adaptation, allometry and phylogeny. Within-species variation in egg properties influences offspring fitness and can be explained by differences in allocation of resources into reproductive components of life history in mulidimensionally variable environments. Egg size is inherently traded-off with clutch size, which may also be true of egg shape in some cases. We investigated long-term variation in egg shape and size between two geographically close populations of blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus in relation to clutch size and habitat differences...
2018: Frontiers in Zoology
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