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Imaging epilepsy

L M Ma, J Zhao, Y Y Shi, Z Z Chen, Z X Ren, J W Zhang
Objective: To analyze the clinical presentation, imaging features, and the mutation of the pathogenic genes in a Chinese Han atypical neuroaxonal dystrophy pedigree. Methods: A family of atypical neuroaxonal dystrophy pedigree who came to Henan Provincal People's Hospital in July 2016 was included. Clinical presentation, imaging features of the pedigree were analyzed, and all exon gene detection of the proband was performed to capture the target variations, then verified by sanger sequence. Another 4 family members' and 100 normal healthy controls' gene sequence of the mutations were also verified...
January 29, 2019: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Eleonora Tamilia, Michel AlHilani, Naoaki Tanaka, Melissa Tsuboyama, Jurriaan M Peters, P Ellen Grant, Joseph R Madsen, Steven M Stufflebeam, Phillip L Pearl, Christos Papadelis
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy and clinical utility of conventional 21-channel EEG (conv-EEG), 72-channel high-density EEG (HD-EEG) and 306-channel MEG in localizing interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs). METHODS: Twenty-four children who underwent epilepsy surgery were studied. IEDs on conv-EEG, HD-EEG, MEG and intracranial EEG (iEEG) were localized using equivalent current dipoles and dynamical statistical parametric mapping (dSPM). We compared the localization error (ELoc ) with respect to the ground-truth Irritative Zone (IZ), defined by iEEG sources, between non-invasive modalities and the distance from resection (Dres ) between good- (Engel 1) and poor-outcomes...
January 31, 2019: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Chao Zhang, Haiyan Zhang, Kai Xu, Hongyu Yang, Chang Liu, Tao Yu, Nan Chen, Kuncheng Li
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess structural and functional connectivity alterations of the prefrontal cortex (PFC)-thalamus axis in individuals with unilateral intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) showing executive control function (ECF) impairment and to explore the potential mechanism. METHODS: Thirty-eight individuals with intractable left TLE and twenty-nine healthy controls (HCs) were recruited for diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) scanning...
January 18, 2019: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Yupeng Zhang, Peng Yan, Fei Liang, Chao Ma, Shikai Liang, Chuhan Jiang
OBJECTIVE: To explore predictors of epilepsy presentation in unruptured bAVMs with quantitative evaluation of location and radiomics features on T2 weighted imaging. METHODS: This retrospective study identified 117 patients with unruptured bAVMs. Cases were randomly split into training (n=90) and test dataset (n=27). On the training dataset, we applied atlas-based analysis (ABA) to identify epilepsy-susceptible brain regions of bAVMs and then applied radiomics technique to explore shape, intensity and textural features that were correlated with epilepsy presentation...
February 13, 2019: World Neurosurgery
Chris Plummer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 10, 2019: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Daichi Sone, Masako Watanabe, Norihide Maikusa, Noriko Sato, Yukio Kimura, Mikako Enokizono, Mitsutoshi Okazaki, Hiroshi Matsuda
PURPOSE: The pathophysiology of idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) is still unclear, but graph theory may help to understand it. Here, we examined the graph-theoretical findings of the gray matter network in IGE using anatomical covariance methods. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We recruited 33 patients with IGE and 35 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Gray matter images were obtained by 3.0-T 3D T1-weighted MRI and were normalized using the voxel-based morphometry tools of Statistical Parametric Mapping 12...
2019: PloS One
Lu Meng
More and more studies propose that high frequency brain signals are promising biomarkers of epileptogenic zone. In this study, our aim is to investigate the neuromagnetic changes and brain network topological alterations during an interictal period at high frequency ranges (80-1000Hz) between healthy controls and epileptic patients with Magnetoencephalography (MEG). We analyzed neuromagnetic activities with accumulated source imaging, and constructed brain network based on graph theory. Neuromagnetic activity changes and brain network alterations between two groups were analyzed in three frequency bands: ripple (80-250Hz), fast ripples (FRs, 250-500Hz), and very high frequency oscillations (VHFO, 500-1000Hz)...
February 12, 2019: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Antonio de Iure, Francesco Napolitano, Goichi Beck, Ana Quiroga Varela, Valentina Durante, Miriam Sciaccaluga, Petra Mazzocchetti, Alfredo Megaro, Michela Tantucci, Antonella Cardinale, Daniela Punzo, Andrea Mancini, Cinzia Costa, Veronica Ghiglieri, Alessandro Tozzi, Barbara Picconi, Stella M Papa, Alessandro Usiello, Paolo Calabresi
OBJECTIVE: Spreading depolarization (SD) is a transient self-propagating wave of neuronal and glial depolarization coupled with large membrane ionic changes and a subsequent depression of neuronal activity. Spreading depolarization in the cortex is implicated in migraine, stroke, and epilepsy. Conversely, spreading depolarization in the striatum, a brain structure deeply involved in motor control and in Parkinson's disease (PD) pathophysiology, has been poorly investigated. METHODS: We characterized the participation of glutamatergic and dopaminergic transmission in the induction of striatal spreading depolarization by using a novel approach combining optical imaging, measurements of endogenous DA levels, and pharmacological and molecular analyses...
February 13, 2019: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Ho-Joon Lee, Kang Min Park
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate structural and functional connectivity of patients with newly diagnosed juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) compared to healthy subjects. METHODS: We enrolled 36 patients with a diagnosis of JME, who were newly diagnosed and drug-naïve. They underwent T1-weighted imaging, and structural volumes were calculated using FreeSurfer software. In addition, EEG data were obtained from all of them. Structural and functional connectivity matrices were estimated by calculating the structural volumes and EEG amplitude correlation, respectively...
February 13, 2019: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
Ye-Hwa Jun, Tae-Hoon Eom, Young-Hoon Kim, Seung-Yun Chung, In-Goo Lee, Jung-Min Kim
Localizing the source of epileptiform discharges in generalized epilepsy has been controversial for the past few decades. Recent neuroimaging studies have shown that epileptiform discharges in generalized epilepsy can be localized to a particular region. Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) is the most common generalized epilepsy in childhood and is considered the prototype of idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE). To better understand electrophysiological changes and their development in CAE, we investigated the origin of epileptiform discharges...
February 12, 2019: Neurological Sciences
Vitalie Chiosa, Dumitru Ciolac, Stanislav Groppa, Nabin Koirala, Bogdan Pintea, Anatolie Vataman, Yaroslav Winter, Gabriel Gonzalez-Escamilla, Muthuraman Muthuraman, Sergiu Groppa
Study Objectives: In this study, we aimed to estimate the alterations of brain networks and structural integrity linked to seizure occurrence during sleep and awake states. Methods: Using a graph theory approach to magnetic resonance imaging-derived volumes of cortical and subcortical regions, we investigated the topological organization of structural networks in patients with sleep seizures (n = 13), patients with awake seizures (n = 12), and age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n = 10)...
January 31, 2019: Sleep
Yudan Lv, Xiangyu Zheng, Xiao Zhang, Danyang Zhao, Li Cui
The diagnosis of autoimmune epilepsy is often challenging, and may be misdiagnosed as epileptic disorders or viral encephalitis. Autoimmune epilepsy has a strong association with other autoimmune diseases, especially systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In addition, autoimmune epilepsy was reported to present with complex partial seizure (CPS), simple partial seizure (SPS), and secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizure (sGTCS). In our case, we present a different seizure type of tonic seizure in autoimmune epilepsy caused by SLE, which has not been reported, and it will provide with a new understanding of autoimmune epilepsy...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Xiaozhen You, Ashley N Zachery, Eleanor J Fanto, Gina Norato, Sierra C Germeyan, Eric J Emery, Leigh N Sepeta, Madison M Berl, Chelsea L Black, Edythe Wiggs, Kareem Zaghloul, Sara K Inati, William D Gaillard, William H Theodore
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to predict language deficits after epilepsy surgery. In addition to evaluating surgical factors examined previously, we determined the impact of the extent of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activation that was resected on naming ability. METHOD: Thirty-five adults (mean age 37.5 ± 10.9 years, 13 male) with temporal lobe epilepsy completed a preoperative fMRI auditory description decision task, which reliably activates frontal and temporal language networks...
February 11, 2019: Epilepsia
Mari Kuwajima, Masahide Goto, Koyuru Kurane, Hiroko Shimbo, Narumi Omika, Eriko F Jimbo, Kazuhiro Muramatsu, Makiko Tajika, Masaru Shimura, Kei Murayama, Kenji Kurosawa, Takanori Yamagata, Hitoshi Osaka
Mutations in the mitochondrial tRNAMet gene have been reported in only five patients to date, all of whom presented with muscle weakness and exercise intolerance as signs of myopathy. We herein report the case of a 12-year-old girl with focal epilepsy since the age of eight years. At age 11, the patient developed sudden visual disturbances and headaches accompanied by recurrent, stroke-like episodes with lactic acidosis (pH 7.279, lactic acid 11.6 mmol/L). The patient frequently developed a delirious state, exhibited regression of intellectual ability...
February 7, 2019: Brain & Development
Jessica J Falco-Walter, Kelly Roehl, Bichun Ouyang, Antoaneta Balabanov
OBJECTIVE: Adults with drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) are among the most challenging to treat. This study assessed whether specific subpopulations of adult patients with refractory epilepsy responded differently to modified ketogenic diet (MKD) therapy. METHODS: Changes in seizure frequency, severity, and quality of life (QOL) were retrospectively analyzed based on pre-MKD surgical history, type of epilepsy, imaging findings, and vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) history among adults, ≥17 years of age, with DRE, receiving MKD therapy for three months...
February 6, 2019: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Nicholas V Stence, Laura Z Fenton, Claire Levek, Suhong Tong, Curtis R Coughlin Ii, Julia B Hennermann, Saskia B Wortmann, Johan L K Van Hove
OBJECTIVE: Patients with severe nonketotic hyperglycinemia have absent psychomotor development and intractable epilepsy, whereas attenuated patients have variable psychomotor development and absent or treatable epilepsy; differences in brain MRI between phenotypes have not been reported. METHODS: In a retrospective cross-sectional study, we reviewed 38 MRI studies from 24 molecularly proven nonketotic hyperglycinemia patients, and two transient nonketotic hyperglycinemia patients...
February 9, 2019: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Noriaki Hirakawa, Hironori Kuga, Yoji Hirano, Jinya Sato, Naoya Oribe, Itta Nakamura, Shogo Hirano, Takefumi Ueno, Yuko Oda, Osamu Togao, Akio Hiwatashi, Hiroshi Honda, Shigenobu Kanba, Toshiaki Onitsuka
There may be different neural bases between subjects with epilepsy only (EP) and interictal chronic epilepsy psychosis (EPS). However, there have been few structural MRI studies of EPS. The current study was conducted to investigate the neural substrate of EPS. T1-weighted images were analyzed in 14 patients with EPS and 14 strictly-matched patients with EP. We conducted volume comparison in the whole brain using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). The VBM method revealed that EPS patients exhibited significantly reduced gray matter volumes in the left postcentral gyrus and the left supra marginal gyrus compared with EP patients (adjusted p = 0...
February 8, 2019: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Rose Dawn Bharath, Rajanikant Panda, Jeetu Raj, Sujas Bhardwaj, Sanjib Sinha, Ganne Chaitanya, Kenchaiah Raghavendra, Ravindranadh C Mundlamuri, Arivazhagan Arimappamagan, Malla Bhaskara Rao, Jamuna Rajeshwaran, Kandavel Thennarasu, Kaushik K Majumdar, Parthasarthy Satishchandra, Tapan K Gandhi
OBJECTIVES: Experimental models have provided compelling evidence for the existence of neural networks in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). To identify and validate the possible existence of resting-state "epilepsy networks," we used machine learning methods on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) data from 42 individuals with TLE. METHODS: Probabilistic independent component analysis (PICA) was applied to rsfMRI data from 132 subjects (42 TLE patients + 90 healthy controls) and 88 independent components (ICs) were obtained following standard procedures...
February 8, 2019: European Radiology
J M Mettenburg, B F Branstetter, C A Wiley, P Lee, R M Richardson
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Identification of mesial temporal sclerosis is critical in the evaluation of individuals with temporal lobe epilepsy. Our aim was to assess the performance of FDA-approved software measures of hippocampal volume to identify mesial temporal sclerosis in patients with medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy compared with the initial clinical interpretation of a neuroradiologist. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Preoperative MRIs of 75 consecutive patients who underwent a temporal resection for temporal lobe epilepsy from 2011 to 2016 were retrospectively reviewed, and 71 were analyzed using Neuroreader, a commercially available automated segmentation and volumetric analysis package...
February 7, 2019: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Shaik Afshan Jabeen, Padmaja Gaddamanugu, Ajith Cherian, Kandadai Mridula Mridula, Dasari Uday Kumar, Angamuttu Kanikannan Meena
Objectives To study the clinical profile and outcome in patients with epilepsy who developed psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) associated with levetiracetam (LEV) use.   Methods In this prospective observational study, conducted over 1 year, 13 patients with epilepsy and PNES, documented by video electroencephalogram (VEEG) while on LEV, were included. Those with past history of psychiatric illnesses were excluded. VEEG, high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging, neuropsychological and psychiatric evaluation were performed...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology
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