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Hippocampal stroke

Laura Abraira, Laura Ludovica Gramegna, Manuel Quintana, Estevo Santamarina, Javier Salas-Puig, Silvana Sarria, Alex Rovira, Manuel Toledo
PURPOSE: Late-onset non-lesional focal epilepsy, defined as new-onset seizures in patients older than 60 years, is diagnosed increasingly more often in relation to aging of the population. It has been attributed mainly to occult cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), although high levels of evidence to support this notion are lacking. This study aimed to evaluate the burden of leukoaraiosis, a marker of cerebral SVD, and hippocampal atrophy in patients with late-onset epilepsy (LOE). METHODS: Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies were retrospectively analyzed by two blinded radiologists...
February 8, 2019: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Sarah C Conner, Laurent Benayoun, Jayandra J Himali, Stephanie L Adams, Qiong Yang, Charles DeCarli, Jan K Blusztajn, Alexa Beiser, Sudha Seshadri, Ivana Delalle
Genome-wide association studies identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the MSRB3 gene encoding Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase-B3 (MsrB3) to be associated with the risk for low hippocampal volume and late onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). Subsequently, we identified AD-associated abnormal patterns of neuronal and vascular MsrB3 expression in postmortem hippocampi. The present study investigated the relationship between the MSRB3 SNP rs61921502, G (minor/risk allele) and MRI measures of brain injury including total brain volume, hippocampal volume, and white matter hyperintensities using linear regression models; the presence of brain infarcts using logistic regression models; and the incidence of stroke, dementia, and AD using Cox proportional hazards models in 2,038 Framingham Heart Study Offspring participants with MRI administered close to examination cycle 7 (1998-2001)...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
James E Orfila, Robert M Dietz, Krista M Rodgers, Andra Dingman, Olivia P Patsos, Ivelisse Cruz-Torres, Himmat Grewal, Frank Strnad, Christian Schroeder, Paco S Herson
Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of death worldwide and clinical data suggest that children may recover from stroke better than adults; however, supporting experimental data are lacking. We used our novel mouse model of experimental juvenile ischemic stroke (MCAO) to characterize age-specific cognitive dysfunction following ischemia. Juvenile and adult mice subjected to 45-min MCAO, and extracellular field recordings of CA1 neurons were performed to assess hippocampal synaptic plasticity changes after MCAO, and contextual fear conditioning was performed to evaluate memory and biochemistry used to analyze Nogo-A expression...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Ming-Zhe Hu, An-Rong Wang, Ze-Yu Zhao, Xiang-Yan Chen, Yan-Bin Li, Bin Liu
BACKGROUND: Post-stroke depression (PSD) is one of the most prevalent emotional disorders after stroke and often results in poor outcomes. However, the underlying physiopathologic mechanism and effective treatment of PSD remain poorly elucidated. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether paeoniflorin has antidepressant-like activity in a rat model of PSD. METHODS: Rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham-operated control (Sham), PSD, paeoniflorin (with PSD) and fluoxetine group(with PSD)...
February 13, 2019: Neurological Research
Hui Wang, Wei Wei, Xiaobing Lan, Ning Liu, Yuxiang Li, Hanxiang Ma, Tao Sun, Xiaodong Peng, Chunlin Zhuang, Jian Qiang Yu
Oxidative stress plays a vital role in the development of cerebral ischemic/reperfusion (I/R). Targeting oxidative stress is proposed to be an effective strategy to treat cerebral I/R injury. Gentiana macrophylla Pall is reported to have potential protective effect against stroke. Swertiamarin (Swe), an active secoiridoid glycoside compound isolated from Gentiana macrophylla Pall, has been reported to possess the antioxidative potential. This study is to explore whether Swe could prevent brain from I/R injury and the related mechanisms of oxidative stress is also elucidated using mice middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model and primary hippocampal neurons oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) model...
February 12, 2019: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Nausicaa Mazzocchi, Fabio Grohovaz, Stefano Taverna, Andrea Menegon
Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are proton-activated, sodium-permeable channels, highly expressed in both central and peripheral nervous systems. ASIC1a is the most abundant isoform in the central nervous system and is credited to be involved in several neurological disorders including stroke, multiple sclerosis, and epilepsy. Interestingly, the affinity of ASIC1a for two antagonists, diminazene and amiloride, has recently been proposed to be voltage sensitive. Based on this evidence, it is expected that the pharmacology of ASIC1cannot be properly characterized by single-cell voltage-clamp, an experimental condition in which membrane potential is maintained close to resting values...
February 1, 2019: Neuropharmacology
Poyin Huang, Cheng-Sheng Chen, Yuan-Han Yang, Mei-Chuan Chou, Ya-Hsuan Chang, Chiou-Lian Lai, Hsuan-Yu Chen, Ching-Kuan Liu
Recently, REST (RE1-silencing transcription factor) gene has been shown to be lost in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and a missense minor REST allele rs3796529-T has been shown to reduce the rate of hippocampal volume loss. However, whether the REST rs3796529 genotype is associated with the rate of functional deterioration in AD is unknown. A total of 584 blood samples from Taiwanese patients with AD were collected from January 2002 to December 2013. The diagnosis of AD was based on the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke and the Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association criteria...
February 2019: Aging and Disease
Bo Zhang, Xuhui Chen, Youyou Lv, Xi Wu, Lingli Gui, Yue Zhang, Jin Qiu, Guizhi Song, Wenlong Yao, Li Wan, Chuanhan Zhang
Post-stroke survivors exhibited cognitive deficits and performed emotional impairment. However, the effect of global cerebral ischemia on standard behavioral measures of emotionality and underlying mechanism remain largely unknown. Our previous work identified that down-regulation of Cdh1 contributed to ischemic neuronal death in rat, thus we hypothesized that Cdh1 exerts a role in emotionality after cerebral ischemia, and we investigated the effect of Cdh1 overexpression on neurogenic behaviors and possible mechanisms in transient global cerebral ischemia reperfusion (tGCI/R) rats...
January 21, 2019: Neurochemistry International
María Isabel Cuartero, Juan de la Parra, Alberto Pérez-Ruiz, Isabel Bravo-Ferrer, Violeta Durán-Laforet, Alicia García-Culebras, Juan Manuel García-Segura, Jagroop Dhaliwal, Paul W Frankland, Ignacio Lizasoain, María Àngeles Moro
Post-stroke cognitive impairment is considered one of the main complications during the chronic phase of ischemic stroke. In the adult brain, the hippocampus regulates both encoding and retrieval of new information through adult neurogenesis. Nevertheless, the lack of predictive models and studies based on the forgetting processes hinder the understanding of memory alterations after stroke. Our aim was to explore whether post-stroke neurogenesis participates in the development of long-term memory impairment...
January 24, 2019: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Zhengxi Li, Meng Wei, Haiyan Lyu, Kang Huo, Liang Wang, Meng Zhang, Hua Su
Cognitive impairment occurs in stroke and hip fracture patients. In mice, bone fracture (BF) exacerbates stroke-related neuronal damage and sensorimotor dysfunction. We hypothesize that BF exacerbates post-stroke cognitive impairment. Adult mice were randomly assigned into BF, stroke, BF+stroke (BF 6 h before stroke), and control (sham operated) groups. Memory function was evaluated weekly for eight weeks by Y maze test and at eight weeks post-surgeries by novel object recognition (NOR) test. The neuronal damage and inflammation in hippocampus were analyzed three days and eight weeks after the surgeries...
January 22, 2019: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Mihai Ceanga, Silke Keiner, Benedikt Grünewald, Holger Haselmann, Christiane Frahm, Sebastien Couillard-Després, Otto W Witte, Christoph Redecker, Christian Geis, Albrecht Kunze
Stroke robustly stimulates adult neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. It is currently unknown if this process induces beneficial or maladaptive effects, but morphological and behavioral studies have reported aberrant neurogenesis and impaired hippocampal-dependent memory following stroke. However, the intrinsic function and network incorporation of adult-born granule cells (ABGCs) after ischemia is unclear.Using patch-clamp electrophysiology we evaluated doublecortin positive (DCX+) ABGCs as well as DCX- dentate gyrus granule cells two weeks after a stroke or sham operation in DCX / DsRed transgenic mice of either sex...
January 7, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Alberto Martire, Catia Lambertucci, Rita Pepponi, Antonella Ferrante, Nicholas Benati, Michela Buccioni, Diego Dal Ben, Gabriella Marucci, Karl-Norbert Klotz, Rosaria Volpini, Patrizia Popoli
Cerebral ischemia is the second most common cause of death and a major cause of disability worldwide. Available therapies are based only on anticoagulants or recombinant tissue plasminogen activator. Extracellular adenosine increases during ischemia and acts as a neuroprotective endogenous agent mainly by activating adenosine A1 receptors (A1 Rs) which control calcium influx, glutamate release, membrane potential, and metabolism. Accordingly, in many experimental paradigms it has been already demonstrated that the stimulation of A1 R with full agonists is able to reduce ischemia-related structural and functional brain damage; unfortunately, cardiovascular side effects and desensitization of A1 R induced by these compounds have strongly limited their exploitation in stroke therapy so far...
January 7, 2019: Journal of Neurochemistry
Shu Zhu, Zhe Zhang, Lian-Qun Jia, Kai-Xuan Zhan, Li-Jun Wang, Nan Song, Yue Liu, Le Guan, Dong-Yu Min, Guan-Lin Yang
Ischemic stroke is the third most common cause of death and the leading cause of disability worldwide in adults. The antiepileptic drug valproic acid (VPA) was reported to protect cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, the action mechanism of VPA in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury has not been fully understood. We explored the action mechanism of VPA in vivo and in vitro. Gerbils were subjected to transient global cerebral ischemic-reperfusion injury, and hippocampal neuron injury was treated with oxygen-glucose deprivation in vitro...
January 3, 2019: Neurochemistry International
Mohamed Salah Khlif, Natalia Egorova, Emilio Werden, Alberto Redolfi, Marina Bocardi, Charles S DeCarli, Evan Fletcher, Baljeet Singh, Qi Li, Laura Bird, Amy Brodtmann
Manual quantification of the hippocampal atrophy state and rate is time consuming and prone to poor reproducibility, even when performed by neuroanatomical experts. The automation of hippocampal segmentation has been investigated in normal aging, epilepsy, and in Alzheimer's disease. Our first goal was to compare manual and automated hippocampal segmentation in ischemic stroke and to, secondly, study the impact of stroke lesion presence on hippocampal volume estimation. We used eight automated methods to segment T1-weighted MR images from 105 ischemic stroke patients and 39 age-matched controls sampled from the Cognition And Neocortical Volume After Stroke (CANVAS) study...
October 22, 2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Lidia Glodzik, Henry Rusinek, Wai Tsui, Elizabeth Pirraglia, Hee-Jin Kim, Anup Deshpande, Yi Li, Pippa Storey, Catherine Randall, Jingyun Chen, Ricardo S Osorio, Tracy Butler, Emily Tanzi, Molly McQuillan, Patrick Harvey, Stephen K Williams, Gbenga Ogedegbe, James S Babb, Mony J de Leon
Although there is an increasing agreement that hypertension is associated with cerebrovascular compromise, relationships between blood pressure (BP) and cerebral blood flow are not fully understood. It is not known what BP level, and consequently what therapeutic goal, is optimal for brain perfusion. Moreover, there is limited data on how BP affects hippocampal perfusion, a structure critically involved in memory. We conducted a cross-sectional (n=445) and longitudinal (n=185) study of adults and elderly without dementia or clinically apparent stroke, who underwent clinical examination and brain perfusion assessment (age 69...
January 2019: Hypertension
Guanli Xie, Changming Song, Xiaomin Lin, Minguang Yang, Xiao Fan, Weilin Liu, Jing Tao, Lidian Chen, Jia Huang
OBJECTIVE: To determine the mechanism(s) involved in electroacupuncture (EA)-mediated improvements in synaptic plasticity in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion (MCAO/R)-induced cognitive deficits. METHODS: Focal cerebral ischemic stroke was induced by (MCAO/R) surgery. Rats were randomly split into 4 groups: control group (sham operation control), MCAO group, Baihui (GV 20) and Shenting (GV 24) acupoint EA group (verum acupuncture, MCAO + VA), and nonacupoint EA group (control acupuncture, MCAO + CA)...
December 11, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Zak Ritchey, David M Mirsky, David Weitzenkamp, Timothy J Bernard, Paco S Herson, Nicholas V Stence
PURPOSE: Recent evidence suggests that recovery from secondary neurodegeneration following arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) may be related to age at injury and site of occlusion. We conducted a study of hippocampal volume (HCV) in a cohort of pediatric patients with middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory AIS to determine whether HCV would be preserved in younger children as compared to older children. METHODS: This single-center, HIPAA-compliant retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board...
December 8, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Hao Ma, Weiping Wang, Shaofeng Xu, Ling Wang, Xiaoliang Wang
Potassium 2-(1-hydroxypentyl)-benzoate (PHPB) is a novel drug candidate for acute ischemic stroke. PHPB has been also shown to be beneficial for some neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we demonstrated that PHPB improved depressive-like behaviors induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) in rats. Male SD rats were subjected to the stress for five weeks. PHPB (30 and 100 mg/kg) or fluoxetine (FLX 10 mg/kg, as positive control) was administered orally from the third week in CUMS procedure...
October 2018: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
Lu Luo, Congqin Li, Xinxin Du, Qilin Shi, Qiao Huang, Xiangyu Xu, Qiang Wang
BDNF and proBDNF play an opposite role in hippocampal neurogenesis. What remains to be known is the effect of balance between BDNF and proBDNF in the ischemic hippocampus on pathogenesis of post-stroke depression (PSD) and the potential mechanisms of aerobic exercise (AE) on PSD. Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, Sham, Sedentary and AE groups. After PSD model was successful made, the blood lactate threshold corresponding speed (SLT ) were measured. The behavioral tests (open field, forced swimming and sucrose preference tests) were performed before and after 4 weeks of aerobic treadmill training...
November 27, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Jin-Lu Yu, Chao Li, Li-He Che, Ning Xu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cerebral ischemia is considered to be the most common cause of stroke with high mortality. It occurs as a result of the damage of the hippocampal neurons with lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA)-1 being emphasized to play a role in the biological functions of hippocampal neurons. This study was conducted in order to investigate the effects of specific knockdown of LFA-1 expression by lentivirus had on the apoptosis of the hippocampal neurons, simulated by rat models of acute cerebral ischemia after cerebral lymphatic blockage...
November 26, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
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