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disturbances in brain charges

Kateřina Podolská
We investigate the impact of solar activity changes on mortality from cardiovascular causes of death in the period 1994-2011 in the Czech Republic. This period coincides with the time of solar cycle no. 23 and the surrounding minima when there was an unusually low level of solar activity. We use long-period daily time series of numbers of deaths by cause, solar activity indices (the relative sunspot number, and the intensity of solar radio flux), geomagnetic indices (Kp-the planetary index that indicates the fluctuation rate of horizontal components of the geomagnetic field, the Auroral Electrojet, and the disturbance storm time), and physical parameters describing the ionospheric effects (the critical frequency of the ionospheric F2 layer and the content of free electrons in the ionosphere)...
February 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Eelco F M Wijdicks, Axel Karenberg
The history of Neurocinema includes neuroethics, and this theme was first used in 2 films released in the 1940s in both Germany and the United States. Ich Klage An (I Accuse) is about "terminal" multiple sclerosis in a young woman and the decision to determine one's own fate. The protagonist anticipates becoming "deaf, blind, and idiotic" and asks her husband to administer a toxic drug dose, which he does. The film disturbingly suggests that the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis is tantamount to a death sentence...
September 20, 2016: Neurology
A I Pogue, W J Lukiw
The genomes of eukaryotes orchestrate their expression to ensure an effective, homeostatic and functional gene signaling program, and this includes fundamentally altered patterns of transcription during aging, development, differentiation and disease. These actions constitute an extremely complex and intricate process as genetic operations such as transcription involve the very rapid translocation and polymerization of ribonucleotides using RNA polymerases, accessory transcription protein complexes and other interrelated chromatin proteins and genetic factors...
June 2016: Morphologie: Bulletin de L'Association des Anatomistes
Elena A Kosenko, Gjumrakch Aliev, Yury G Kaminsky
Alzheimer disease (AD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders widely occurring among the elderly. The pathogenic mechanisms involved in the development of this disease are still unknown. In AD, in addition to brain, a number of peripheral tissues and cells are affected, including erythrocytes. In this study, we analyzed glycolytic energy metabolism, antioxidant status, glutathione, adenylate and proteolytic systems in erythrocytes from patients with AD and compared with those from age-matched controls and young adult controls...
2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
John Odackal, Ang D Sherpa, Nisha Patel, Robert Colbourn, Sabina Hrabetova
Disturbance of calcium homeostasis is implicated in the normal process of aging and brain pathology prevalent in the elderly such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Previous studies demonstrated that applying a hyponatremic iso-osmotic (low-NaCl) artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) to rodent hippocampus causes extracellular calcium to rapidly decrease. Restoring normonatremia after low-NaCl treatment causes a rapid increase in extracellular calcium that overshoots baseline. This study examined the amplitude, timing, and mechanism of these surprising calcium changes...
November 2015: Experimental Neurology
Walter Carr, Angela M Yarnell, Ricardo Ong, Timothy Walilko, Gary H Kamimori, Uade da Silva, Richard M McCarron, Matthew L LoPresti
Repeated exposure to low-level blast is a characteristic of a few select occupations and there is concern that such occupational exposures present risk for traumatic brain injury. These occupations include specialized military and law enforcement units that employ controlled detonation of explosive charges for the purpose of tactical entry into secured structures. The concern for negative effects from blast exposure is based on rates of operator self-reported headache, sleep disturbance, working memory impairment, and other concussion-like symptoms...
2015: Frontiers in Neurology
Maria de la Iglesia-Vaya, Maria José Escartí, Jose Molina-Mateo, Luis Martí-Bonmatí, Marien Gadea, Francisco Xavier Castellanos, Eduardo J Aguilar García-Iturrospe, Montserrat Robles, Bharat B Biswal, Julio Sanjuan
Auditory hallucinations (AH) are the most frequent positive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Hallucinations have been related to emotional processing disturbances, altered functional connectivity and effective connectivity deficits. Previously, we observed that, compared to healthy controls, the limbic network responses of patients with auditory hallucinations differed when the subjects were listening to emotionally charged words. We aimed to compare the synchrony patterns and effective connectivity of task-related networks between schizophrenia patients with and without AH and healthy controls...
2014: NeuroImage: Clinical
Dzmitry Shcharbin, Anna Janaszewska, Barbara Klajnert-Maculewicz, Barbara Ziemba, Volha Dzmitruk, Inessa Halets, Svetlana Loznikova, Natallia Shcharbina, Katarzyna Milowska, Maksim Ionov, Antos Shakhbazau, Maria Bryszewska
This paper reviews the biodistribution, toxicity and pharmacokinetics of pure dendrimers and their complexes with nucleic acids (dendriplexes) in animals, including mice, rats, rabbits, and guinea pigs. Methods and results will both be discussed. The paradigm about dendrimers' toxicity based on in vitro studies should be revised; almost all dendrimers of low and middle generations are non-toxic in vivo, despite showing some cytotoxic effects in vitro. Only the high generations of unmodified cationic dendrimers in high doses have some toxicity in vivo...
May 10, 2014: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Joseph T Giacino, Douglas I Katz, John Whyte
Survivors of severe acquired brain injury often experience prolonged disturbance in consciousness following emergence from coma. Most individuals pass through the vegetative or minimally conscious states en route to eventual recovery of consciousness, although either condition may be permanent. Rehabilitation clinicians charged with the care of these patients face numerous challenges as there are many open questions concerning diagnostic and prognostic accuracy, the natural history of recovery, and the most effective approaches to prevent medical complications and facilitate functional recovery...
April 2013: Seminars in Neurology
N V Guliaeva
Adult hippocampus is one of the brain structures selectively vulnerable to stress factors. In the hippocampus, stress-induced neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration, epileptic activity and disturbances of neurogenesis take place. Stress of different modality specifically affects hippocampal structural and functional plasticity, the primary target of the stress hormones are corticosteroid receptors (glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors). Different parts of the hippocampus along the septo-temporal axis are functionally different...
January 2013: Rossiĭskii Fiziologicheskiĭ Zhurnal Imeni I.M. Sechenova
Karin C Larsson, Peter Kjäll, Agneta Richter-Dahlfors
BACKGROUND: A major challenge when creating interfaces for the nervous system is to translate between the signal carriers of the nervous system (ions and neurotransmitters) and those of conventional electronics (electrons). SCOPE OF REVIEW: Organic conjugated polymers represent a unique class of materials that utilizes both electrons and ions as charge carriers. Based on these materials, we have established a series of novel communication interfaces between electronic components and biological systems...
September 2013: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
R G Ahmed, S Incerpi
Administration of chemotherapy during pregnancy may represent a big risk factor for the developing brain, therefore we studied whether the transplacental transport of doxorubicin (DOX) may affect the development of neuroendocrine system. DOX (25 mg/kg; 3 times interaperitoneally/week) was given to pregnant rats during whole gestation period. The disturbances in neuroendocrine functions were investigated at gestation day (GD) 15 and 20 by following the maternal and fetal thyroid hormone levels, fetal nucleotides (ATP, ADP, AMP) levels and adenosine triphosphatase (Na(+), K(+)-ATPase, Ca(2+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)-ATPase) activities in two brain regions, cerebrum and cerebellum...
April 2013: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Elena A Kosenko, Gjumrakch Aliev, Lyudmila A Tikhonova, Yi Li, Armenuhi C Poghosyan, Yury G Kaminsky
Subject age and brain oxidative stress play pivotal roles in Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology. Erythrocytes (red blood cells: RBC) are considered as passive "reporter cells" for the oxidative status of the whole organism, not active participants in mechanisms of AD pathogenesis and are not well studied in AD. The aim of this work is to assess whether the antioxidant status and energy state of RBC from elderly people change in AD. We measured levels of key products and enzymes of oxidative metabolism in RBC from AD (n = 12) and non-Alzheimer dementia (NA, n = 13) patients, as well as in cells from age-matched controls (AC, n = 14) and younger adult controls (YC, n = 14)...
November 1, 2012: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Julie Champagne, Nadia Lakis, Josiane Bourque, Emmanuel Stip, Olivier Lipp, Adrianna Mendrek
Schizophrenia has been associated with disturbed levels of sex-steroid hormones, including estrogen and testosterone. In the present study we have examined the implication of a less studied hormone progesterone. Forty-three patients with schizophrenia (21 women) and 43 control participants (21 women) underwent functional MRI while viewing emotionally positive, negative, and neutral images. Blood samples were taken prior to the scanning session to evaluate progesterone levels. Simple regression analyses between levels of progesterone and brain activations associated with emotion processing were performed using SPM5...
2012: Schizophrenia Research and Treatment
Masayuki Kanehisa, Katsuhiko Morinaga, Hisae Kohno, Yoshihiro Maruyama, Taiga Ninomiya, Yoshinobu Ishitobi, Yoshihiro Tanaka, Jusen Tsuru, Hiroaki Hanada, Tomoya Yoshikawa, Jotaro Akiyoshi
BACKGROUND: The association between fire-setting behavior and psychiatric or medical disorders remains poorly understood. Although a link between fire-setting behavior and various organic brain disorders has been established, associations between fire setting and focal brain lesions have not yet been reported. Here, we describe the case of a 24-year-old first time arsonist who suffered Todd's paralysis prior to the onset of a bizarre and random fire-setting behavior. CASE PRESENTATION: A case of a 24-year-old man with a sudden onset of a bizarre and random fire-setting behavior is reported...
August 31, 2012: BMC Psychiatry
Anne Sieben, Tim Van Langenhove, Sebastiaan Engelborghs, Jean-Jacques Martin, Paul Boon, Patrick Cras, Peter-Paul De Deyn, Patrick Santens, Christine Van Broeckhoven, Marc Cruts
Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by disturbances of behavior and personality and different types of language impairment with or without concomitant features of motor neuron disease or parkinsonism. FTLD is characterized by atrophy of the frontal and anterior temporal brain lobes. Detailed neuropathological studies have elicited proteinopathies defined by inclusions of hyperphosphorylated microtubule-associated protein tau, TAR DNA-binding protein TDP-43, fused-in-sarcoma or yet unidentified proteins in affected brain regions...
September 2012: Acta Neuropathologica
Just Genius, Johanna Geiger, Andreas Bender, Hans-Jürgen Möller, Thomas Klopstock, Dan Rujescu
Creatine has been shown to be neuroprotective in aging, neurodegenerative conditions and brain injury. As a common molecular background, oxidative stress and disturbed cellular energy homeostasis are key aspects in these conditions. Moreover, in a recent report we could demonstrate a life-enhancing and health-promoting potential of creatine in rodents, mainly due to its neuroprotective action. In order to investigate the underlying pharmacology mediating these mainly neuroprotective properties of creatine, cultured primary embryonal hippocampal and cortical cells were challenged with glutamate or H(2)O(2)...
2012: PloS One
Karl Nowak, Eilhard Mix, Jan Gimsa, Ulf Strauss, Kiran Kumar Sriperumbudur, Reiner Benecke, Ulrike Gimsa
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has become a treatment for a growing number of neurological and psychiatric disorders, especially for therapy-refractory Parkinson's disease (PD). However, not all of the symptoms of PD are sufficiently improved in all patients, and side effects may occur. Further progress depends on a deeper insight into the mechanisms of action of DBS in the context of disturbed brain circuits. For this, optimized animal models have to be developed. We review not only charge transfer mechanisms at the electrode/tissue interface and strategies to increase the stimulation's energy-efficiency but also the electrochemical, electrophysiological, biochemical and functional effects of DBS...
2011: Parkinson's Disease
A V Smirnov, N I Chalisova, G A Ryzhak, E A Kontsevaia
The effect of 20 coded amino acids in concentration 10(-12) M was investigated in organotypic tissue culture on the cell proliferation development in myocardium, pancreas, brain cortex tissue (the tissues of meso-, ento- and ectodermal genesis accordingly) explants in 3- and 24-months old rats. The different effect was observed in the tissues of different genesis. The group of low molecular mass hydrophile amino acids with the charge chains stimulated the cell proliferation in the young and old rats. The other group of high molecular mass hydrophobe amino acids stimulated the cell proliferation in the young and old rats brain cortex...
2010: Advances in Gerontology
Hans J Markowitsch, Angelica Staniloiu
The human amygdala is strongly embedded in numerous other structures of the limbic system, but is also a hub for a multitude of other brain regions it is connected with. Its major involvement in various kinds of integrative sensory and emotional functions makes it a cornerstone for self-relevant biological and social appraisals of the environment and consequently also for the processing of autobiographical events. Given its contribution to the integration of emotion, perception and cognition (including memory for past autobiographical events) the amygdala also forges the establishment and maintenance of an integrated self...
March 2011: Neuropsychologia
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