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cirrhosis and portal hypertension

Toshinori Sueda, Mitsuyoshi Tei, Haruna Furukawa, Tae Matsumura, Chikato Koga, Masaki Wakasugi, Hiromichi Miyagaki, Ryohei Kawabata, Junzo Shimizu, Atsuya Okada, Junichi Hasegawa
BACKGROUND: A case of a short circuit (Retzius shunt) from the inferior mesenteric vein (IMV) to the inferior vena cava (IVC) without accompanying portal hypertension due to liver cirrhosis is rare. CASE PRESENTATION: An 83-year-old woman who was followed after surgery for thyroid and breast cancer was incidentally found to have rectal cancer on computed tomography (CT). Preoperative three-dimensional CT showed a venous malformation forming a short circuit (Retzius shunt) from the IMV to the IVC...
February 18, 2019: Surgical Case Reports
Cyriac Abby Philips, Sasidharan Rajesh, Philip Augustine, Guruprasad Padsalgi, Rizwan Ahamed
Portosystemic shunt (PS) syndrome encompasses a spectrum of disease manifestations ranging from asymptomatic portal hypertension to recurrent and refractory hepatic encephalopathy, ultimately culminating in progressive hepatic failure in patients of cirrhosis and associated large PSs. PSs commonly seen in cirrhosis include splenorenal, gastrorenal, and dilated paraumbilical veins, all of which can present with recurrent or refractory hepatic encephalopathy. In this exhaustive review, we describe the anatomy of PSs, elucidate new theories on their pathophysiology, discuss the clinical implications of PSs in cirrhosis, provide details on different techniques (classical and novel) of shunt embolization, and explore all the pertinent current literature on shunt embolization for refractory and recurrent hepatic encephalopathy, all of which are enumerated with extensive images and illustrations...
2019: Hepatic Medicine: Evidence and Research
Nicolas M Intagliata, Stephen H Caldwell, Armando Tripodi
Portal vein thrombosis unrelated to solid malignancy is common in patients with cirrhosis but less frequently observed in patients without cirrhosis. Prompt diagnosis and management of acute symptomatic portal vein thrombosis are essential. Failure to detect and treat thromboses can result in mesenteric ischemia, chronic cavernous transformation, and complications of portal hypertension. In patients with cirrhosis, development of portal vein thrombosis is often insidious and remains undetected until its incidental detection...
February 13, 2019: Gastroenterology
Dominique Thabut, Christophe Bureau, Richard Layese, Valérie Bourcier, Maryam Hammouche, Carole Cagnot, Patrick Marcellin, Dominique Guyader, Stanislas Pol, Dominique Larrey, Victor De Lédinghen, Denis Ouzan, Fabien Zoulim, Dominique Roulot, Albert Tran, Jean-Pierre Bronowicki, Jean-Pierre Zarski, Odile Goria, Paul Calès, Jean-Marie Péron, Laurent Alric, Marc Bourlière, Philippe Mathurin, Jean-Frédéric Blanc, Armand Abergel, Lawrence Serfaty, Ariane Mallat, Jean-Didier Grangé, Pierre Attali, Yannick Bacq, Claire Wartelle-Bladou, Thông Dao, Christophe Pilette, Christine Silvain, Christos Christidis, Dominique Capron, Brigitte Bernard-Chabert, Sophie Hillaire, Vincent Di Martino, Angela Sutton, Etienne Audureau, Françoise Roudot-Thoraval, Pierre Nahon, Pierre Nahon, Patrick Marcellin, Dominique Guyader, Stanislas Pol, Hélène Fontaine, Dominique Larrey, Victor De Lédinghen, Denis Ouzan, Fabien Zoulim, Dominique Roulot, Albert Tran, Jean-Pierre Bronowicki, Jean-Pierre Zarski, Vincent Leroy, Ghassan Riachi, Paul Calès, Jean-Marie Péron, Laurent Alric, Marc Bourlière, Philippe Mathurin, Sebastien Dharancy, Jean-Frédéric Blanc, Armand Abergel, Lawrence Serfaty, Ariane Mallat, Jean-Didier Grangé, Pierre Attali, Yannick Bacq, Claire Wartelle, Thông Dao, Dominique Thabut, Christophe Pilette, Christine Silvain, Christos Christidis, Dominique Capron, Gérard Thiefin, Sophie Hillaire, Vincent Di Martino
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Management of patients with cirrhosis includes endoscopic screening and surveillance to detect esophageal varices (EV) and prevent bleeding. However, the Baveno VI guidelines recommend avoiding endoscopies for patients with liver stiffness measurements below 20 kPa and platelet counts above 150,000 (favorable Baveno VI status) and endoscopic assessment of patients with higher levels of liver stiffness and platelet counts (unfavorable Baveno VI status). We aimed to validate the Baveno VI guidelines, evaluating outcomes of patients in the ANRS-CO12 CirVir cohort with compensated cirrhosis associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, with or without a sustained response to antiviral therapy...
February 12, 2019: Gastroenterology
Lasse L Langholm, Tina Manon-Jensen, Morten A Karsdal, Flemming Bendtsen, Diana J Leeming, Søren Møller
OBJECTIVES: Portal hypertension in cirrhosis is associated with endothelial dysfunction, impaired wound healing, and decreased platelet count. Increased von Willebrand factor (VWF) formation has been suggested as a compensatory mechanism, but the role of VWF processing has not been directly assessed. The aim was to measure the processing of activated VWF (VWF-A) in addition to VWF release (VWF-N) to investigate the association of primary hemostasis with disease activity and portal hypertension in liver cirrhosis...
February 12, 2019: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Tawfik Khoury, Muhammad Massarwa, Saleh Daher, Ariel A Benson, Wadi Hazou, Eran Israeli, Harold Jacob, Julia Epstein, Rifaat Safadi
There are limited efficacious therapeutic options for management of gastric variceal bleeding. Treatment modalities include transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, surgical shunts, and endoscopic interventions, including the recent advancement of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided coiling. We present a case series of 10 patients with portal hypertension (7 with liver cirrhosis and 3 without cirrhosis), complicated by gastric varices (GV) with bleeding. All cases were treated successfully with EUS-guided coiling leading to variceal eradication...
February 2019: Hepatology Communications
Li Chen, David A Brenner, Tatiana Kisseleva
Hepatic fibrosis results from chronic injury and inflammation in the liver and leads to cirrhosis, liver failure, and portal hypertension. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying hepatic fibrosis has advanced the prospect of developing therapies for regression of the disease. Resolution of fibrosis requires a reduction of proinflammatory and fibrogenic cytokines, a decrease in extracellular matrix (ECM) protein production, an increase in collagenase activity, and finally, a disappearance of activated myofibroblasts...
February 2019: Hepatology Communications
Fabrice Carrat, Hélène Fontaine, Céline Dorival, Mélanie Simony, Alpha Diallo, Christophe Hezode, Victor De Ledinghen, Dominique Larrey, Georges Haour, Jean-Pierre Bronowicki, Fabien Zoulim, Tarik Asselah, Patrick Marcellin, Dominique Thabut, Vincent Leroy, Albert Tran, François Habersetzer, Didier Samuel, Dominique Guyader, Olivier Chazouilleres, Philippe Mathurin, Sophie Metivier, Laurent Alric, Ghassan Riachi, Jérôme Gournay, Armand Abergel, Paul Cales, Nathalie Ganne, Véronique Loustaud-Ratti, Louis D'Alteroche, Xavier Causse, Claire Geist, Anne Minello, Isabelle Rosa, Moana Gelu-Simeon, Isabelle Portal, François Raffi, Marc Bourliere, Stanislas Pol
BACKGROUND: Although direct-acting antivirals have been used extensively to treat patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, their clinical effectiveness has not been well reported. We compared the incidence of death, hepatocellular carcinoma, and decompensated cirrhosis between patients treated with direct-acting antivirals and those untreated, in the French ANRS CO22 Hepather cohort. METHODS: We did a prospective study in adult patients with chronic HCV infection enrolled from 32 expert hepatology centres in France...
February 11, 2019: Lancet
Pierre-Yves Boëlle, Dominique Debray, Loic Guillot, Harriet Corvol
PURPOSE: The SERPINA1 Z allele is associated with cystic fibrosis (CF)-related liver disease (CFLD), a common manifestation in patients with CF. We estimated CFLD incidence based on the SERPINA1 genotype in 3328 CF patients with CFLD-phenotype information. METHODS: The associations of SERPINA1 Z (rs28929474) and S (rs17580) alleles with age at CFLD onset and the development of CFLD-related complications (severe liver disease with cirrhosis, portal hypertension, esophageal varices) were analyzed...
February 11, 2019: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
Junyan Sun, Ying Guo, Li Ma, Zhaoxia Qian, Dongmei Lai
BACKGROUND: Post-menopause vaginal haemorrhage is typically related to gynaecological malignancies. Bleeding from vaginal varices rarely occurs, especially in nonpregnant women. Moreover, nonpregnancy-related causes of vaginal varicosities include portal hypertension, especially that caused by liver cirrhosis, pelvic congestion syndrome and Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome or Parkes-Weber syndrome. Here, we report an unusual cause of nonpregnancy-associated vaginal variceal bleeding. CASE PRESENTATION: A 55-year-old postmenopausal woman presented in our outpatient department with complaints of recurrent bloody vaginal discharge...
February 7, 2019: BMC Women's Health
Zachary P Fricker, David R Lichtenstein
Primary sclerosing cholangitis is a rare, chronic cholestatic liver disease characterized by progressive idiopathic stricturing of the biliary system, typically leading to cirrhosis, end-stage liver disease, and colonic or hepatobiliary malignancy. Its presentation is often that of asymptomatic alkaline phosphatase elevation. When symptoms are present, they typically include fatigue, pruritus, or jaundice. The diagnosis can be confirmed via cholangiography, either magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRCP) or endoscopic retrograde cholangiography if the former is inconclusive...
February 6, 2019: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Liangshuo Hu, Lin Su, Zhixia Dong, Yunhua Wu, Yi Lv, Jacob George, Jianhua Wang
Recent studies have indicated that the Adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway is closely involved in liver fibrosis and other fibrotic diseases. However, whether targeting the AMPK pathway can rescue liver fibrosis and its complications, such as portal hypertension, is unknown. This study aimed to explore the therapeutic value of AICAR (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxyamide ribonucleoside), an agonist of the AMPK pathway, on liver fibrosis and portal hypertension in bile duct ligation (BDL) rats...
February 5, 2019: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
Jun Wang, Feng Gao, Jia Lin Shen
BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis of portal hypertension is imperative for timely treatment to reduce the mortality rate. However, there is still no adequate method to noninvasively and accurately assess the portal hypertension in routine clinical practice. PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of parameters measured using dual energy spectral computed tomography (LightSpeed CT750 HD) in assessing portal venous pressure in patients with liver cirrhosis. STUDY: Forty-five patients with liver cirrhosis who underwent percutaneous transhepatic portal vein puncture as part of their treatment for liver disease were enrolled in this study...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Daniel J Stein, Christian Salinas, Saher Sabri, Rose Onyeali, Stephen Caldwell, Zachary Henry
PURPOSE: To assess short- and long-term mortality and rebleeding with endoscopic cyanoacrylate (EC) versus balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort comparison was conducted of 90 EC patients and 71 BRTO patients from 1997 through 2015 with portal hypertension who presented due to endoscopically confirmed bleeding cardiofundal gastric varices. Patients underwent either endoscopic intra-varix injection of 4-carbon-n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate or sclerosis with sodium tetradecyl sulfate with balloon occlusion for primary variceal treatment...
February 2019: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology: JVIR
Nicola Kleine-Eggebrecht, Christian Staufner, Simone Kathemann, Magdeldin Elgizouli, Robert Kopajtich, Holger Prokisch, Elke Lainka
Pediatric intractable autoimmune hepatitis is rare and may be responsible for acute liver failure. Mutations in the itchy E3 ubiquitin protein ligase ( ITCH ) gene (located on chromosome 20q11.22) can lead to a deficiency of the encoded protein, resulting in increased T-cell activity with lack of immune tolerance and manifestation of a complex systemic autoimmune disease. A 1-year-old girl of consanguineous parents received a liver transplant (LT) because of acute liver failure attributed to a drug-induced hypereosinophilic syndrome with positive liver-kidney-mikrosome-2 antibodies...
January 31, 2019: Pediatrics
Matthias Christian Reichert, Cristina Ripoll, Markus Casper, Robin Greinert, Edith Vandieken, Frank Grünhage, Beate Appenrodt, Alexander Zipprich, Frank Lammert
OBJECTIVES: Common nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 2 (NOD2) gene variants have been associated with bacterial infections (BIs) in cirrhosis, in particular, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and mortality. Our aim was to evaluate the independent association of NOD2 variants with BI according to the decompensation stage. METHODS: Consecutive patients with cirrhosis in 2 academic medical centers were included and genotyped for the NOD2 variants p...
January 2019: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
S N Batskikh, E V Vinnitskaya, Yu G Sandler, T Yu Кhaimenova
Today, there is no complete clarity about the pathogenetic mechanisms of the hepatic decompensation in patients with HCV-cirrhosis during the course of direct-acting antiviral (DAAs) therapy. The current article describes several clinical observations of decompensation (with the development of liver failure and portal hypertension) in cirrhotic patients during the course of DAAs-therapy of hepatitis C. The authors present contemporary views and their own assumptions about the possible mechanisms of the hepatic decompensation associated with DAAs-therapy in patients with liver cirrhosis...
November 22, 2018: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
Umesha Boregowda, Chandraprakash Umapathy, Nasir Halim, Madhav Desai, Arpitha Nanjappa, Subramanyeswara Arekapudi, Thimmaiah Theethira, Helen Wong, Marina Roytman, Shreyas Saligram
Cirrhosis of liver is a major problem in the western world. Portal hypertension is a complication of cirrhosis and can lead to a myriad of pathology of which include the development of porto-systemic collaterals. Gastrointestinal varices are dilated submucosal veins, which often develop at sites near the formation of gastroesophageal collateral circulation. The incidence of varices is on the rise due to alcohol and obesity. The most significant complication of portal hypertension is life-threatening bleeding from gastrointestinal varices, which is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality...
January 21, 2019: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Hao-Jie Zhong, Huan-Huan Sun, Lan-Feng Xue, Eileen M McGowan, Yu Chen
BACKGROUND: Cirrhosis is a chronic late stage liver disease associated with hepatitis viruses, alcoholism, and metabolic disorders, such as Wilson disease (WD). There are no clear markers or clinical features that define cirrhosis originating from these disparate origins. We hypothesized that cirrhosis is not one disease and cirrhosis of different etiology may have differential clinical hepatic features. AIM: To delineate the liver features between WD-associated cirrhosis and hepatitis B-associated cirrhosis in the Chinese population...
January 21, 2019: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Frederik Nevens, Paulo Lisboa Bittencourt, Minneke J Coenraad, Huiguo Ding, Ming-Chih Hou, Pierre-François Laterre, Manuel Mendizabal, Nayeli Xochiquetzal Ortiz-Olvera, Julio D Vorobioff, Wenhong Zhang, Paolo Angeli
Cirrhosis is a serious and life-threatening condition which imposes a significant socioeconomic burden on affected individuals and healthcare systems. Cirrhosis can result in portal hypertension, which may lead to major complications, including acute variceal bleeding and hepatorenal syndrome. Without prompt treatment, these complications may be life-threatening. Over the past 2 decades, new treatment modalities and treatment strategies have been introduced, which have improved patients' prognosis, but the initial management of these severe complications continues to present a challenge...
January 25, 2019: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
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