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Zongwu Niu, Xiaofeng Wang, Xin Meng, Xin Guo, Yongchao Jiang, Yiyang Xu, Qian Li, Changyu Shen
Biomimetic structures play an important role in controlling the cell behaviors of adhesion, proliferation, migration, and differentiation, which is beneficial for the regeneration of defective tissues. Scaffolds with a biomimetic structure are highly desirable in tissue engineering. In this study, we successfully fabricated three different types of tubular scaffold with randomly, circumferentially, and axially aligned structures, using synthetic bioabsorbable poly(L-lactide-co-caprolactone) via electrospinning...
February 18, 2019: Biomedical Materials
Yuri Dornelles Zebral, Mauricio Roza, Juliana da Silva Fonseca, Patrícia Gomes Costa, Caroline Stürmer de Oliveira, Tayndy Gubert Zocke, Juliana Lemos Dal Pizzol, Ricardo Berteaux Robaldo, Adalto Bianchini
In this study, we measured the interactive effect of temperature (22 °C and 28 °C) and waterborne copper (Cu) contamination (9 μg/L and 20 μg/L) on the killifish Poecilia vivipara. Endpoints analyzed included parameters involved in Cu-accumulation, antioxidant capacity (antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals [ACAP] and total antioxidant capacity [TAC]), oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation [LPO]) and upper thermal tolerance (critical thermal maximum [CTMax]). Results show that Cu hepatic accumulation was elevated in 28 °C in comparison to 22 °C in both exposure groups...
February 7, 2019: Aquatic Toxicology
Hongling Liu, Laihao Shi, John P Giesy, Hongxia Yu
Polychlorinated diphenyl sulfides (PCDPSs) are a group of chemicals that can interact and activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Previous studies have shown that PCDPSs can cause oxidative stress in livers. However, information on genotoxicity of PCDPSs is limited. In this study, it is hypothesized that PCDPSs can produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) by activating the AhR and inducing expression of CYP1A1, which subsequently causes genotoxicity. HepG2 cells (transfected with AhR and CYP1A1 siRNA or not) were exposed to six PCDPSs...
February 1, 2019: Chemosphere
Matthew C Morris, Miriam Marco, Kathryn Maguire-Jack, Chrystyna D Kouros, Wansoo Im, Codi White, Brooklynn Bailey, Uma Rao, Judy Garber
Rates of substantiated child abuse and neglect vary significantly across counties. Despite strong cross-sectional support for links between social-contextual characteristics and abuse and neglect, few longitudinal studies have tested relations between these risk factors and substantiated rates of abuse/neglect. The goal of this study was to identify county-level socioeconomic and crime factors associated with substantiated abuse/neglect rates over 13 years (2004-2016). Annual county-level data for Tennessee, obtained from the KIDS COUNT Data Center, included rates of substantiated child abuse and neglect, children's race and ethnicity, births to unmarried women, teen birth rate, children in families receiving Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits, and children in families receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families...
February 15, 2019: Child Abuse & Neglect
Daniel Cosano, Dolores Esquivel, Carlos M Costa, César Jiménez-Sanchidrián, José Rafael Ruiz
A highly flexible method based on micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to examine pigment traces on an Annunciation sculpture group dating from the late Middle Ages. The group comprises a statue of the Archangel Gabriel and another of the Virgin Mary. Both are currently housed in the Archaeological Museum of Cordoba, southern Spain. Information about the pigment palette used by the artists of the time to decorate religious limestone sculptures was for the first time obtained. The pigments found included vermilion (HgS), hematite (α-Fe2 O3 ), azurite [Cu3 (CO3 )2 (OH)2 ], cerussite (PbCO3 ) and anatase (TiO2 )...
February 12, 2019: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Carolina Virginia Temperini, María Luisa Franchi, Martha Elizabeth Benavides Rozo, Mariana Greco, Alejandro Guillermo Pardo, Graciela Noemí Pose
This work describes a longitudinal study of three consecutive years carried out in the air of agricultural environments located in Northern Patagonia with cold dry desert climate (Köppen: Bwk). This study area comprises a rural valley with unique geographical and climatological conditions. Therefore, the aim of this work is to quantify and determine its fungal diversity, so this knowledge will contribute to detect potential pathogenic and toxic fungi that has been adapted to this type of environment and may overcome the incipient climate change...
February 8, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Biao Chen, Chunye Xue, Philip Kwabena Amoah, Da Li, Kun Gao, Xiangyuan Deng
With the increasing applications in various industrial areas, toxicity of ionic liquids (ILs) has gained much attention in recent years. In this work, 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate ([C8 mim]NO3 ), 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C8 mim]Cl), N-octyl-3-metylpyridinium chloride ([C8 mpy]Cl) and N-octyl-3-metylpyridinium bromide ([C8 mpy]Br) were used to investigate the impacts of different types of cations and anions on their toxicity to a marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Results showed that the four ILs had poor degradability under the culture conditions used in this study, and significantly inhibited the growth of this diatom with 96-h EC50 values of 24...
February 2, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Clayton Mansel, Shaneann Fross, Jesse Rose, Emily Dema, Alexis Mann, Haley Hart, Paul Klawinski, Bhupinder P S Vohra
Lead (Pb) is a teratogen that poses health risks after acute and chronic exposure. Lead is deposited in the bones of adults and is continuously leached into the blood for decades. While this chronic lead exposure can have detrimental effects on adults such as high blood pressure and kidney damage, developing fetuses and young children are particularly vulnerable. During pregnancy, bone-deposited lead is released into the blood at increased rates and can cross the placental barrier, exposing the embryo to the toxin...
February 15, 2019: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Huang Sb, Jin X, Yu Qh, Zhang Xr, Zheng Bb, Wang Kh, Sun Xy, Chen Yt, Ren Xr, Ma Jf, Wu G, Pan Yh
Oxidative stress (OS) plays crucial roles in triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA, a major component in dental resin)-induced apoptosis of dental pulp cells. Mitochondria are important target organelles for regulating the balance of OS, meanwhile, imbalance of the mitochondrial dynamic associated with mitochondrial dysfunction is one major molecular mechanism for oxidative damages. However, whether these mitochondrial dependent pathways were involved in the apoptosis of dental pulp cells induced by TDGDMA remains unclarified...
February 15, 2019: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Biao Yan, Yanling Sun, Jie Zeng, Yingying Chen, Chongyao Li, Peng Song, Lin Zhang, Xu Yang, Yang Wu, Ping Ma
Learning disabilities (LDs) in children are a serious global problem. Dibutyl phthalate (DBP), a plasticizer widely used in daily life, has been linked to triggering childhood LDs, however the mechanism underlying this remains unclear. Studies have shown that the ERK 1/2 pathway is closely related to apoptosis of hippocampal neurons. On the basis of these links between LDs, DBP and the ERK 1/2 pathway, we explore whether DBP induces hippocampal neuron apoptosis and increases behavioral disorders in mice via the ERK 1/2 pathway...
February 15, 2019: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Wen Tian, Hong-Sheng Guo, Chong-Yao Li, Wei Cao, Xue-Ying Wang, Dan Mo, Xiao-Wei Hao, Ying-Da Feng, Yang Sun, Fan Lei, Hui-Nan Zhang, Ming-Gao Zhao, Xiao-Qiang Li
Cardiac dysfunction is a vital complication during endotoxemia (ETM). Accumulating evidence suggests that enhanced glycolytic metabolism promotes inflammatory and myocardial diseases. In this study, we performed deep mRNA sequencing analysis on the hearts of control and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged mice (40 mg/kg, i.p.) and identified that the glycolytic enzyme, 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase (PFK-2)/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase 3 (PFKFB3) might play an indispensable role in ETM-induced cardiac damage. Quantitative real-time PCR validated the transcriptional upregulation of PFKFB3 in the myocardium of LPS-challenged mice and immunoblotting and immunostaining assays confirmed that LPS stimulation markedly increased the expression of PFKFB3 at the protein level both in vivo and in vitro...
February 15, 2019: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Matthew J Duggan, Jennifer Rose-Nussbaumer, Charles C Lin, Ariana Austin, Paula C Labadzinzki, Winston D Chamberlain
PURPOSE: To compare corneal higher-order aberrations (HOA) following ultrathin Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (UT-DSAEK) and Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK). DESIGN: Patient and outcome-masked, randomized controlled clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with damaged or diseased endothelium from Fuchs endothelial dystrophy or pseudophakic bullous keratopathy who were considered good candidates for DMEK or UT-DSAEK...
February 15, 2019: Ophthalmology
Janet R Manning, Dharendra Thapa, Manling Zhang, Michael W Stoner, Javier Traba, Charles F McTiernan, Catherine Corey, Sruti Shiva, Michael N Sack, Iain Scott
GCN5L1 regulates mitochondrial protein acetylation, cellular bioenergetics, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and organelle positioning in a number of diverse cell types. However, the functional role of GCN5L1 in the heart is currently unknown. As many of the factors regulated by GCN5L1 play a major role in ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, we sought to determine if GCN5L1 is an important nexus in the response to cardiac ischemic stress. Deletion of GCN5L1 in cardiomyocytes resulted in impaired myocardial post-ischemic function and increased infarct development in isolated work-performing hearts...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
Saniyya Khan, Syeedul Hasan Arif, Imrana Naseem
Riboflavin (Rf) or vitamin B₂ is a known photosensitizer whose photophysical and photochemical properties are well established. Aminophylline (Am) is a phosphodiesterase inhibitor and is currently used as a bronchodilator. Although there are several reports of haemolytic and proteolytic interaction of photoilluminated riboflavin with aminophylline, the cytotoxicity of this system against malignant tissue is not well defined and fully unravelled. Here, we are evaluating anticancer activity of this system against B(a)P induced lung carcinoma in swiss albino mice...
February 15, 2019: Chemico-biological Interactions
Mark De Ste Croix, Michal Lehnert, Eliska Maixnerova, Amr Zaatar, Zdenek Svoboda, Michal Botek, Renata Varekova, Petr Stastny
Poor neuromuscular control and fatigue have been proposed as a risk factor for non-contact injuries especially around peak height velocity (PHV). This study explored the effects of competitive soccer match-play on neuromuscular performance and muscle damage in male youth soccer players. 24 youth players aged 13-16y were split into a PHV group (-0.5 to 0.5y) and post PHV group (1.0-2.5y) based on maturity off-set. Leg stiffness, reactive strength index (RSI), muscle activation, creatine kinase (CK), and muscle soreness were determined pre and post a competitive soccer match...
February 18, 2019: European Journal of Sport Science
Hossein Rafiei, Emily Robinson, Julianne Barry, Mary Elizabeth Jung, Jonathan Peter Little
Exercise is recognized as a frontline therapy for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D) but the optimal type of exercise is not yet determined. We compared the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) for improvement of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM)-derived markers of glycaemic variability, and biomarkers of endothelial cell damage (CD31+ and CD62+ endothelial microparticles (EMPs)) within a population at elevated risk of developing T2D...
February 18, 2019: European Journal of Sport Science
Donglian Huang, Shanfeng Chen, Jingzhi Pu, Xuecai Tan, Yan Zhou
Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) is a major photoproduct of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) that is damaged by ultraviolet light. This DNA lesion can be repaired by DNA photolyase with the aid of UV light and two cofactors. To understand the repair mechanism of CPD and whether protonation of CPD participates in the DNA repair process, the cycloreversion reactions of four CPD models and proton transfers between the adjacent residue Glu283 and CPD models were explored through quantum mechanical method. Two-dimensional maps of potential energy surface in vacuum and in implicit water solution were calculated at the ωB97XD/6-311++G(2df,2pd) level...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Sue-Ming Chang, Vicky Jain, Tai-Lin Chen, Anilkumar Patel, Hima Bindu Pidugu, Yi-Wen Lin, Ming-Hsi Wu, Jiao-Ren Huang, Han-Chung Wu, Anamik K Shah, Tsann-Long Su, Te-Chang Lee
Hybrid molecules are composed of two pharmacophores with different biological activities. Here, we conjugated phthalazine moieties (anti-angiogenetic pharmacophore) and bis(hydroxymethyl)pyrrole moieties (DNA crosslinking agent) to form a series of bis(hydroxymethyl)pyrrolo[2,1- a]phthalazine hybrids. These conjugates were cytotoxic to a variety of cancer cell lines by inducing DNA damage, arresting cell cycle progression at the G2/M phase, triggering apoptosis and inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) in endothelial cells...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Yuan-Yuan Qi, Xu-Jie Zhou, Hong Zhang
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disease, in which immune defects can occur at multiple points of the cascading auto-aggressive immune reactions, resulting in a striking heterogeneity of clinical presentations. The clinical manifestations of such autoimmune response can be severe:-common manifestations symptoms include rash and renal inflammation progressing to kidney failure. Autophagy, the cellular "self-digestion" process, is a key factor in the interplay between innate and adaptive immunity...
February 18, 2019: European Journal of Immunology
Tomomi Kita-Tomihara, Shin Sato, Shojiro Yamasaki, Yukako Ueno, Goh Kimura, Rahel M Ketema, Tae Kawahara, Masaaki Kurasaki, Takeshi Saito
We examined the changes in the heart of rats at the early stages of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes, and whether azuki bean extract (ABE) could influence these changes. The experimental diabetic rats received 0 or 40 mg/kg of ABE orally for 4 weeks, whereas the control group rats received distilled water. 8-Hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and expression of proteins associated with peroxisomal FA β-oxidation as well as oxidative stress markers were examined. The levels of peroxisomal ACOX1 and catalase of the diabetic groups were significantly higher than those in the control group...
February 18, 2019: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
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